LS1: Midterm 2 Study Guide
LS1: Midterm 2 Study Guide
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Date Created: 05/19/14
MIDTERM 2 REVIEW EUKARYOTIC CELLS Have membranebound organelles Vesicles transport materials and allow for cells to larger than prokaryotes could be Single celled eukaryotic heterotrophs yeast and amoeba engulf particles via Phagocyotsis Eukaryotes can alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction o Both cycles alternate between haploid and diploid phase Animal Cell Cycle o Multicellular stage is diploid o Only gametes are haploid Plant Cell Cycle o Have 2 multicellular phases one haploid and one diploid Advantage of sexual reproduction o New combination of alleles genetic variation o Clears deleterious mutations lngepwiaum 1 p I tell QaIaIInted rm11i in Eulignralizr vialli emluili ed liurmi aarihcaaimallilki u39siiI tjIIi1 ii iJiIlluIilgI aIlIim39 11 ihh jij IjuIrnrurquotmi IrIquot391 39rIZHquotI mil quot 0 39 39 39 39 iptuEwhaiwrium39Thlprmmrbict ium E C T I Elliiii IiiI39fil i i Ii39l jIvEIquotItII39i 71lllIlquotl laqrmumij gx fl fll milquot ama iima Erlnpilumrn Plliima quot m I pgju gq friemiswtama iv 2 L K I fqisd gyjg V Pmiluhinlrium nfplumaz 0l 0l mumIinum rain O 39139TiugniulinJjquot39 rpi39i39 I I Mllwilitl nueclwls 39 wy39tnplammInd quot C inilmmn hriinil v t quotquotquot quotquot39 C Asvtiiiiniiillrmiii Iaim I arnain 539EiLCrnrl rCrCITiCuI1CIunIjI39Lg Iugimhlnm i rugulliitrigl s w1iquotlnuil39ll39iEln P p quot39 aaemnlialE quot I P p i l i lai llf ELI 0m Irlf IliIiIal r CC iil iii iI l1i39Iquoti391I5rhi39Iii r I39IwirIiIniII lI1m I ililllrf ll iil39IrLhiannciirhi n K gas I 39vIle imi 39 I1 I1Tal i5IiI1IiIiiJquotiIiEI quotIE Hall f lfltplltlt at rlirpnl3e Figure 2 i f Lquot1cIea39a Him quot1 39 Hmr E39lr5 39l39 ll rfquotlEJlI 39u nuJClL LffK1l39Fp39 Unicellllular eukaryaftie with pmmlinent haplloiiid phase C sexual C 4 r39epmduitiun Mi Mi Mi by mitosis l U39niuellular39 eukaryote with plrnminerlt diplluid phase C Asexuwmll C ii repzraduatiamlC Ihy nniitnsils 39iEIJBIl u39 an 1 39 Animal Zn mlulIllii cellular bodyquot ll nl muIlti callular body i G FI li39 EC1 35F3939 as lt n 39 J V c C T W quot54 Vaquot p a aeelilullarbadgi P LMCEQEES g rgdjuftiug l yFusiun E iygnte C Em infill l Emma lIflIquot3939I3939HDrlii ieggfsperml will 2 valid hypotheses exist for the origin of eukaryotic cells Energy metabolism occurs in mitochondria and chloroplasts o Mitochondria I Appox Same size as cyanobacteria I Replicate via fission I Have own genomes different from cell I Genomes are circular X A 3 C C C I Have double membranes C Mllmcha dlrla ml 13quot hEIw1aen nlhnuIllIIIfIIEIfnIirran1E P mnsistingnfaninnner zX C arldautear rnxemhrane p Q and an aqueous cumpalrtment in dmi lnle m arnh rainia like n39l39D D1dli 9 in addiliairi have is third mam raim In the lmeria r G lllwlakuid I1 39ElT branE Le A PH DE ESE EiEE l39llIJ iH1quotI39 Ell39il IlZlE l3939lli39liIl7 SIE EEH membrane I Structural similarities to cyanobacteria 0 Have same of genes Ehllur plm 0 Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacteria living as endosymbionts one partner lives within the other with euka ryotic cells o Can have primary and secondary endosymbiosis ie cell that 1 F I1ii39Eii5rn riaE39 1 lii already had a endosymbiotic relationship is engulfed by another pmtisti engulfed cell 0 Many unicellular eukaryotes have a symbiotic relationship with bacteria Im uizlll iu frliliim ph l y ih jr o Large population of singlecell eukaryotes can be found in the pruti5tialiiiit Santa Barbara Basin I O2 is scarce and sulfide inhibits mitochondria respiration i rgainelle has 3939fi391rur membranes nm d I Cells thrive by supporting symbiotic bacteria that metabolize H25 0 7 Superkingdoms Opisthokonts Amoebozoans Archaeplastids Stramenopiles Alveolates Rhizarias Excavates PROTIST LINEAGES 0 Protists organisms having a nucleus but lacking other features specific to plants animals or fungi paraphyletic 0 Opisthokonts most diverse eukaryotic superkingdom 0 Algae photosynthetic protists Loosely de ned 0 Protozoan heterotrophic protists o Choanoflagellatez group of mostly unicellular protists characterized by a ring of microvilli I Predatory found in marine and freshwater environments Microvilllii Cell biiil1ir Fl lI r I Sister group to animal lineage age m o Microsporidia 0 Amoebozoans group of eukaryotes with amoebalike cells that move and gather food by means of pseudopodia false foot o Plasmodial Slime Molds I Plasmodia lacy structures visible to the naked eye that are formed by slime molds 0 Plasmodia are coenocytic contain MANY nuclei within ONE cell 0 Generate Sporangia stalked structures that produce spores for dispersal o Cellular Slime Molds I Cells are usually solitary but out of starvation feed on bacteria in the soil form multicellular sug that can migrate gt eventually forms sporangia 0 Archaeplastidaz major branch with 2quotd most diverse eukaryotes o All are photosynthetic EXCEPT for those that are parasitic or Saprophytic live on dead matter o Galucocystophytesz small group of singlecelled algae found in freshwater ponds and lakes I Retain more features of ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont than any other algae o Red Algae contain chlorophyll a biliproteins found in glaucocystophytes amp most cyanobacteria I Are a carbon sink have calcium carbonate shell to protect them from herbivores I Common near the shore can also grow where light penetrates deeply into the ocean o Viridoplantaez branch that includes land plants algal relatives I Green Algae presence of chlorophyll a amp b in chloroplasts that have 2 membranes amp unique attachment for flagella 0 Sea Lettuce has lots of plasticity so even members of the same species can look very different depending on environmental conditions 0 Halimeda composed of calcium carbonate breaks down in tropical water and becomes sand 0 Coenocytic Green Algae has lots of plastids 0 Stramenopiles all have 1 flagellum with 2 rows of stiff hairs amp most f 1 Hairy V aigelium also have 1 smooth flagellum o Flagella stage is at some point in life cycle 0 Brown Algae floats at top of ocean and forms kelp forest I Kelp can grow a meter a day up to 60m high y o Diatoms most diverse stramenopiles known for silica 5W11 flag eiilum skeletons thrive in diverse environments I Photoautotrophs 2 of primary production in ocean I A of photosynthesis on earth more than tropical rainforests I Because of silica hard parts leave fossil record in sediment I Shape is important for identifying species 0 Aveoata have cortical alveoli small vesicles packed beneath cell surface that in some species store calcium ions for use by cell 0 Ciliatesz heterotrophic protists that have two nuclei in each cell and numerous cilia o Paramecium predators that eat bacteria 0 Apicomplexans parasitic protists o Dinoflagellates have 2 flagella one that wraps around body and one used to move I Cellulose walls I Have bioluminescence I Red Tide Event large toxic blooms in coastal waters that occur when nutrients are supplied in large amounts 0 Produce neurotoxin that can kill fish in the area as dinoflagellates die they decompose and suck all the 02 from the water 0 Excavata protists that are free iving parasitic or symbiotic o Euglenids flagellated and commonly found in pond waterstagnant water 0 Giardia parasite that gives severe digestive issues 0 Rhizaria shelled amoebae 0 Hard parts leave fossil record 0 Foaminifera calcium carbonate shells precipitated from carbon in ocean water with holes 0 Radiolaria silica shells 0 Coccolithophores algae single celled marine flagellate that secrete calcium carbonate scales 0 Most abundant primary producers in the ocean o Phytoplankton blooms rapid and marked increase in local plankton population visible from space 0 White chalk cliffs of Dover England are white because are deposits of millions of years of coccolithophores produce fossil record 0 Protists are NOT defined by any synapomorphies FROM UNICELLULAR TO MULTICELLULAR Simple Multicellularity cells show little differentiation and remain in close contact with the external environment O O Onetwo layer of cells as hollow balls filaments sheets Properties I Cell adhesion I Little communication or transfer of resources between cells I Little or no differentiation of specialized cell types I Most cells have all functions including reproduction I Every cell is in contact with the external environment Coenocytic Organization with no barriers nutrients and material don t have to diffuse between cell membranes can just travel through organism Selective Advantage I Avoid protozoan predators I Able to better maintain position on a surface or in water Multicellularity evolved separately 6 times 1 animals 2 fungi twice 3 red algae 4 green algae gt evolved to plants 5 brown algae Common characteristics of most complex multicellular organisms OOOOO O Highly developed mechanisms for adhesion between cells Specialized structures for cell continuation Tissue and organ differentiation A small subset of cells contribute to reproduction Cell or tissue loss can be lethal for organism Presence of both interior and exterior cells 3D Development of Bulk Transport means by which molecules move through organisms at rates beyond those possible by diffusion across a concentration gradient Requirements for Complex Multicellular Life o Cells stick together o Communicate with one another O I In animals Gap Junctions protein channels that allow ions and signaling molecules to move from one cell into another I In plants Plasmodesmataz thins strands of cytoplasm that extended from cell to cell through tiny holes in cell wall I Both permit targeted cell communication Participate in network of genetic interactions for cell division and differentiation I In plants growth confined to meristems populations of actively dividing cells at tips of stems and roots I In animals cells move relative to one another 0 Blastulaz ball of undifferentiated cells formed after fertilizing egg undergoes several rounds of mitosis 0 Gastrula layered structure formed from blastula cell migration gt hollow ball that folds inward at one location o Gradients in signaling molecules define top bottom front back L amp R 0 Evolutionary trend increase in vascular tissue H1 Eiiririill i 4 IEIEILI Fi xt iiil ul i tllsui sii39l Traghaiiig lj i Igl lm tai Eun u i g EEIIE Fai3mii 5EimiFl iiri 39iIJiEnP i2Il39lL lT39lLfl iIEIEIEill Ei lrLJil jllJF illl l7 EIii FIIEJ mi Qi39iElII2i1plquotI39gFlE5 Elam Qglggg ggjgg5 Fti3939ilIquotI ill rlil i ilfi ii IJ iliL39iI ll FE Lilrllil iri LE l39FquotEllEEa l E 39Tl39E Imgla E rummraul 5uppi1rF aillll 39n39ilEi1Elllu39Il iiiiE5 Fl2igI39ii39l in FiIs55 i5 and irE5asiritilagI 39i iEi 5 5E15J EJ1tll39iEi39iIan pa lquot ilJ l391i M F1 and Vi1L E353 imm F155 EEll f1dEFgl39 EHquot walla quotquot was in mtizmidhnijr A i ll 5 l E mu mii ifiln39iI iiquotIej if ya l Til P 1 l Pmlmaiar inall i rimanir wall isirimmr wail Fiilmargr mil with taailuluwi ntiniilli isiiilluiiaagifl Elilll l nihllluliaag iiiriliii mllulma f EaviinriiiIjir39IiiiiiIl HQHIHK ul ihl iigmiinj Scnimtiarjr MEI i i39iI l 0 Plant Stems 0 Stem has surface layer of epidermal cells that enclose thin waed Parenchyma cells 0 Phloem outer tissue layer that transports carbohydrates from leaves to rest of plant body o Xylem inner tissue that transports water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves mkwad Thinwalled 39 39 cells that adlcl I Reduces risk of collapsecavitation 39 39Equot 39 quot 39 Q jgfgggggjf 0 Occurs when 1 air bubble pulled through pit bc p tmem of lower pressure of water compared to air 2 gases come out of solution during freezing I Xylem provides lowresistance pathway for movement of water I Have a layer of Iignin chemical compound that increases mechanical strength I Water entersexits xylem conduits through pits circularovoid regions in walls where Iignified layer not produced allows passage of water but NOT air from 1 conduit to another 0 Tracheids unicellular conduit 0 Vessels multicellular conduit with individual elements called vessel elements Rate at which water moves through the xylem is a function of the of conduits their size 0 Water is pulled through xylem by an evaporative pump 0 When stomata are open water evaporates partial dehydration of cell wall creates force that pulls iquot39 39 water toward site of evaporation 0q at P llwiiiii39 i ozmpanion o Mechanism of transport only works if there is a i Jfm39iEllm 1 EE 39 v a continuous column of water in xylem from roots x leafcelll to eaes 5l39llllll DSE l I ieiir e liuE Carbohydrates are pushed through phloem by an osmotic element V 7 HfI39 ll39il gI 1 hllll l iiv 39IfI1 lI2 Fl iiii1139ii liIIwlnii39ii wantlEr rImiilIIJIrI l 39 nlliiii Halnrtuiba WEE 7 T A I 39 39 uilllisIIrlquotrimiiiugI39ii Iflia iiiglllimi pa lF39Lhlloen1 o Carbs transferred from source regions like leaves that producestore carbohydrates to sink any quot ff p i lk portion of plant that needs carbohydrates to fuel ironit celilll aw 39 growth and respiration ex developing fruit L 39Til1ifsIriastlquotIl l dining llurims miiIt 39liI lIll gIll El39blEIJgI39l En Ellii39ilH39a IfliI cgiplllirgr 39liiEf39ll lI39lil2l39ii397 IIlilllll O Sieve tubes location of transport in phloem composed of cells sieve elements connected end toend I Sieve elements are linked by sieve plates have modified end walls with large pores Companion cell source cell that carries out protein synthesis connected to sieve element by numerous plasmodesmata Phloem Sap sugarrich solution that flows through both lumen of sieve tubes and sieve plate pores Rhizosphere soil layer that surrounds actively growing roots that is rich in microbial populations that aid in decomposition bacteria fungus archaea O O Roots Symbiotic relationship between mycorrhizae fungi amp plant roots enhance the uptake of phosphorus O Symbtiotic relationship between plants and nitrogenfixing bacteria O O Leaves Phloem carbohydrate supply stimulates growth of soil microbes Microbial community near the roots is different from the one that is just outside the root Roots outer cell layer Epldermls gt when active In root areas produce slender C outgrowths Root Hairs increase surface area for nutrient absorption I Inside epidermis Cortex composed of parenchyma cells varies in thickness En n dermal t 55 1EI depending on species Endodermis surrounds xylem and phloem layer of cells that controls movement of nutrients into xylem Casparian Strip blocks water flow through cell wall and endodermis thin band of hydrophobic material that encircles each cell I Water can only gain access to xylem by passing through cytoplasm of endodermal walls I Strip allows root to control what materials enter the cytoplasm Phosphorus in an immobile nutrient in the soil mycorrhizae access nutrients otherwise unavailable to the plant Ectomycorrhizae produce thick sheath of fungal cells that P Egsiald nnmii W jag Human caries E d ff ilhigen I5lawn Fungal eiulmini1l39ia surround root tip Endomycorrhizae do NOT form structures that are visible on outside of root I Form highly branched structures called arbuscules l lFu gaI EEil Lquotn iiil39l3939 1ii39li hiiiizllli a mat ineimiarienaaiirIani39linuiHaaarIEi mtrlmis are Eiliih r through the 3 la1 I39iru rit irquotIIiquotliIr aIquot E A Nitrogenfixing bacteria multiply outside the root in IFm iu1quot l391l1I39I39I1 i l lmEldingiem 39lJl1u minit response to chemical signals then enter the root through a root hair or break in the epidermis lE39 I1iI39I39I39 If39ijii The bacteria take up residence in a root nodule formed by Oquot a Fungal iailllsna dividing root cells lirhuulE F39almH39iH1i39 communcl Hal inout Iquot39fr39I i39siiElmnirra rIuunn1 A Fungqaimlli lE3939ii quoti397I lJII39i4l Lu411 nuniiu t KZ Hquot l lElpinI lIt2lg39 l Punnaately mmwund hm E 39Wl l39i39E39i1 Iinim IlZ39h Jhz at I quotquotquotquotquotquot39 quotquotquot l quot393939 39 PLANT LIFE CYCLES 0 General Life Cycle Billr grain lliglil ulau inIIIil Ind hwy Gametophyte Mitosis haploid Mitosis c H 9i irlspalfgl I lrljphlilili ljriiapII 539IEs u Ferns and spores Ea mete u quotquotquotl39Pquotquot l39 i Emamalgitae Iiiizerse lli x hapOjd haploid I gFihm E E minmPrms Alrfpnlllml Ain39muxi 39 lIquotPlI39 5 Angiusimms d 39li l iquot I1IIii39quotIiI Meiosis Fertilization zygote sporophyte diploid diploid 62 Mitosis 0 Major trends in plant evolution o Increase in vascular tissue o Gametophyte to sporophyte dominant life cycles I Go from sporophyte dependent on gametophyte to gametophyte dependent on sporophyte o Evolution of pollen gt H20 dependent to H20 g V N independent fertilization o Evolution of seed T H 0 Bryophytes mosses liverworts hornworts don39t produce 1i A if 39f S L39 roots and rely on surface water O OOO Gametophyte dominant Sporophyte is dependent on gametophyte Disperse via spores ln H20 dependent fertilization Sporopolleninz complex misture of polymers that is remarkably resistant to environment stresses and coats spores to protect them Irhpiiiafiizl pHn39iIiquotan39erelquot iIi1i1iii11 ai3939lTI39IHe39quotI 1 quot hnd ii amiialile ae nimmirninmInrmanew I UV amp dessication protection 0 Ferns amp Horestails O Presence of vascular system allows for HiirLei iiiJiI liI39quotlIIIl ij ii1I EFlDl39ilE2ixl1quotl2E f ferns to grow tall Epiphyte plant growing on another plant 40 of ferns I Ex Staghorn fern creates own soil patch beneath basal leaves near host tree trunk Majority of life spent as sporophyte I Gametophyte provides growing sporophyte with resources o Sporangium capsule at top of sporophyte many sporangium sorus I Sporangium breaks and releases spores into wind spores flung far from parent plant o Have N fixing bacteria in tissues o Angiosperms created new environments that ferns could inhabit gt adaptive radiation 0 Gymnosperms development of seeds o Cycads 2quot 39 largest group of gymnosperms IntWI 5 c H 4 P L311 male cone larger than female cone I Were most common during dinosaurs declined during Cretaceous same time angiosperms became more dominant o Ginkos ginko biloba only modern representative of ginko I Long been cultivated in China because aesthetically pleasing o Conifers pines junipers amp redwoods I Tree itself is the sporophyte and produces both male amp female gametes o Retain their spores gt develop into gamete within spore wall I Ovule Cones have Microspore spores that develop into pollen male gametophyte 0 All 4 cells fuse to form 1 egg I Pollen Cones have Megaspore spores that develop into egg female gametophyte 0 All 4 cells become separate pollen cells 0 Pollen multicellular male gametophyte allows sperm to be transported through the air so can have H20 independent fertilization I Arrival of pollen stimulates egg growth when ready sends chemical signal so pollen tube forms 0 Pollen Tube tube that grows outward through an opening in the sporopollenin coat so that pollen can reach the egg I Seed 2n fertilized ovule multicellular structure that allows offspring to disperse away from the parent plant wind dispersal 0 Capable of dormancy seed can delay germination even when conditions for growth are favorable larger seeds have little or no dormancy o Can delay germination if detect presence of plants overhead o Advantages of Gamete amp Seed Dispersal I Outcrossing sexual fusion with genetically different members of the population 0 Advantageous because provides genetic diversity 0 Female cone is higher in tree than male cone because don39t want pollen to get on your own cones want it to move to other cones I Reduced competition for nutrient supply I Pathogen amp parasite avoidance 0 Viruses and pathogens travel easily from individual to individual in dense population so send seedlings far away El39IE T5 Themuctzenr Ftwn i39f39II2EI39n peE2ta 5k aanu sirpe sserre1uI attrest Angiospermi 0Werin8 Plant5 piellinmtxers an1e39lielpreteazI o Sporophyte dominant use pollen disperse via seeds Zn 1 39 39E39 3939 3939quotquot39 39 5 39 39Equotquotquot quot39539 Ovary protects ovule from being eatendamaged by animals B P 3 fr F 5 o Anther site of pollen production o Stigma surface at top of style that captures pollen FeteIs o Monocots plants that have one embryonic seed leaf cotyledon nth E Sum I A of angiosperms are monocots F 39quot quotEquotquot t p7 f o Eudlcots plants that produce 2 cotyledons quotEma g Style Carpal c O M earjg M ii 3 quotline sentra 1Taquotui Ielhaerfl is 5 reels and stamens pr sdu zEr1m lJese rid pllen E V E resiseetisrelljr ne eetyilhedhsnn Vsssulas tissue F39araIel39HEi1H5inlEa1tE5 FlmuurpEtals in Elnsigala5eet I ssattemesl Lbaunvzlles rail ssstuler tlsmel IrIr IIIll39i39iIaEi lquot 3 0 Female gamete 8 nuclei in 7 cells one cell has 2 haploid nuclei NOT DIPLOID o Pollen grain has 3 nuclei nucleus with pollen tube and 2 sperm 0 Flower Diversity lIll39f39l Illv E 39il3 il uII stem l39A 11l34quot lIquote5iI ar Esme in jir1uquotar izlrrnngsemeni tn stern ir llnemres nmi Ijiiples at d m 5 Enrr39rgLiI39ra l Both sperm released from male one fertilizes E31115 5Ll39I39I39lHII39H el39lg 0 F f ilsliiEH l II1JE iI39a39I1ll39II I iI lI I39I ElElEi egg and others fuse and becomes triploid quotsmart quotE39 Pi39T 3 WW Triploid cell divides mitotically and becomes endosperm r Double FE39lquot IjllZE l I lrls rIJIIkausf39mH39n tli39u n lhganrem njrte nsu SelfCompatible species in which pollen amp eggs produced by flowers on the same plant can unite and produce viable offspring lrls n39IJIIhusfms39n tli1E nlalhsganlnelnuglrrlgrte nsau 39lIl39i III I ll39IE Iliplui1d cal Elf II39lEfE1I39IaIgi IEIJl2lJll39I39llJEquotEI1 farm EJ39lZI39llllklIi clalll iatgw nE m SelfIncompatible pollination by sameclosely related individual does NOT lead to fertilization 0 Based on proteins from sef incompatibiity genes S genes Endosperm new tissue formed by mitotic divisions by triploid cell that supplies nutrients to the embryo 39n r39iije the endosperm lls mwto39the seed and the emlryo is In a iquot11Mi I 139vI peanut seed a Bil the EIquotlEll2l Z39lI3939l39I139i5 1tiredresizsuruaes have Double Fertilization process in which 2 sperm form a single pollen tube and fuse with egg and the diploid cell quot quot i fi f quot4quot 0 Angiosperms underwent adaptive radiation and entered niches that Seed 1ea 1 were not available to plants previously jr7Tff 3939quot lampFliEiiv E i y O Endmsperam Variations in shape color scent amp size allow for communication 3m with pollinators IEmbriaIe2ri 39 3 I Female gemewplwte tissue 391inZl is ten smslllte 5Eee1ren at this scale I Flowers can broadcast in UV for bees Eudfimt Mnnncnt o Some pollinators eat the pollen as their reward I Orchid flowers mimics the appearance of a female bee when males try to mate with it they get the pollen over themselves I Some flowers have the appearance amp smell of rotting flesh attracts flies o Some flowers provide nectar as an enticement to pollinators o Can observe coevolution between pollinators I Since nectar is costly to make a few species make their nectar difficult to reach reward only goes to particular pollinators and flowers Fruits are ripened ovaries from flowers o Protect immature seeds from predators o Enhance the dispersal of mature seeds fruit is only ripe when seeds are fully matured Methods of fruitseed dispersal o Wind o Water o Animals ingest and then release in excrements in new locations Photoperiodism effect of quotphoto period day length on flowering o Short Day Plants flower only when day length is HF39ElllQquotlE TEail1 HEWEF nzilznnftaiins um ElIquotu39EIllquotj39 l JltSaPB EEWIFE Each flmlgier si1irI1laIiin1I ma395r suirairlsezm iquotquotIl llE F39I39quotiLE imam owers withi ma r5i miari39ampi mm lIIii39iI l nrsialisjii g fruiili Iilipa less than critical value when light period extends threshold shortday plant continues to produce new leaves but no flowers Long Day Plants flower only when light period EXCEEDS certain length Day neutral plants independent of any change in day length Plants measure day length with photoreceptors molecules whose chemical properties are altered when they absorb light Vernalization allows plant to flower only AFTER it has experienced prolonged periods of cold temperatures Phytochrome photoreceptor that switches back and forth between 2 stable forms depending on its exposure to light o Red light stimulates germination and farred light inhibits germination PLANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 0 Vegetative Reproduction plants that reproduce asexually by growing to a new location first and then producing a new plant Plantlets plant grows quotmini pants that fall off or can be carried off and continue to grow into a new plant Horizontal Stems main plant grows horizontally to new location and then burrows into the ground and develops a new plant ex strawberries o Runners new shoots spreading from rhizomes lateral root runners ex aspen can tell which trees are clones based on coloration 0 Primary Growth 0 Shoot Apical Meristem area of rapid cell division and growth at top of shoot 0 Root Apical Meristem area of growth at roots 0 Elongation Zone area right belowabove meristem shoot or root where cells grow many times longer in length than in width I Vacuole occupies over 90 of cell volume 0 Secondary Growth 0 Lateral Meristems increase plant diameter 0 Only by increasing diameter can plants have a strong enough base to grow upwards 0 Formation of continuous vascular cambium that produces secondary xylem toward the center of the stem and secondary phloem toward the outside I Cork cambium maintains protective outer layer 0 Growth Rings record annual growth of tree o Record past climatic conditions temperature moisture fire I Wide growth rings indicate higher growth rates suggest tree experienced more favorable conditions FlIIIi39saIii Il39i iiul39IIrain W IfiiiilliIIriiIquot I 39I3 IIIi i1i1u I Narrow growth rings Indicate tree grew slowly aff iHh39 f 39 0 Growth Orientation 0 o Phototropism shoots grow towards light roots grow away from light A o Gravitropism shoots grow against gravity roots grow toward gravity PLANT DEFENSES 0 Mechanical Defenses o Hairs o Spines o Thorns hW Hum m Eiia 0 Minerals m t O Toughness x he l if Damage nerenus 5fstem chemical Defenses x ff p mIIr llmi1m3 E1 ll llI39IirIE39 m L Tiiiiiif1Eids L 3939 A ect gmIIrl1 and uzleirelnplmenft inf inseml and fll mgi H 1 Eseenlrlal ui5 Iermml peel mint sage plume reein Tautaizlieme a precumur fl iI 1e nani1er iIruug Tamull 5Wlml enzlunzecl l2igE5l139ilIJiIiII39g39 l i t lllllllllllllllll unripe lllruit 0 Animals have adapted to avoid plant defenses o Monarch caterpillars dig trenches to divert latex from entering their feeding zone in the leaf 0 Ecological Defenses o Ants and Acacia are in a symbiotic relationship ants live in the tree39s thorns and then attack other insects that attempt to eat the plant 0 Parasitic Plants steal nutrients from their host plant o Dodder doesn39t photosynthesize on its own and receives everything that it needs from its host o Rafflesiaz produces the world39s largest flower but obtains everything that it needs from its host o Mistletoe carries out photosynthesis but relies on host plant for water and nutrients FUNGI 0 Members of Opisthokont superkingdom v Plarm II memlnmnre Pure 0 Hyphae highly branched filaments consisting of one or more cells surrounded by a tubular cell wall Hquot 39E 3939 o Bunch of hyphae together form cilia I Cilia are tightly packed above ground and are more spread out underground 4 gall 6u o Coenocytic hyphae consist of multinucleate cells Eemum o Composed of chitin polysaccharide that gives strength to cell V walls I Provides structural support for moving through dirt I Resistance to cell volume changes in wet environments I Same material that is in insect exoskeletons I Similar to cellulose but with N 0 Myceliumz networks of branching hyphae that develop when fungi encounter a rich food source 0 Reproductive structures are also composed of hyphae 0 Most hyphae are broken into compartments by septa walls that partially divide cytoplasm into separate cells and have pores to allow cell communication and celltocell transport o Injury activates sealing mechanism that plugs pores in the septa and prevents loss of pressurized cytoplasm 0 Shared characteristics of Fungi o Chitinous walls o Hyphae o Regularly placed septa earlier groups were coenocytic o E a Fruiting ib ldjl Complex multicellular fruiting bodies structures built from hyphae that rise above ground and facilitate dispersal of sexually produced spores I The height often isn39t enough for proper spore dispersal so many forcibly eject their spores 0 Fungi is heterotrophic o Uses extracellular digestion enzymes are secreted through cell membrane onto food and that break down starch cellulose and lignin into simpler compounds which are then absorbed directly across cell walls o Fungi are Saprophytic decompose plant material 0 Fungi quotmove by growing at the tips of their hyphae extension is ONLY at the tips O 0 Fungi and the carbon cycle 0 General Fungal Life Cycle O O O 0 Fungi have mating types NOT malefemale gametes Experience rapid growth through mycelium expansion when food is encountered i j frji r 1 Mmniphasriu I P I digerst vEEILII39Zi EEi and Iignii from wmli 39 W In ohmiin sugars EI391EI other smalil organic IlDIquotl392liJIJ iEI E il139iIIziI39 In ol39 germlimtilnii Plasmogamy cytoplasm of 2 cells fuse St EH5 Karyogamy 2 nuclei fuse and form diploid zygote quot quot39 39e39 quot39i Heterokaryotic unfused nuclei from different parents retain their independent identities K jquotllllF1 o Mating types are determined by a matingtype gene t P 39 y Fmmwml o Fungal species can have more than 2 mating type alleles O hirul1awrgywanpmmlr o Prevent sef fertiization because different mating alleles O are needed for fertilization 5F3939fquotquot o Fungi secrete chemical signals that attract fungi with P d L 3 mating types different from their own 39 I Hquotquot quotquotquotquot quotquot 0 Each spore can produce both mating types V gehmm mnc 0 Asexual spores formed by mitotic cell division and released from quot393quot Em h 7I39ui mIquotnusIuiII sporanglum 0 Fungi that lack sexual reproduction use cross over during DNA mitosis for genetic diversity Parasexual O O O 2 hyphae fuse and form a heterokaryotic cell Karyogamy produces a diploid nucleus from 2 genetically distinct haploid nuclei During mitosis crossing over may occur between 2 sets of chromosomes gt cells lose excess chromosomes through time Results in nuclei with restored haploid chromosome count but novel gene combinations 0 Different fungal groups have different reproductive structures thy trids Ivgnamycetes asi iinmvc EtEs Asnnmvcetes Iii Swimming sglg iiallll Il E3F IIIiIEEllflil l i rE 39F uni Eagl l igliulhlshapdi Ij fl EialIIlilIIaiIas3139l when ix l fiti j IiI39IIiIEliIi 1TiQ ir39iJfiI39liaIii39I i Ihrmmi Ii 39II5l g hwy rlIm gui squmaig Y naizslzur and r pmirsaa i mmgm ulrlharn ll1i39quotplquot39laH aria 1rlIIaul1 ml 9 1339 g mum Egi napmazngim39i1 Flla Aquatic or moist environments Many are single cells with walls of chitin Most are decomposers some are pathogenic Don39t have true mycelium have outgrowths that can penetrate substances and anchor the cell in place 0 Chytridiomycosis fungal infection in amphibians 0 Zygomycetes produce hyphae undivided by septa o Reproduce asexually 0 Produce aerial spores that can be released very far 0 Dikarya produce regular septa during mitosis o 98 of all fungi are dikaryotic o Heterokaryotic cells are referred to as dikaryotic nn I Separation of stages lets each one occur where it is most effective spore production in the air and mating within soil or inside the trunks of rooting trees 0 Divided into 2 monophyletic groups I Ascomycetes sac fungi nuclear fusion and meiosis take place in elongated saclike cells called ascus 0 Most diverse group of fungi 0 Includes lichens 0 Penicillin used to simply be a saprophytic mold important in cheese production accidentally discovered to inhibit growth of grampositive bacteria used as an antibiotic in late 1930s P 395 lquot39 quot Pquot i jiHEil39Eig39EiFBEl W quot i iiiEll39I iFI F I iI i HI Hume lhapinli lljm39I I39IxlI rlII i mgl1iiui I rt Mi nwtlillsirn i1mig Ii i39iIigfg Epgiuimra1 r la vquot39E f 11 P Illiilpiuisruillllililill g j quot 4 quot lrmjlmmcla 4 re a I EI1 III E quotE Eig ht EFHEE n H5EquotFEll li39llaH I39lilquotI39li axaauazgaav lI39i niIiinl 1rIlIi 1 lE l IIr III l l 17 n quot Ella zl Miami I PP J m Irln1LtmrIum umzlIrIi Ian r gj I quot9 quot l39ilF39E39IjzI1i il39i H T13939i1 I lth quot hIt ut39 aiit i l quotquotquot39 quot 393 39quotquot39 0k hipilaxitl U i39tc 39 H 139quotlquot Z mI1i IrII39aI39IEIilI39in uirI IquotquotiQH 3 3 E nu rial Hg Iigliarid i39rihillisI L w39iI lisI iieIr39i 0 quot39fquot39u39m l P9 rwzf I quot Illfgliiililliai HIP l lIiiI39vIIluI E 17F af J 5 zinsizIxanai1 39 39 iliakurrucllI IIwtrill I ll Im lli up i n lr l1ii39139f Pii Ih i EI3939il39ili l H lw fdii 7 eiggha M i lP39i39ii 5l3 I39 5quot395 3 n L uaurlmal am a D rat 1 i l H y K Mhuawlm l39Ixi39FIii4Lip39iIli39 an1L V IIr39umtIl3H quotM J wmmum 4 ilil LiE A rig39 39jI M 39iquot73939 lj nliathil ihgwg 39 W 7 l mlhagryaga raii h g v H rmmAquot11l l li39 i l15E39Ei1I39hl lmulm li39 li IIIFli l1I iEi1 E11 l 339 int Q39i339I4n I Basidiomycetes club fungi nuclear fusion and meiosis take place in cub shaped cells called basidium 0 Form fruiting bodies 0 l39l5 1l39lE til diffIriml rmtlrm man can un lamg Billid m ll i lifwu hip quot i luv haapihidl O Smut fungi infect mgullmhjtihemrh ii A Prri lulaaimu ligvn liiiilar rmrirr aaurwminmasam g ggggtglgtwm reproductive tissues p Ey whighiei e ilu iwiii 1m P 39i QT quot uaillifliien itmm trim of grasses and related i 39 l39 l E 39quotquot 39 L39rrI1iI39JIII IiI quot 0 jljfiaig liv quot PlantS Eggicumw l Elm ca l in c VI 1 I if quot quotL4 g V o affects crops E A iiiIW PL ms r still a problem ii In parts of the world where lmli rawmm galrmlinliian 5 mnuhi e rwn V l in IIIplmdiilnut ni untreated seeds are planted wilhi math hiildlumptha lhi haapinhizlimueiei fuseikarvuagamgrr L In 39h39IIm1 I dlipfurldl I39I39IlIFIlIIa vqlJII1Tf m1dHgaan rruimslilnpnndacl 39fii39lli il2 39EI4i 39quoti 0 Rust Fungi produce pseudoflowers to 2 l irI 4 Elli quot entice pollinators to come to the plant so that they can disperse the spores of the fungus 0 Yeast some groups are ascomycetes and some are basidiomycetes Singlecelled Divide by budding small outgrowths increase in size and eventually break off Found mostly on plant surfaces When grow in animal guts or on skin can result in yeast infections Ascomycete yeast true yeast the ones that are used to leaven bread o Used to ferment carbohydrates into CO2 and alcohols OOOO 0 quot3990 of plants live in close association with fungi o Mutualism both species benefit o Commensalismz one species benefits and the other species is unaffected o Parasitism one species benefits and the other species is harmed 0 Plants and Fungi association formed quot450 mya o Mycorrhizae fungus that when forms association with plant enhances nutrientwater uptake amp increases plant growth I Plant makes sugars amino acids and vitamins available to the fungi I Since mycorrhizae is very small it can go places where the plants roots can t o Ectomycorrhizae fungi whose hyphae surround but do NOT penetrate root cells I Form sheaths around roots and penetrate BETWEEN root cells I Carbon and nutrients are exchanged through the plasma membrane o Endomycorrhizae fungi whose hyphae penetrate INTO root cells monophyletic group I Produce Arbuscules highly branched structures that provide large surface area for nutrient exchange I Glomeromycetes form endomycorrhizae cannot live independently of plant partners 0 Are a monophyletic group of low diversity whatever diversity is present is thought to result from parasexual process L Endophytes fungi that live in plant leaves c rquot39 9T73939 39 ll39 397 i 3939 39 L up water lnizl I39liill EI39iEE39I IZE Lichens mutualism between fungi amp algae or l39 quotquot Equotl39 cyanobacteria quot 31 7 lFquotquot l39EI39IIll539g39l39I IIquotF39IiquotEil ailagial Izells 39 I I w39f1i 39T 1 Ilil39 39 EIi39quotIlFl E iJ39ii I quot3915 of all fungal species grow as lichens 1 unmjhE ElmM an I Form quot100 species of photosynthetic symbionts 393 quot 39 0 Leaf cutter ants grow fungus on the leaves that they collect o Fungus that is cultivated is used to feed ant larvae ANIMALS 0 Part of superkingdom Opsithokonta and most closely related to choanoflagellates 0 All animals are a monophyletic group with complex multicellularity Il lmannlq alluaa I quotIiII I ii ill F E 5 D E l El J liallarlirhe animala p LIl3921 E Ind n i Radiation of animals began 39 550 mya during Cambrian Explosion Estimate that there are 8 million 50 million extant currently living species of which only 14 million have been described to date Key traits o Multicellularity I No cell walls I Extensive cellular matrix 0 Heterotrophy obtain necessary carbon compounds from other organisms I Most ingest food rather than absorbing it o Motility move under their own power at some point during their life cycle o Have nerve cells and muscle cells except sponges MulJtiEElliullanriitgr Z Z Nlenrwmus system 5 pornges lnidarians liell3r 5I139I Curalls sea ane mnne5l 1 Eillaterians lflaitwu l39l39I152 irI1 5erim vertebrratesg amdl oth er a nimazlsal I Cephalization concentration of nervous system components at one end of the body I Evolved independently multiple times gt adaption for forward movement and predation Diversity of sensory receptors 0 Many insects see UV 0 Nocturnal snakes see at night with infrared light 0 Dogs can detect very low odor concentrations Chemoreceptors detect molecules such as oxygen carbon dioxide glucose amino acids 0 basis for the sense of smell and taste 0 Mosquitoes can sense CO2 serve as cues as to where can get blood from o Coral Poyps tentacles detect AA so that they can orient in direction with more AA that39s food source 0 Crabs and flies have chemoreceptors on legs and feet 0 Luna Moth elaborate antennae sense pheromones Phermones used in o Mating Marking territory pee Alarm signal to group about dangers Trail ants follow pheromone trail set by individuals who went first OOO Social interactions ex for fish a dominant breeding male releases pheromone cue when dies to signal that there is available space for another individual to step up whoever takes his place releases pheromones to change skin color and signal that they are now the dominant one Mechanoreceptors respond to touch stretch pressure motion and sound 0 Ex whiskers roudnworms have pressure sensors and cilia Detection of motion and gravity 0 Fish have a lateral line horizontal line that runs through body and detects water motion 0 Invertebrates have a statocyst change in motion of the statolith helps orient the organism with its environment Hearing sensing vibrations 0 Some insects have hairs on their antennae that allow them to sense frequency changes frequency changes are used to find a mate akin to hea ng o Human ear has set of 3 ossicles that create vibration patterns Echolocation bats dolphins and submarines sent out sonar waves and they can bu Statuay E Tl139Ei5i lEli39l l39lH39quotiIiu39E5quot and IlI39rli39I2 quoti3939IB i hair Ltlllsterruiia y3FEui39iElll1g gr39I1Iil1I ELIEEII39 IquotliZF Hluirricl HIDE see judge distance from object by analyzing the rate at which those waves come back to them 0 Photoreceptors detect light o Eye cups not true eyes but detect motion and differences in light and dark o Compound Eye doesn39t have good image resolution but is very good at detecting motion and rapid flashes of light have a large field of lElli vision see in UV light o Singlelens eye I Convergent evolution vertebrates amp octopussquid 0 Thermoreceptors detect temperature stimuli 0 Pain receptors nociceptors detect pain stimuli 0 Electroreceptorsz detect electrical stimuli 0 Feeding Strategies Flh tareEeptnr5 The singllleItem eye of a 9 squid fmzu ses liglht on a iretinai aimtl allows for an high dlegree of acuity Eytecu pa Fhutu rEepIurs Liigilif Piagimusnt p L if llagrer Eu ll li lI lll1 ll39llII ll eye Lem Phiuturelseptms o Suspension Filter Feeding strain suspended matter and food particles from water I Ex baleen whales have large sieves of baleen instead of teeth to filter feed o Suction Feeding create area of low pressure in mouth to suck prey in o Deposit Feeding organisms that take in sediment and digest all the organic material that pass through their gut 0 Symmetry O Ehoanm aggllalras Sponges Z Bilatn ans 7 itnirdarians 1 Flarlii39srmme1iry Theje lljr rsh li I39llcpla139Iimlli ai sglmsmaejtrjrs It has Ihn y axis that rum li n I39I39m1Itil39I l I39Ja basal but many pilanesof E 3939i39lFil39i1Elfil39 M iTEIJI39lil2ll IZl39IE axis 1y FIamquot1e s of 39 symmitrgr Eh iIa11gral 39mme11rgI p Fialsaimlair and p Anterior mnsd Flinn nf Hamil sinl e quotHquotequotn39lral F Eh rardiplagi39i blilateiral symme lllf i Fl s iineglmpilfinse of isymsmetrfr rum from 39l39i3939liiJ15l39I39hi T it 39EaiilllEi a39leIraIljr sgnn lmietri animals have a cllisltinct fmnlz IarEI39llEr39iI391Ir39jnnizll hath lipcasterlicsrii tap lnslcirrsaall and lzmrttlzim hnentralll and rtl39g1l Ii quotIncl Ier 39 The 39liatwuirm Pfagtmrriii ruses Siil apll plhntureceptms anscll H piigmented eggsitl1el1iiJ mt ii sen EE time The mmapeuu rid Eye of EH5 ECt5ia slutli as the i iirIlI39In1iilr haswseflijgg are kcnemlpmsed inf hundrell5 ll ummaticiila leach with ma IEil39l5 tlnaiii iI39I1dli39hFi39dIlll a yr 5El 52 igl39i39t o Bilateral symmetry enables animals to move in one horizontal direction amp allows for development of specialized sensory organs and front for guidance specialized appendages along both sides for locomotionsensing environmentdefense 0 Porifera Sponges o Sessilez don t move Benthic live at the bottom of the ocean Asymmetric some have radial symmetry No true tissue layers OOO reproduction I asexual totipotent cells I sexual male and female gametes 0 released through broadcast spawning release all of gametes into water diirectiion of Hg ht o some corals can coordinate their spawning based on lunar cycles Have specialized cells Muti ceuarity allows for them to grow off of the sea floor and reach passing food in the current Choanoflagellates can form colonies and cells of sponge closely resemble those of choanoflagellates Cells that line the exterior sense and respond to the external environment OOOOO Interior surface of sponge lined by choanocytes have flagella and function in nutrient and gas exchange I Set up currents that draw water into sponge cavity o Ge ike mesophyll supports cells that form spicules and generate reproductive cells I Spicule skeleton of many sponges made of simple structures 0 Some of silica others of CaCO3 o Have a lot of small incurrent pores to let water in and few large out current pores I Small incurrent pores allow for more SA to ease process of water moving across 0 Most cnidarian and ctenophores are diploblastic have 2 tissue layers o Ectoderm outside skin o Endoderm inside skin 0 Cnidarians sea anemones jellies corals hydra o Radial symmetry o Diploblasts w mesoglea o Reproduction I Asexual 0 Budding new individual develops from some generative anatomical point of the parent organism 0 Fission separation of body into 2 new bodies 0 Fragmentation parent organism breaks into fragments each one capable of growing independently into a new organism I Sexual 1 5 l pideimis r Hemin lEiI39illillIIilI1liEl11 il39 i3939mn r iu eaiaiirtgji Hnuth 0 Gametes gt Broadcast Spawning Mif HmEd o Common body plan mouth surrounded by tentacles armed with stinging cells that subdue prey amp defend against enemies o Many have lifecycles that alternate between 2 life forms Tmg I Medusa free foating form I Polypz sessile form that is attached to ground him the million o Hydrostatic Skeletons support animals by muscles that act on nfth ar aucthin llhi 39Iquota Q 39l39IHrrrus a fuid fied cavity I Circular Muscles reduce the diameter of the body cavity I Longitudinal Muscles reduce the length of the body cavity o Cnidocytes cells containing nematocysts I Nematocysts harpoonlike organelles that capture prey some inject toxins o Symbioses with photoautotrophs I Cassiopea the upside down jelly 0 Live in mangroves and calm shallow water 0 Medusoid body form 0 Have symbiotic algae that photosynthesize cassiopea uses some of the energy I Zooxanthellae photosynthetic dinoflagellates 0 Live in the tissue of coral polyps 0 When coral expels the zoo leads to coral bleaching zoo give coral its color 0 If it doesn39t get a new zoo colony then the coral will die o Colony formation many individuals aggregate to form a creature that looks like one organism I Man o War colony of individuals with different morphologies I Reef forming coral within each hole in a coral is an individual polyp Eilil39l39Ii39 li igquotE39E Iilnulr nammfmmthn alzghtaruiara at mamciblllm sil al39lii Ilnr ti u39i quotr suriaac MI39iH I Fire quotcora a colonial hydrozoan 0 Ctenophorescombjellies o 8 combs reflect light Have a mouth and an anal opening that cnidarians do not No nematocysts instead have sticky cells on tentacles o o Gas exchange through diffusion H z E T o Mnemiopsis leidyi lt5 cm long ctenophore E H y 0 x I Was introduced to the Black Sea as part of the ballast water of Jlrinlpm ships invasive species P g I Predated on plankton fish eggs larvae gt led to major Iquot Ht ecosystem impacts by changing the entire food web of the area 4 took away many species 0 All other animals are triploblasts o Triploblast embryo has 3 tissue layers I Ectoderm produces the covering of the animal gives rise to skin nervous system I Endoderm generates digestive tract I Mesoderm gives rise to tissue in between circulatory system muscle and internal structures such as bone and most organs o Among the triploblasts you have Sm I Protostomes blastopore becomes the mouth T if EiiWequot i quot p 39 v l Endaaiiuma 0 Blocks of mesoderm hollow out to form the coelom Elaimanlra 0 Arthropods mollusks worms I Deuterostomes blastopore becomes the anus 0 Pockets of the mesoderm pinch off to form Biastjapare hrecnamegs I39ililli5J Eseutearustnmas the coelom 0 Chordates amp echinoderms Prm39 Et mE5 i iilataral ayzmimiatry Etd mua M I 4 D l 3 Gagtrwla n nElLlEi un1IIen Izihf Eirl lEi ght39aaiIataga 7r 39 quotE L A LuhatrmhuImus E quot Elaatugpare became mouth radial alaatiaga Ellyasippme an anus Flat wtrm Fiu uInd39 wrm 5 E39gri39i39IvEiquotItEd wrim 0 Anatomical Organization of Bilaterians o Acoelomatez don39t have a cavity outside of their digestive tract 0 Pseudocoelomate have body cavity that doesn39t completely surround internal organs 0 Coelomate have a body cavity that completely surrounds internal organs I Have mesenteries tissue layer that encapsulates all internal organs and helps g EqmtE jpg mEA gQEim E hold them in place 0 Lophotrochozoans defined by 0 Lophophore tentaclelined organ for fiter feeding o Trochophore type of larvae that swim and may feed 0 Platyhelmithes flatworms I Acoelomates I Extremely thin so use diffusion to obtain gasesother substances I Use bright coloration as a warning to predators Annelida segmented worms 0 I Coelomate I Use hydrostatic support of each segment to change shape and move by contracting longitudinal and circular muscles I Deposit feeding with complete digestive tract mouth to anus I Cephaization has a brain I Closed circulatory system delivers 02 at higher rates I Gas exchange through skin terrestrial or via gills aquatic I Has nephridia waste filtering organs I Gonads repeat in most segments I Diversity 0 Polychaetes marine worms with bristles 0 Leeches aquatic and terrestrial 0 Tube Worms live in deep sea hydrothermal vents and have symbiotic chemosynthetic bacteria 0 Mollusks snails slugs squids I Have a mantle tissue with several functions 0 Breathing o Excretion 0 Shell formation secretes external skeleton of CaCO3 I Bivalves clams mussels scallops oysters 0 Have CaCO3 shells secreted by mantle 0 Shells are structured like two halves clasped together in back 0 Filter feeding use siphons that extend upward from body and draw water containing fluid and 02 into body 0 Mussels have strong byssal threads that allow them to attach to the rocks and form a mat 0 Scallops spots on edge are photoreceptors that can sense light I Gastropods snails and slugs 0 Torsion during early development upper part of body twists by 180 degrees relative to lower part gt anus and gills end up above head 0 Use radula toothlike structures for feeding mouth connects to gut cavity 0 Use gills for gas exchange 0 Use a muscular foot for movement 0 Slugs have lost their shells 0 Nudibranchs sea slugs have aposematic coloration warning coloration telling predators not to eat them 0 Shell has 8 articulating plates 0 Herbivorous grazers 0 Live in the marine intertidal area that is exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide 0 Have radula Cephalopods octopus squid nautilus cuttlefish 0 Highly intelligent 0 Predators hunt by sight and use tentacles to capture prey 0 Feeding have a beak that can exert powerful biting forces 0 Beak is the only part of the cephalopod that is hard otherwise they are all soft and can squeeze into really small spaces 0 Movement jet propulsion fins amp tentacles 0 Predator defense jet of ink o Ink can interfere with sensory receptors of some predators 0 Sexual reproduction spermatophores amp lays eggs 0 Male provides female with packets of sperm that she carries with her and then fertilizes 0 Babies do NOT undergo metamorphosis are miniature forms of adults 0 Ecdysozoa monophyletic group where all secrete a cuticle of protein to cover body exoskeleton o Ecdysis molting exoskeleton doesn39t grow with organism so has to be shed for organism to grow Fluid causes body to expand after molting and then new larger cuticleexoskeleton forms 0 Nematodesroundworms Important to many microbial communitites Unsegmented pseudocoelomates quotquot Gas exchange nutrients wastes move via diffusion Bondy wall um talv Thick elastic cuticle gt molt to grow PG Free living amp parasitic Found in every known habitat Fiuli lllllil psiaiuitlimiziiaflunti gunll If ll J mju ij l r 5539 viquot ml ll t E 39 alt 39a ill l IiliJgi3ij a llELli iI nil liE lflkllligl Lg lT E 239 rig inquot Jl E39 Eiquot FaquotE1lquot39 Extremely abundant gt up to 9 billion in an acre of fan so r tJ ll39l Ll3939 3 63 ilt Dwuquotl L 39 ii tquotl quotLl Sexual reproduction internal fertilization then females lay eggs 0 Huge proportion of nematode is dedicated to gametes 0 Water to Land Transition adaptions had to be made to allow protostomes to Exchange gases Avoid drying out Hold up their bodies under their own weight 0 Arthropods Segmented bodies Exoskeleton made of chitin Jointed appendages enables movement of rigid bodies 0 Organized in pairs along the segmented body 0 Functions gas exchange sensing the environment feeding locomotion 0 Eyes are modified appendages 0 Shape of mouthparts varies from insects to insects 0 Diversification of arthropod body segmentsappendages because of Homeotic Hox Gene Hailm39 IiTI391lZll5L ma fly fun mtiuIrI5 at 39inen39lral view Db ura1iquotFIr5l7i limbs Walking 0 Specify identity of a body part or segment during embryonic development o Small changes in timing and location of gene expression can result in novel shapes and sizes M 4igp ialiw Than tlirlii bands uzlur ili1i l392i l2Iil39IlEl J39 lFi ul 39il39L1 Hm i In pdiirtd 39E393939l39 ll lif I I i tn1 III Iburs i39l1 rI I lil139lJquot lE ul lm ElFiliiI39I Blue saaagments are lnii1iz 1 l IPEQEiIl39i Iiil il39iE1E39laE lxIEii lr5 haw WEIHTFQ llgar 1Em ianimureparapliiryletieh I3l i ll 2 El III tI39E Han 0 Halteres develop in some insects and give information about position in 3D space 0 Help insect stay steady while flying First appear in fossil record over 520 mya Species diversity more than 1 million extant species described estimate many more to be discovered Segmentation presence of repeated body structures Exoskeleton protection from injury amp dessication 0 Provides structure for muscle attachment Cheicerates have 6 pairs of appendages 0 4 pairs of legs 0 1 pair of chelicerae pincer ike claws near mouth gt feeding defense copulation movement or sensory reception 0 1 pair of pedipalps w diverse functions 0 Variety of feeding behaviors 0 Spiders daddy longlegs and scorpions are predators o Mites and ticks are ectoparasite parasite that lives on the exterior of its host O Horseshoe crabs eat animals algae and detritus Most spiders secrete digestive enzymes into prey O Digestion begins externally drinks liquid later Sexual reproduction with internal fertilization O O Male spiders use pedipalps to transfer sperm No larval forms amp no metamorphosis Myriapods millipedes amp centipedes Insects Paired appendages 1 centipede or 2 millipede per body segment Mouthparts that bite and chew O O Centipedes predatory carnivores Millipedesz herbivores amp detritivores Sexual reproduction internal fertilization lays eggs Crustaceans primarily in marine amp freshwater environments Consumers grazers amp predators Exoskeleton strengthened by CaCO3 2 pairs of antennae Sophisticated compound eyes Mouthparts that bite or chew Highly variable limb structure O O O O Claws Padde shaped limbs for swimming Legs for running or walking Feathery structures for capturing food suspended in water Sexual reproduction with internal fertilization O O Eggs are retained by the female until they hatch Most species pass through several larval stages metamorphosis Naupilus crustacean larvae that swim with aid of smaller antennae distinguished by having 3 body regions Exoskeleton has spiraclesz small pores in exoskeleton used for gas exchange lllealdl Tlmrax o Spiracles connect to tracheae internal system of tubes that direct O2 to amp remove CO2 from respiring tissues Head o pair of antennae used for touch amp smell o pair of compound eyes o four sets of mouthparts Thorax o 3 pairs of walking legs o 2 pairs of wings Abdomen Sexual reproduction mating via copulation Asexual reproduction parthenogenesis reproduction from an ovum without fertilization Insect Diversity is a result of 3 adaptations O Dessicationresistant eggs eggs can be placed on virtually any surface o Wings allows to reach habitats and feed in ways other animals cannot o Metamorphosis drastic change from one developmental stage to another I Reproduction produces larvae look different from adults live in different I Larvae become juveniles by metamorphosis 0 Look like adults 0 Live in the same habitats and eat the same foods 0 Are still sexually immature I Growth amp maturation transform juveniles into adults which are the reproductive stage in the life cycle
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