Psychology10000StudysoupNotespt1.pdf PSYCH 100
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PSYC 10300 - 02
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Christopher Williams on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ithaca College taught by Cris Haltom in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adjustment in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychology 10000 Psychology of Adjustment Fall 2015 400 PM 550 PM TR Tuesday amp Thursday Instructors Cris Haltom PhD CEDS chaltomithacaedu Maurice Haltom LCSW mhaltomithacaedu Teaching Assistants Rachel Balzano Victoria Ayvazian Alexa Lesley Lindsay Osgood Textbook Psychology Applied to Modern Life Course Description This course will address a variety of issues and topics relevant to personal and social adjustment An integrated psychological social and biological bio psychological approach will be taken Topics covered will include stress coping physical health and psychology the self personality traits gender sexuality substance use social behavior friendship and marriage psychological disorders and psychotherapy The Psychology of Adjustment addresses how we as individuals and communities across cultures adjust to internal and external changes in our lives Because psychology is based on empirical investigation research methods are reviewed in this course so students grasp research findings presented in class materials This course integrates a developmental perspective so that these impacts are studied across the lifespan This course contrasts balanced and selfharmful forms of psychological adjustment Focus is placed on from negative adjustment to positive growthoriented adjustment with an emphasis on mindbody integration methods used in psychotherapy eg mindfulness exercises During class participation exercises students reflect on their own lives communities and cultures by engaging in self assessment exercises and by actively applying learned principles to themselves as individuals and as members of broader social groups Notes August 2015 September 2015 82715 Seven basic themes of psychology 1 Psychology is empirical what makes people happy 2 Competing theories stimulate productive research in relationships between happiness and marriage 9 Psychology reflects the sociocultural times ie Linking violence in video games towards violent behavior Behavioral and mental processes have multiple causes multifactorial causation People s psychology is shaped by their cultural heritage Heredity and environment combine to influence behavior and mental processes How people experience the world is subjective NP P P Psychology of Adjustment Psychology The study of behavior and the physiological and mental processes that support knowledge of science to practical problems Adjustment The psychological process of managing or coping with demands and challenges of everyday life 9115 Chapter 1 Hedonism The tendency to maximize pleasure and minimize displeasure Empirical methods in the study of behavior Case Studies Questionnaires Experiments Correlational Studies The roots of HappinessEfforts towards an Empirical Analysis Empirical view of happiness What is not important Money correlation between income and happiness i significantly weak Age accounts for less than 1 of variation over lifespan in reported happiness Gender accounts for less than 1 of the variation in the subjectivity of wellbeing Parenthood does not make people more or less happy than nonparents lntelligence finding show no support or association between IQ score and happiness Education obtaining education has an unrelatedness to happiness Physical Attractiveness reveals no correlation between attractiveness and happiness even as a ubiquitous resource in Western society NPWPPP What IS important 1 Health and Happiness shows positive correlation but only moderately 2 Social networking supports the relationship towards happiness 3 Religion provides a mild correlation with happiness 4 Love and Marriage studies show that married people are happier than unmarried people 5 Working the process of hard work promotes happiness 6 Genes supports happiness for 50 percent of people with the right genes How is Authentic Happiness defined The Pleasant Life person has inherited genes in which happiness runs in the family The Good Life person has no thoughts or is aware of the situation Complete tranquility The Meaningful Life person uses motivation from himselfherself Clinically Assessed Student Goals PostTreatment user strengthens the bonds with family and friends user creates mindful maintenance with their body user has selfawareness to proceed towards goals user creates their own ethical system and applies it towards their life 9315 Chapter 2 Theories of Personalitv Defining Personalitv Personality identifying the individual s unique behavioral traits Defining human personalitv The basic traits that all humans have Factor analysis identifying the basic dimensions Five Factor Mm 1 Extraversion 2 Neuroticism 3 Openness to experience 4 Agreeableness 5 Conscientiousness Psvchological test of Personality Psychological tests testing a portion of someone s behavior Standardized measures procedures that are at its basic form Re ab y Validity Testing the norms P9P Describing Personalitv Personality having behavioral traits from an individual Personality trait a behavior made by individuals depending on the situation Personalityism having one personality type over another defines Social Dominance Leadership Competitiveness Extroversion Dominance Social subdominance Followership Cooperation lntroversion Subservience Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory ID manages the pleasure principle of the individual and enforces the wants and satisfaction Ego creates the quotreality principle of the individual in order to make decisions Superego identifies the moral principle of the individual and creates the moral mindfulness Defense mechanisms allows the person to be aware of negative emotions through unconscious reactions Personality Development Humans form psychosexual stages that help define their personality as an adult Fixation occurs when these stages happen to be stuck from one stage to another Three layers of awareness conscious being aware at present time preconscious in the midst of awareness and unawareness unconscious Unawareness and also influences behavior Adler39s Individual Psychology Having the drive for superiority rather than sexuality Compensation people identify what is real to what is imaginary Carl Roger s Psychology Perspective PersonCentered Theory Having self concept or the beliefs about one s own nature behavior and unique qualities Ideas about the self are merged or have similarities with the actual experiences with the individual 9815 Chapter 2 Theories of Personality Carl Jung s Archetypes Father Leadership Mother Caretaker Child Communication Elder manwoman Wise Hero Champion Maiden Femininity Trickster Deceiver Cooperator Arbitrator Attributes lntrovert loneliness enhancement Extrovert Socialtime enhancement lntuitive Uses introspection to accumulate information Sensing Uses sensory input to gather information Feeling Uses feelings to respond to info Thinking Uses formal thinking to respond to info Perceiver organizes life spontaneously Judging organizes life deliberately Hans Eysenck s Theory Personality that uses the hierarchy of traits ldentifies introverts avoids social interactions ldentifies extroverts allows social interactions for stimulation People s learning capabilities are shaped by 1 Classical conditioning increasing decreasing the the likelihood of behavior repetitionconsequences 2 Operant conditioning 3 Observational learning 91515 Stress and its Effects Ex Having good test anxiety and bad test anxiety Facilitating test anxiety relevance towards positive scores on test performance Debilitating anxiety negative impact towards test performance having the fear of doing poony Traumatic memory and PSTD Dissociative experiences the disconnection among thoughts memories identity sensory perception and emotion ie having no feelings about a tragic event PostTraumatic Stress Disorder The recurrence of bad memories that induces nightmares sleeplessness loss of interest numbness anger and irritability Experience can vary in different times Cvcle of Stress Management Stressors can have longlasting effects that can lead to Divorce Separation Abuse Neglect Harsh Parenting Permissive Parenting Chaos Low Support Inadequate Bonding Low Validation Trauma Financial Challenges Health Challenges and Loss Having stressors ignored Lead to conflicting needs Leads to external or internal expectations Lead to personality conflicts 91715 Coping Process Chapter 4 pt 1 o Coping often leads to selfindulgence o Levels of dopamine can influence consumption o Binging can cause cravings to the individual as the brain becomes more insensitive SelfIndulgence Alcohol intake Food intake Gambling Online usage Smoking and drugs Intake of sugar and starches Factor 1 Social Consequences Issues with faceto face interaction Increasing social anxiety Difficulties to create relationships Preferences on online interaction Choosing to skip social events Factor 2 Emotional Consequences o Anxiety feelings of withdrawal anger vulnerability and irritability after leaving the internet Factor 3 Risks of Internet usage Very problematic towards 415 of young adults and adolescents If over 6 hours a day it can lead to a high risk Negatively affect school performance Lack of motivation Irresponsible behavior Ignoring activities Abnormal sleeping habits Reducing Addictive Behaviors 1 Identify the Problem stress is often caused when the person does not know what the issueis 2 Create alternative solutions 3 Evaluate the solutions See what works and what doesn t 4 Plan for action from the solution The Concept of Coping The efforts to master reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress o Many coping mechanisms from different people o More than one way to cope from stress o Different methods vary in level Coping patterns of Limited Value Giving up Learning helplessness through passive behaviors Acting aggressively harming someone or something physically or verbally Selfindulgence lack of proper control having impulse lndulging yourself peers become selfcritical leads to pressure Defensive coping protecting from emotional discomfort Coping Strategies AppraisalFocused Constructive Coping patterns of irrational thinking to reduce bad behavior ProblemFocused Constructive Coping Identifying the problem and getting the solutions Emotion Focused Construction Coping Expressing emotions to generate thoughts Catharsis the buildup and release of emotional tension Yoga Benefits Relief of habitual tensions Foster neurotransmitter hormones Realigns the body and resolves tension Treats physical symptoms 92915 Chapter 5 Psychology and Physical Health Medical Model health is meant for removing diseases Bio psychosocial Model caused by complex interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factors Biological Factors Infections Hygiene Environmental toxins Genetics Allergic reactions Immune system and responses Psychological Factors o Personality o Values o Beliefs system o History and the self o Needs of the self Social Factors o Having support from friends and family Educa onalsuppon Developing language Socialization Culture Coronary heart disease having a reduction in blood flow through the arteries Atherosclerosis the narrowing of the arteries Type A personality o Individual has competitive edge and orientation o Individual has impatience of time urgency o Individual often has signs of anger o Can have negative disposition and mistrust thoughts o Constant psychological reactivity would lead to cardiovascular problems Type B personality o Individual becomes relatively relaxed o Individual shows signs of patience and aloofness Depression and Heart Disease Depression the feeling of sadness despair and hopelessness Can influence heart disease Learning objectives Understanding why people develop health impairing habits About health impairingbehavior Provides a high reward of dopamine to the individuals Alcohol Disinhibits social anxiety to help people socialize Useful for stressful days Drugs Tolerance after prolonged use users have less of an effect when using drugs Physical dependence having a hard time during withdrawal after avoiding use Psychological dependence User has intensified cravings both mental and emotional of the drug Overdose user undergoes an excessive dose Genetic transmission of alcohol Alcohol The stimulant of the central nervous system Human genes have a role of the transmission of alcohol across inheritance Can lead to shortterm health effects Brain has slow reaction time and impaired coordination Can interfere with brain cells that impact on behavior thoughts and feelings Understanding alcohol Serotonin increased mood enhancement even after one drink GABA increased activity allows the user to become slower in motor skills and have less stress and anxiety Dopamine enhancement the positive reinforcement Beta endorphin users feels great after intake in alcohol Alcohol suppressor exciting effect Problems with Drinking can include blackouts and accidents among men and women
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