Soc. 133 (Collective Behavior)
Soc. 133 (Collective Behavior)
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Date Created: 05/17/14
51714 1131 PM Term Definition Examples Political Opportunity Whether there39s freedom to express Ex Obama President grievances and pursue interests above amp Liberal congress 9 ground via communication public universal health care assemblage SnowSoule passed Trying to figure out whether there39s opportunity for your movement to succeed Ex Civil Rights Movement or whether it39s closed off protested bc their voices States vulnerability to challenge found in weren39t being heard Openness of political system Shifting political alignments Oppertunity C 139Ve Divided elites Fully closed low protest Availability of in uential allies be repressed and ignered States capacity for repression High Costs EX North Korea Fully open low protest bc democracy allows access for change Moderate openness high protest open enough where ppl feel comfortable voicing concerns but not represented enough for their voices to be heard Repression Hard physical violence coercion Soft discrediting activists S11ppOI39t CO11I1t I39II1OV II1 I1t Diagnostic Framing What39s the problem A Problematization B Attribution of blame cause Issue injustice Get people to think it39s unfair Ex Early Civil Rights Movements tackled racial inequality Diagnosis problems of educational opportunity 9 tried to desegregate schools Saw it as 1 thing to do before addressing other issues Prognostic Framing What is to be done More about goals than tactics What do they want to change Identify what people want to change Survey from occupy wallstreet highest score repeal corporate personhood Motivational Framing What should we do about it Why should you get involved Olson39s incentives Encouragement to bc personal Ex Common Themes Severity urgency efficacy propriety If you over dramatize reward you39ll feel like you made a difference become a better person urgency then people will feel like they can39t make a difference Collective Identity Collective understanding of values norms that a group stands for Shared sense of belonging Creates better cohesion in the group makes them more productive successful Can attract people to group resource mobilization Can be used to shape strategy or cause change in the outside Creates identity for others to perceive them Ex Reframing the word queer changes how people view the gay movement Ex Occupy wallstreet didn39t have one collective identity so they weren39t seen as focused Gamson Reading Newquot Social Movements Emphasize identity and culture Contrast to old social movements based around labor and getting rights for workers and tangible things Ex LGBT movement getting recognized as a group in the political arena Inclusive Movements recognizes unity and a big tent 9 internal unity Concerns May mask inequalities May push aside unique experiences within the group Affirms dominant ideologies about who we are Allows so many to claim the identity that it may be less meaningful for everyone Exclusive Movements recognizes difference and unique experiences Concerns Hard to make claims if it39s unclear who we even are Can39t win rights if you can39t say who is in the group You always need shorthand anyway and this doesn39t solve the problem egqueer GLBTQ Native American etc Those who worked to create the identity are threatened by its deconstruction Frame Resonance Whether the people take up the frame Due to Credibili of I saying message is the message ofspeaker Salience of ppl receiving message 1 How central are these beliefs to activists the more central the more they will connect to the issue 2 Are the ideas consistent with group39s everidai exieriences 3 Do they fit with activists own life narratives Identity for Critique emphasizes difference and wants public to Ex Black power gay acknowledge it power fundamentally Exclusive less political access weak challenges society organization Were here were queer get used to it Identity for Education emphasizes sameness but with one difference Inclusive more political access strong organization11 Transmitter in They give the idea outwards Ex Cornell who first did diffusion person who does the first thing that other the shanty towns groups copy Passive when people don39t intend for their tactics to spread but they get mimicked anyways Active when people want their tactics to spread and actively do so Adopter in diffusion People taking the idea Ex People that person who does the thing 2nd or 3Fd subsequently adopted the shanty town movements Diffusion the spread of a practice or idea across a Active Ghandi non social movement through direct channels or indirect channels Passive unintentionally spreading movement ex Media reporting sit ins or shanty towns 6 can represent external and passive diffusion Active purposefully telling people about the movement 1 person to another diffusing ideas btwn 2 people violent protest against salt taxes people traveled along coast extracting salt from sea water Passive Ghandi non violent strategy 9 sit ins freedom riders and montogomery march about voting rights Indirect Channels observation Cornell University 9 UCLA shanty towns sit ins Direct Channels communication Ghandi 9 Martin Luther king one person taught another person then another ppl communicating with one another Internal Diffusion Adoption from inside your reference group peer in uence imitation can be personperson group group country country internal to some group of peers happens through networks External Diffusion EA9B9C9D Adoption from outside your reference group institution encourages everyone to adopt even if no one in that group is connected Peer to peer ties are absent Third party spreadsidea happens through In reality groups overlap heavily Advancing technology Twitter FB 9 rapid diffusion Ex Outside Actor 9 C outside actor 9 D outside actor 9 E etc Involved indirect observation not direct network ties Ex Adrews amp Biggs Sit ins Ex Shanty town movements spread by peer institutions similar prestige level and type of institution and colleges with similar endowment wealth Weak Ties Acquaintance Occasional relationship Can bridge separate groups good for low risk settings together that don39t have Best for spreading info ideas awareness strong ties to one another bc can reach a lot of connections Strong Ties Friends Close relationships ppl you know Ex recruitment to directly and communicate on regular basis matters in higher risk settings especially if networks are linked to one s group identity Good for High risk High Investment mobilization Freedom Summer to get mostly northern mostly white elite students to help register people to vote high risk many injured 3 killed networks linked to group identity Christianity brotherhood Teachers If I39m to continue calling myself a Christian I must act NOW to put my abstract conception of brotherhood into practice In my group of future teachers I make it a point to ask each of them Why do you want to go into education Freeze the Target Try to focus organize a campaign against a Ex Gillette Case Focused Alinsky single target may not be the entire problem but your going to say that they are on Gillette which was outsourcing to temp company 9 unequal rights Tried to get company to improve conditions and remove transportation costs Internal Consequences Occur within the group Intended Raise Consciousness Unintended Schisms Factions split between radical vs moderate External Consequences Occurs to the broader society Intended policy change Unintended Repression Countermovement Strategy vs Tactics Strategy master plan towards reaching a goal Tactic particular moves Intended Consequences Things that the movement wants goal Internal Raise consciousness of activists empowerment cohesiveness within the movement changing the way people in movement see the world External what the movement is trying to achieve within society Ex laws reform policy change institutionalization the movements ideas become the dominant idea and part of the system Ex Internal Ex External The Townsend Movement to provide basic income for the elderly during great depression about having democratic party leaders being able to support social movements interest Ex External Hate Crime Reporting effect of social movement outcomes about civil rights activists being located in the area Unintended Consequences Things that the movements don39t want Ex society reacting back upon the activists mostly negative Internal Schisms Factions 6 splits that happen to the people within the movement that they didn39t want to happen Due to burnout lack of commitment disengagement over time Split Between Radicals unrelentless in their desire to make change Moderates those willing to become part of the system and institutionalized External Repression Targets respond negatively hard soft Ex Internal Decline of SDS 9 Weather Underground radicals and Revolutionary Youth Movement Moderates Ex External Countermovement splits over beliefs Abortion ProLife Global Warming Skeptics Often a countermovement doesn39t begin until a movement gets big on media Ex Cultural Change repression preemption cooptation Countermovement OR Non targets get involved countermovements Cultural Change positive African American children in children39s books Before civil rights black children not represented in meaningful way After more meaningful representation of black children Development of new industries products Ex Window power hybrid electric cars Certification Systems Ex sweatshop free clothing Radical Flank Effect Radical groups make moderate SMOs look Note Movements have good by comparison authorities don39t want strongest effect on setting to look like they are giving in to extremist agenda and less on the tactics so moderate SMOs can push in a more passage of legislation challenging direction bc of radicals Preemption When a movement is going but a figure Ex Politician using a adopts the movement for themselves and movement for personal changes the direction gains often at expense of Some change is generated but prior to movement39s ideals or mobilization purposes People in positions of power make decisions that better themselves and do not necessarily coincide with the goals of the movement Cooptation The gov or state giving movement Ex Community something symbolic in meaning but not organization that39s actually creating any change pressing for more Movement is accepted as a legitimate actor affordable housing to low but no meaningful benefits concessions income people The city Political leaders limit effects of social says they will negotiate movement and the mayor doesn39t offer more affordable housing but creates an affordable housing task force A person in control says were not going to give you the thing that you want but we will give you a Institutionalization The creation of a stable set of relationships Ex Feminist movement 9 and procedures such that the politics of an issue become routine that is repeatable for all concerned with minimal uncertainty or risk The movement becomes part of the reform in rape laws 9 more gov funding Meyer reading Ex Obama created a institution From Meyer Reading Establishment of routines and procedures Stable relationship between social movement and gov Minimizes uncertainty or risk Social movements become accepted into the gov and the gov establishes these routines and procedures that allows the movements to gain power website that if you get enough signatures he will respond Tactical Innovation vs Adaptation Interaction between protest groups and opponents is like a chess match Innovation Activists develop a new tactic that catches target off guard Adaptation how authorities target responds and neutralizes the new tactic Ex The Wire TV show drug dealers make phone calls 9 cops tap phone wires 9 drug dealers use throw away pre paid phones innovation 9 cops try to put tracking software on phones adaptation Escalated Force Policing Before 197039s trying to keep peace through force Police are violent not tolerant of 1st amendment rights disruption or free speech not trained in protests 9 violence aggression Negotiated Management Policing 1970 s 1990 s Police trained in ways to keep their own constraint created by police to benefit police permitting system that institutionalizes protests management style police help you get through streets Strategic Incapacitation Policing 2000s today back to more repressive model of policing a lot of surveillance covert policing police often trained in protest tactics Point preserve security and neutralize potential dangers of protests use violence to prevent radical communication is more one way police action telling protest groups what to do Use force when necessary Boomerang Effect Using foreign media to attract attention to a Ex Ogoni People39s domestic cause Movement 1 Activists living in oppressive conditions in Country A developing seek attention ignored by own government 2 Media coverage in Country B developed that generates political support 3 Government in Country A feels pressured Changed focus Gov abuse on Ogoni people 9 Shell committing environmental crimes Makes it a global issue and so they got international to support movement Government can39t ignore any longer aid 9 Nigerian gov had to help them Globalization from above Processes in which people in elite positions with power are making changes that everyone else has to follow integration of economies labor markets across borders countries rely on trade exchange and migration Expanded international trade Ease of global travel Expansion of global institutions like the IMF International Monetary Fund UN United Nations World Bank Global Media Ex IMF globalization from above 9 international protests with a single global target IMF gives loans to developing countries but required the countries to 1 privatize public services 2 place fewer internal regulations on businesses 3 remove any significant barriers to foreign trade Globalization from below Integration of social movements across borders Differs between movements from below often need to obtain resources by gaining media attention from large organizations Ex Labor women39s poor student consumer environmental and other movements International Opportunity Structure The degree of openness of international institutions to the participation of non governmental organizations NGOs social movement metworks and coalitions Micomobilization Groups that directly mobilize protest such as neighborhood groups labor unions and other SMOs they go out to recruit people Smaller singular movement identities Ex Ogoni People Mesomobilization Groups that bring together micromobilization groups an organization of organizations often called an umbrella group Global Movements Movements need to get attention from other countries in order to get the resources to succeed Within a country movements with different specific ideas can come together under a broader identity to gain success at a global level and make change in general Ex bring together environmentalists and women39s movements often across countries to target international institutions Ex Women39s rights Framing Framing refers to a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals groups and societies organize perceive and communicate about reality Ex Frames can con ict same sex marriage 1 someone may be against it bc religion 2 but they believe marriage is for people who love each other 9 con icting frames Emphasizes interaction of movements with Political Process Model the state and the role of political opportunities in mobilization and outcomes of SMs when opportunities arise 9 must act Key Aspects 1 Variation in openness 2 Ways openness is signaled 3 Interpretation of those signals limitations doesn39t do as good ofa job of understanding where these movements came from how they got their resources and how they persist Readings Week 4 Political Process Models Snow and Soule Contextual Conditions Iudge how well social movements succeed based off of how well they resources are mobilized Political Opportunity specific points in time where the political window is open for groups to mobilize resources Ability for social movement groups to make their voices heard varies by political system Refer to opportunity curve partially opened access 9 high protest Ex Civil Rights Movement African Americans grievances are not being heard so they protestmarchand other public displays of collective behavior Meyer Why Protest Examined opportunities and constraints that activists face in launching social movements For large social movements to emerge people need to believe that it39s necessary and potentially effective Explaining Cycles of Protest 1 Consistent political struggle 9 encourages people to engage in politics ex policy change use nuclear weapons 9 public grievances 2 Activists responded to the rules and norms of American politics 3 Activists needed sufficient political space or openness to organize After Korean WarStalin39s death ppl not afraid of being labeled communist and could come out against the bomb 4 Institutional politics had to appear unresponsive to activists concerns 5 Experts political cultural elite are used by movement leaders to in uence mobilization They used scientists celebrities and artists to gain attention on issue Week 5 Frame Analysis Ryan and Gamson Are Frames Enough Framing How issues are presented Thought organizer Implicit many times Subjective how an individual group processes the world around them Why framing matters Because it allows people to understand where people are coming from Things are loaded with values symbols and assumptions and framing allows one to organize those Framing matters to attain resources and attract potential members but it39s not enough for movement to succeed People carry around different frames in their heads Reframing become more personal less abstract should understand where adversaries are coming from Luker World Views of Pro and AntiAbortion Activists Pro Life Greater emphasis on the afterlife Belief in moral rules Human nature God Personhood is innate rather than socially conditioned Sex sacred reproduction Parenthood natural God has a plan even unexpected pregnancies Women39s role nurturer mothers Men39s role support family Pro choice greater emphasis on the human life Less rigid view of morality Human nature having best quality of life Personhood through interaction Sex sacred intimacy Humans must prevent problems from occurring Women and men equals Motherhood low status and controlling reproduction is a way to advance their human potential Parenthood responsibility Different views on motherhood natural job of women secondary to occupation parent hood natural to procreate sex only to reproduce parenthood responsibility human nature god or tradition having a good quality life Week 6 Collective Identity Movement Cultures Music Mary Bernstein Strategic Uses of Identity by the Gay and Lesbian Movementquot Identity can be used strategically for movements to help create change that they want to see they do it for a reason The way identity is utilized is determined by the structure that the movement is situated in Identity for Empowerment use identity to mobilize a constituency the public to take part in your movement Identity first and foremost determines who and how many people will join your group Identity as Goal challenge stigma recognize new identities deconstruct categories Identity is the change they want to see in the world The purpose of movement to shift identity Identity as Strategy deploy identities so that values categories and practices of individuals are subjects of debate If you can shift people39s perceptions of how they see you beneficial Challenges preconceived notions so that the identity of the group is no longer taken for granted Ex Fat People39s Movement tries to change view of fat as derogatory term lazy Subpractices 0 Identity for Critique confronts dominant culture more confrontational your wrong and you should feel badly that your wrong 0 Identity for Education challenges dominant perceptions emphasizes uncontroversial themes more open and accepting your wrong and let me tell you why Use your identity to educate others Gamson The Dilemmas of Identity Politics Discusses debates around queer and other identities lesbian transgender Categories are uid and critique doesn39t work Without boundaries there are no groups and no solidarity With boundaries 9 stronger commitments with the people Collective Identity shared understanding of values norms that a group stands for Refer to definition LGTB movement confrontational vs similarities 2 ways of showing collective identities Confrontational purposeful separatism exclusion emphasizes their differences with the broader population Were different but that39s fine We don39t care what you think your going to accept us either way Similarities Including everyone sameness normality We are one of you They accept everyone Roy Reds Whites and Blues Social Movements Folk Music and Race in the US In civil rights movement music created social solidarity identity Music they expressed freedom and equality what they wanted If protestors sent to prison 9 sing 9 solidarity that makes ppl more aligned with the movement Why music was so important Churches organizational backbone of the group where they met and organized People sing in church and so the movement adopts church songs into civil rights songs because it is familiar to them Also call and response people were taking part in singing and taking action by more actively involving people and making them participate Music used strategically Week 7 Diffusion Processes Spreading info for participating in movements Snow and Soule Participation in Social Movements Discusses why some people participate in social movement activities while others do not People weigh costs and risks Costs Direct money lost for transportation childcare and banners Indirect money lost from not showing up to work or bad grades due to missed exams or being stigmatized for participating in a social movement Risks Direct those that affect the participant at the moment of participation Ex police arresting people Indirect not specific to the sit and moment of collective challenge Ex Police surveillance for future use in legal case against the protestors Low Risk Low Cost Signing a petition High Risk Low Cost Signing a pro communist petition in McCarthy Era Low Risk High Cost Traveling to Washington DC for a peaceful protest High Risk High Cost Freedom Summer 4 Factors 9 differential recruitment and initial participation 1 Structural Factors social networks and organizational affiliations 2 Biographical Factors past socialization experiences and role availability 3 Social Psychological Factors shared identity and a sense of efficacy 4 Factors that Generate Incentives to Participate Motivational Framing Andrews and Biggs The Dynamics of Protest Diffusion Movement Organizations Social Networks and News Media in the 196039s Sit Ins Civil rights organizations other organizations 9 orchestrated protests Cadre squad of activists more important than mass membership Used media newspapers saw that sit in s were occurring and mimicked other protestors Southern black universities info traveled quickly Area where Sit ins most likely to occur many college students adults in black community had greater resources and autonomy where political opportunities were more favorable Protests less likely to occur in communities of unemployed black citizens bc they lacked time and resources to organize McAdams White privileged college students self selected participated in the Freedom Summer Project which was attracting African Americans to vote Movements aren39t spontaneous The participants had been involved in activism previously especially civil rights activism They had similar ideologies optimistic idealistic equality Summary of Week 7 Articles SnowSoule Andrews Bigg McAdams Need networks for info and resources to travel Participation of college students Importance of media quickly spreads info between networks Week 8 Tactics and Social Movements Gillham Securitizing America Strategic Incapacitation and the Policing of Protest Since the 11 September 2001 Terrorist Attacks Examines the shifts in US policing strategies over the last 50 years using cases from national conventions the global justice movement and the anti war movement to show how strategic incapactitation has become a leading social control strategy used in the policing of protest since 911 3 Kinds of Protests 1 Escalated Force use of violence 2 Negotiated Management engaging with the state ex permits 3 Strategic Incapacitation preventative actions to make sure everything goes smoothly with protests Walker Discusses how 3 different institutions in uence protest tactics Education Corporations protests are more radical and have a larger impact more effective o Education proxy targeting protesting one institution to make change in another issues of social economic justice I Ex student protests against schools investments in the apartheid regime in South Africa State most targeted but least radical effective o Tactics lobbying petitions peaceful marches not much violence racial ethnic groups most likely to initiate a protest against the state ex civil rights source of segregation came from state policy 0 more open to in uence 0 less vulnerable to delegitimization and nonparticipation o more capable of repressing facilitating channeling and routinizing that behavior 0 States structure 9 less radical protests amp state39s response to movement39s actions minimizes disruptive behavior Social characteristics and backgrounds of activists they have certain beliefs that are encompassing of these initiating groups Workers are more likely to target corporations particularly minority groups corporate protests were the highest when there was the least amount of business regulation by the government Week 9 institutionalization through gov Target corporations Meyer The State and Protests looked at political institutionalization exemplified by antinuclear movement farmers and organized labor Institutionalization Parts 1 claims concerns recognized as legitimate and routinely dealt with Ex women39s right to vote 2 constituencies electorates can become recognized players in mainstream American politics getting a seat at the negotiating table when decisions are made about particular sets of issues 3 Tactics and processes others imitate successful groups 9 institutionalization Ex Petitions Institutionalization establishment of routines and procedures Stable relationship between social movement and gov Minimizes uncertainty or risk Social movements become accepted into the gov and the gov establishes these routines and procedures that allow the movements to gain power Cooptation adapting mainstream political institutions and tactics for your own purposes p130 working through the system Demands more narrow Goals more short term Tactics persuasion alliance building Ex Institutionalization populism by the farmers o Coalition comes with compromise Labor Movements by the workers 0 Aided in electing presidents that had sympathy for workers 9 reduce discriminatory practices and violence the successful organizers focused on securing a place for their constituents within the existing political and economic structure p142 Stephen Lerner Global Corporations Global Unions Uses janitors month long strike that exposed a global economy addicted to cheap labor as an example of a global movement Global Movements must 1 Organize globally 2 Target corporations that drive the economy and the cities where they get much of their capital amp are located 3 Be in minimum of cities countries to maximize power and persuade corporations to adopt a new social compact 4 Message of immorality Ex Wealth corporations vs Poverty workers 9 brings in more people globally Help from religious community and political leaders 5 Disrupt and galvanize the global city create crisis that threatens existing order ex strike of service workers in airports offices and hotels King When Markets Become Contentious By protesting corporations more likely to create change Corporations are a lot more vulnerable than the gov 0 Their reputationpublic image in uences stock prices and investments I Ex Protests 9 04 1 drop in company stock price investors lose confidence in company I Ex Boycotts 9 corporate concessions high rate of success Week 10 Multi national SMOs Ron What Shapes the West39s Human Rights Focus Research question How the West focuses on Human Rights Issues Results 0 the more politically open and wealthy countries attract more information I Bc more communication facilitites and higher education levels 9 more info about gov misdeeds Need established media and communication channels to broadcast problems 0 The more human rights organizations in country 9 more likely to get aid I Bc increases political participation advocacy and info about gov behavior Related to resource mobilization the more resources available to a movement and their ability to mobilize those resources 9 success in getting outside attention Activists Dilemma what to cover on media internationally o Movements must match their way of framing the issue to how the media wants them to frame the issue Selling your movement to media I Ex Zapatista movement unfair labor conditions had to change it39s focus to child labor which got Western attention after doing that Clifford Bob The Quest for International Allies International movements have to broadcast their problems to receive outside attention Must spread awareness through media and must make it relevant to other western nations ex globalization must sell in western front Small movements with few connections resources may resort to violence extreme form of protest 9 media attention o Must be careful to limit justify and frame it bc don39t want to be seen as bad terrorists Nigeria39s Ogoni Movement had to reframe their micro level minority rights issue to a global issue of ecological warfare targeting shell 0 High Price of Success small movements have to alter their goals in order to get people to pay attention and give them resources stray from their ideological beliefs ex Ogoni people International media is myopic con icts must have relevance importance or huge death tolls to get media attention Richer countries have better access to technology 9 more broadcasting of problems and suffering Other ideas to understand Signals of political opportunity factors that shape how SMs misread those signals Signals 1 Political alignments shift a Divided government 9 social movements have a lot more in uence b Ex Civil Rights Movement 2 In uential allies present important that allies don39t fully incorporate the SM 3 Low Repressive Capacity state will not go after you and cause harm Interpreting those signals Issue of Underestimating opportunity due to Fragmented coalitions some people think its good time to seize opportunity while others feel that it39s not Organizational Problems Resource Mobilization View Issue of Exaggerating opportunity But systems are generally closed Ex Mobilization in El Salvador Beijing student movement 1979 Iranian Revolution 6 military ready to repress ppl and not enough in uential allies but people believed that it was inevitable and could be possible 9 intense organizing Advantages amp limitations of RMT vs Political Process in understanding SMs RMT more emphasis on the creation development of social movement as an organization and less emphasis on how the movement can create change Political Process emphasis on timing of opportunity to create change but where did that movement get resources to begin with Limitations doesn39t do a good job explaining where these movements came from how they got their resources how they persist etc Factors that lead identitybased movements to focus on identity as education vs critique Bernstein Movements that are inclusive want to create a broader identity group and movements with political access and a strong organization background 9 Identity for Education Groups trying to differentiate themselves from the broader society confronts the practice of the dominant culture or groups with less political access organization 9 Identity for Critique o Ex Were here were queer get used to it Identity for Education Identity for Critique Inclusive Exclusive More political access Less political access Strong organization Weak organization Why identity movements tend to self destruct building up vs deconstructing identities I Gamson Building up identity inclusive should the gay movement be inclusive of others and expand their meaning LGBT or Breaking down identity exclusive be exclusive with who is allowed in the identity by creating sharp distinctions between their identity and everyone else Identity movements self destruct the competing faction of whether to build up vs break down 9 causes movements to be less successful Know which types of mobilization processes are more easily facilitated by weak ties vs strong ties Strong Ties people closest to you and that you know directly and communicate on a regular basis Best for High risk investment mobilization Ex Freedom Summer Weak Ties acquaintances people you know through friends Best for spreading info ideas awareness bc can reach a lot of connections Know and provide examples of each type of internal and external diffusion External diffusion 0 media reporting on sit ins and it being passively diffused to many people 0 Colleges imitating the practice of using shanty towns Internal Diffusion o Ghandi non violent salt protest Effectiveness and diffusion does a practice have to be effective to spread No ex shanty town protests weren39t effective Vulnerabilities and strengths of governments companies amp educ institutions facing protest Walker et al Vulnerability to o Delegitimation Educationfirms more vulnerable minor challenges 9 severe consequences ex lower stock price State less vulnerable used to dealing with challengers 0 Nonparticipation State less vulnerable bc illegal for some public employees to protest 9 immune to radical protest tactics Educationfirms more vulnerable State less radical and militant forms of protest More repressive legitimate use of violence Educationfirms less obstacles for response to protest but less able to channel and routinize protests Examples of each of the following movement consequences intended internal intended external unintended internal unintended external Unintended Internal schisms factions splits Unintended External repression countermovement Intended internal raising consciousness changing world views of activists Intended External policy change towards goal of movement At which stages of the policymaking process do social movements tend to have the greatest effect When do they have the least effect Greatest effect setting agenda Partially effective getting bill introduced Least Effective getting vote passed by second housepassage of legislation in uenced by public opinion constituents 0 Policy change is NOT something a movement can control Examples of movements that generated policy change because the political context was favorable intended external consequences Civil rights movement shifting cultural attitudes allowed it to take place After the 6039s people were more accepting towards policy change towards groups 9 more able to create change Women39s movement Describe how splits schisms tend to emerge in the later stages of a movement People feel desperate that no change is occurring and so the movement splits between the radicals and moderates Ways that the Populist and Labor Movements were institutionalized into US government Meyer US gov created labor department after Labor Movements were institutionalized Populist was institutionalized after they lobbied elected officials 9 having an active voice within the US government Which factors were most in uential in diffusing the sitin tactic Andrews Biggs Media reporting on sit ins and it being passively diffused to many people through the media 0 Also size of college student population and places where African American adults had greater access to resources mattered Ways that protest campaigns can change business corporate practices King Protests can use contentious politics collective action that uses controversial tactics protests demonstations boycotts to air grievances and demand change publicly ex civil rights gay rights Protests9 drop in company stock price investors lose confidence Boycotts 9 corporate concessions high rate of success Movements 9 corporate certification provides consumers knowledge about production conditions corporations can issue recalls of products change their policies to create a better public image How globalization is reshaping unions Lerner and mvmts in the developing world Ron et al Bob Globalization 9 reframing of movements issues to re ect a broader issue that the Western nations can relate to Movements need to articulate message and change it to fit NGO s that western nations will care more about Role of music in the Civil Rights Movement Roy Used as a tactic to voice concerns while creating solidarity within the movement It brought people together They were actively participating in the singing process communicated ideas while building solidarity Churches organizational political points where the movements could grow Music tactic adopted from this religious foundation bc they used songs that people already new but just changed the lyrics Factors that make some frames resonate while other frames fail to credibility the people saying the message and salience aka importance of the movement to the people receiving the message
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