Psychology 101 Study Guide Midterm 3
Psychology 101 Study Guide Midterm 3
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Date Created: 05/19/14
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Chapter 11 Instinct fixed pattern 0 Is an integrated characteristic common to all members of a species that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Homeostasis 0 A state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain 0 Sensors detect bodily changes and send this information to a control center which in turn regulates response system that restores bodily equilibrium Clark Hull39s influential drive theory motivation 0 Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives Drives 0 States of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in way that reduce tension Behavioral activation system BAS Jeffrey Gray 1991 0 Is roused to action by signals of potential reward and positive need gratification Behavioral inhibition system BIS 0 Which responds to stimuli that signal potential pain no reinforcement and punishment Incentives 0 Represent environment stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal Expectancy x value theory 0 goal directed behavior is jointly determined by the strength of the person39s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal 0 Motivation expectancy X incentive values Amotivation 0 Non regulation I No internal or external motivation No perceived reason for participation Extrinsic motivation 0 Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic motivation O performing an activity for its own sake Selfactualization 0 Which represents the need to fulfill our potential Selfdetermination theory 0 Focuses on 3 fundamental psychological needs competence autonomy and relatedness and on how they relate to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Competence 0 Motivation reflects a basic human need to experience oneself as capable Autonomy selfdetermination Relatedness 0 Our desire to form meaningful bonds with othersto care and to be cared for o Ex When teens feel their is acknowledged and supported by their parents they feel a strong sense of relatedness to their parents Extrinsic motivation External Behavior is motivated by a desire to receive external awards or avoid punishments motivation Introjected Internalized reasons are tied to sef administered rewards amppunishments quotshouds Psych 101 Page 1 motivation Identified Behavior is sef determined but the activity is not considered fun regulation Hunger Metabolism 0 Is the body39s rate of energy or caloric utilization Set point 0 A biologically determined standard around which body weight or more accurately fat mass Glucose 0 a simple sugar that is the body39s and brain39s major source of immediately usable fuel Cholecystokinin CKK 0 A peptide a type of hormone that helps produce satiety Leptin 0 Is a hormone secreted by fat cells Lateral hypothalamus LH 0 A quothunger onquot center Ventromedial hypothalamus 0 A hungeroffquot center Periventricular nucleus PVN 0 A cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite Culprits of obesity 0 An abundance of inexpensive foods of quotbad foodsquot 0 Cultural emphasis on best value quotsuper sizing menu itemsquot 0 Technology advances that decrease the physical activity level 0 quotreward pathwaysquot Anorexia nervosa 0 Have an intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of sef starvation Bulimia nervosa 0 Are also afraid of becoming fat and they binge eat and the purge food Sexual Motivation Sexual response cycle 0 Of excitement I Arousal build rapidly 0 plateau I Arousal continues to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm 0 orgasm I Rhythmic contractions 0 resolution I Physiological arousal decreases rapidly 0 Refractory period for men I During which they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm Organizational effects o Direct the development of male and female sex characteristics Antinational effects in sex hormones 0 Stimulate sexual desire and behavior Sexual dysfunction 0 Refers to chronic impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person Sexual orientation 0 Refers to one39s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex 0 3 dimensions I Selfidentity I Sexual attraction Psych 101 Page 2 I Actual sexual behavior Social Motivation Social comparison 0 Involves comparing our beliefs feelings and behavior with those of other people Need for achievement 0 A positive desires to accomplish tasks and compete successfully with standards of excellence Achievement goal theory 0 Focuses on the manner in which success is defined both by the individual and within the achievement situation itself 0 Mastery orientation I In which the focus is our personal improvement giving maximum effort and perfecting new skills 0 Ego orientation I In which the goal is to outperform others hopefully with as little effort as possible 0 Motivational climate I That encourages or rewards either a mastery approach or an ego approach to defining success Achievement Goal orientation Mastery approach goals 0 Focus on the desire to master a task and learn new knowledge or skills Egoapproach goals 0 Reflect a competitive orientation that focuses on outer performance other people Masteryavoidance goals 0 A fear of not performing up to one39s own standard Egoavoidance 0 Center on avoiding being outperformed by others 2 x2 achievement 0 Each of us can be described in terms of an quotachievement motivation profilequot Motivational Conflict Approachapproach conflict 0 Occurs when we face two attractive alternatives and selecting one means losing the other Avoidanceavoidance conflict 0 Occurs when we must choose between two undesirable alternatives Approachavoidance conflict 0 Involves being attracted to and repelled by the same goal EMOTION Emotions 0 Are felling or affect states that involve a pattern of cognitive physiological and behavioral reactions to events Nature of emotions o Emotions are triggered by external or internal eliciting stimuli o Emotional responses result from our appraisals of these stimuli which give the situation its perceived meaning and significance 0 Our bodies respond physiologically to ur appraisals o Emotions include behavior tendencies Some are expressive behaviors Others are instrumental behaviors Eliciting stimuli 0 That trigger cognitive appraisals and emotional responses Cognitive appraisals 0 Are the interpretations and meanings that we attach to sensory stimuli Expressive behaviors 0 The person39s observable emotional displays Fundamental emotional patterns 0 Or innate emotional reactions Cultural displays rules Psych 101 Page 3 o Dictate when and how particular emotions are to be expressed Instrumental behaviors o Directed at achieving some emotions reevant goal JamesLange Theory 0 Our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience CannonBard Theory 0 Proposed that the subjective experiences of emotion and physiological arousal do not cause one another but instead are independent responses to an emotion arousing situation Facial feedback hypothesis 0 Feedback from the facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining the nature and intensity of emotions that we experience Twofactor theory of emotions 0 The intensity of physiological arousal tells us strongly we are feeling something but situational cues gives us the information we need to label the arousal and tell ourselves what we are feeling Polygraph 0 An instrument that measure physiological responses such as respiration heart rate and skin conductance Pleasurable emotions o Endorphin and dopamine Fear and anger 0 Serotonin 0 Norepinephrine Testosterone 0 Masculine sex hormones Estrogens 0 Feminine sex hormones Chapter 12 Developmental psychology o Examines biological psychological and behavioral changes that occur as we age 0 Four broad issues I Nature and nurture I Sensitive and critical periods III Sensitive period 9 Optimal age range for certain experiences but if those experiences occur at another time normal development is still possible III Critical period 9 Age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path I Continuity versus discontinuity I Stability changes Cross sectional design 0 We would compare people of different ages at the same point in life o Data can be collected quickly Longitude design 0 Repeatedly test the same cohort as it grows older 0 Timeconsuming sample may shrink Sequential design 0 Which combines the cross sectional and longitudinal approaches Prenatal development Germinal stage 0 Aprox First 2 weeks 0 Zygote Psych 101 Page 4 I This fertilized egg Embryonic stage 0 Embryo I Develops form the end of week 2 through week 8 after contraception I Two life support structures III Placenta III Umbilical cord Fetal stage 0 Fetus I Develops from week 9 after contraception to conception until birth TDF testis determining 0 Teratogens I Are external agent s that cause abnormal prenatal development 0 Androgens I Sex hormones male organ development 0 Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD I Involve a range of mild to severe cognitive behavioral andor physical deficits caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS I Involves a cluster of severe developmental abnormalities Preferential Looking procedure 0 Robert FantZ 1961 Physical Development Maturation 0 The genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth Cephalocaudal principle 0 Reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head tofoot direction Proximodistal principle 0 States that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts Human development 3 points 0 Biology sets limits on environmental influences 0 Environmental influences can be powerful 0 Biological and environmental factors interact Cognitive Development Schemas 0 Which are organized patterns of thought and action Assimilation sucking new toy 0 Is the process by which new experiences are incorporated into schemas Accommodation 0 Is the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change Sensorimotor Stage birth to 2 0 Understand their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical motor interactions with objects 0 Object permanence I The understanding that an object continues to exit even when it no longer can be seen Preoperational Stage 27 0 In which they represent the world symbolically through words and mental images but do not yet understand basic mental operations or rules 0 Conservation I The principle that basic properties of objects such as their volume mass or quantity stay the same are quotconservedquot even though their outward appearance may change Psych 101 Page 5 0 Egocentrism I Difficulty in viewing the world from someone else39s perspective Concrete Operational Stage 7 to 12 0 Can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations Formal operational stage 12 an on 0 In which individuals can think logically about concrete and abstract problems form hypotheses and systematically test them Zone of proximal development 0 The difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers Theory of mind 0 Refers to a person39s beliefs about the quotmindquot and the ability to understand other people39s mental states Emotion regulation 0 The processes by which we evaluate and modify our emotional reactions Temperament 0 A biologically based general style of reacting emotionally and behaviorally to the environment Erikson39s Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial stages o Each involving a different quotcrisisquot over how we view ourselves in relation to other people and the world 4 different crisis o Basic trust versus basic mistrust 0 Autonomy versus shame and doubt 0 Initiative versus guilt 0 Industry versus inferiority Imprinting 0 A sudden biological primed form of attachments Attachment 0 Refers to the strong emotion bond that develops between children and their primary caregivers Attachments in infancy process 0 Indiscriminate attachment behavior o Discriminate attachment behavior 0 Specific attachment behavior Stanger anxiety o Distress over contact with unfamiliar people 67 monts18 months Separation anxiety o Distress over being separated form primary caregiver Stranger situation 0 A standardized procedure for examining infant attachment Styles of parenting Authoritative parents 0 Are controlling but warm Authoritarian parents 0 Also exert control but do so within a cold unresponsive or rejecting relationship lndulgent parents 0 Have warm caring relationships with their children but do not provide the guidance and discipline that help children39s learn responsibility and concern for others Neglectful parents 0 Provide neither warmth nor rules nor guidance Gender identity 0 A sense of quotfemaenessquot or quotmaenessquot that becomes a central aspect of one39s personal identity Gender constancy Psych 101 Page 6 0 Which is the understanding that being male or female is a permanent part of a person Sextyping 0 Involves treating others differently based on whether they are female or male Moral development Preconvention moral reasoning 0 Is based on anticipated punishments or rewards Conventional moral reasoning 0 Is based on conformity to social expectations laws and duties Post conventional reasoning 0 Is based on we thought out general moral principles Adolescence and adult Adolescence 0 The period of development and gradual transition between childhood and adulthood Puberty 0 A period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction I Primary sex characteristics III Sex organs involved in reproduction I Secondary sex hormones III Non reproductive physical features breasts facial hair Physical development Young adulthood 0 Approx 2040 years of age Middle adulthood 0 40s 60s Late adulthood 0 Age 65 and older Basal metabolism 0 The rate at which the resting body converts food into energy also slows resulting in a tendency to gain weight Menopause 0 The cessation of menstruation Adolescent egocentrism 0 A selfabsorbed and distorted view of one39s uniqueness and importance Personal fable 0 Adolescents often overestimate the uniqueness of their feelings and experiences Fluid intelligence 0 Reflects the ability to perform mental operations Crystallized intelligence 0 Which reflects the accumulation of verbal skills and factual knowledge Senile dementia 0 Refers to dementia that begins after age of 65 James Marcia Identity Status 0 Identity diffusion I Not gone through identity crisis They were unconcerned about it not committed to coherent set of values 0 Foreclosure I No gone through identity crisis because they committed to an identity and a set of values before experiencing a crisis 0 Moratorium I Wanted to establish clear identity were experiencing crisis not yet resolved it 0 Identity achievement I Gone through identity crisis resolved it and emerged with coherent set of value Psych 101 Page 7 Intimacy vs isolation 0 Major development challenge of early adulthood Generativity vs stagnation 0 Middle aduthood Late adulthood 0 Integrity versus despair Career Establishment phase 0 During which they begin to make their mark Maintenance stage 0 Careers stabe continues into late adulthood Decline stage 0 People39s investment in work tends to decline they start to retire Death and dying Stages 0 Denial 0 Bargaining 0 Depression 0 Acceptance Chapter 17 Attributions 0 Judgments about the causes of our own and other people39s behavior and outcomes Situational external attributions 0 Infer that aspects of the situation cause a behavior Personal internal attributions 0 Infer that people39s characteristics cause their behavior Information that determine attribution 0 Consistency 0 Distinctiveness 0 Conesus Fundamental attribution error 0 We underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining Other39s people39s behavior Serving bias 0 The tendency to make personal attributions for successes and situational attributions for failures Primary effect 0 Refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person Stereotype 0 Which is a generalized belief about a group or category of people 0 Selffulfillment prophecy 0 Occurs when people39s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviors thereby confirming their original impression Attitude 0 Is a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus such as a person action object or concept Theory of planned behavior 0 Our intention to engage in a behavior is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behavior when subjective norms support our attitudes and when we believe that the behavior is under control Psych 101 Page 8 Theory of cognitive dissonance 0 People strive for consistency in their cognitions Selfperception theory 0 We make inferences about our own attitudes in much the same way by observing how we behave Central route to persuasion 0 Occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling Social norms 0 Are share expectations about how people should think feel and behave Social role 0 Consists of a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave Informational social infuence39s 0 Following the opinions or behavior of other people because we believe that they have accurate knowledge and that what they are doing is right Normative social influences 0 Conforming to obtain the rewards that come from being accepted by other people while at the same time avoiding their rejection Factors that affect conformity 0 Group size 0 Presence of a dissenter Factors that influence obedience 0 Remoteness of the victim I Obedience was greatest was out of site 0 Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure I Obedience was highest when the authority figure was close by and perceived as legitimate 0 Diffusion of responsibility I quotobedience increases when someone else does the dirty workquot 0 Personal characteristics I In experiment quotdifferences were weak or nonexistentquot Norm reciprocity 0 Involves the expectation that when others treat us well we should respond in kind Doorin the face technique 0 A persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject it and then presents a smaller request Foot in the door technique 0 A persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later represents a larger request Lowballing 0 A persuader gets you to commit to some action and then before you actually perform the behavior he or she increase the quotcostquot of that same behavior Social loafing 0 Is the tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone 0 Likely to occur when I Person believes that individual performance within the group is not being monitored I The task or the group has less value or meaning to the person I Person generally displays low motivation to strive for success and expects that coworkers will display high effort Group polarization 0 When a group of likeminded people discuss an issue the quotaveragequot opinion of the group members tend to become more extreme Group think 0 The tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement 0 Likely to occur when I Group is under stress to make decision Psych 101 Page 9 I Is insulated from the outside input I Has a directive leader who promotes a personal agenda I Has a high cohesiveness reflecting a spirit of closeness and ability to work well together Deindividuation 0 A loss of individuality that lead to disinhibited behavior Mere exposure effect 0 Repeated exposure to a stimulus typically increases out liking for it Matching effect 0 We are more likely to have a partner whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our won Selfdisclosure 0 The sharing of innermost thoughts and feelingsplays a key role Social Relationships Social exchange theory 0 Proposes that the course of a relationship is governed by rewards and costs that the partners experiences Comparison level 0 Is the outcome that a person has grown to expect in relationships influences person39s satisfaction Comparison level for alternatives 0 Potential alternatives to the relations and it influences the person39s degree of commitment Love Passionate love 0 Involves intense emotion arousal and yearning for the partner Compassionate love 0 Involves affection and deep caring about the partner39s we being Triangular theory of love 0 Proposes that love involves three major components passion intimacy and commitment I Intimacy III Involves a closeness sharing and valuing one39s partner I Commitment III Represents a decision to remain in the relationship I Passion III Refers to the feelings of physical attraction and sexual desire Ostracism 0 Ignoring or excluding someone Prejudice Prejudice 0 Refers to a negative attitude toward people based on their membership in a group o Explicit prejudice I Which people express publicly 0 Implicit prejudice I Is hidden from public view Discrimination 0 Refers to overt behavior that involves treating people unfairly base on the group to which they belong Realistic conflict theory 0 Competition for limited resources fosters prejudice Social identity theory 0 Prejudice stems from a need to enhance our sef esteem Stereotype threat 0 Proposes that stereotypes create selfconsciousness among stereotyped group members and a fear that they will live up to other people39s stereotypes Equal status contact 0 Prejudice between people is most likely to be reduce when they I Engage in sustained close contact Psych 101 Page 10 I Have equal status I Work to achieve a common goal that requires cooperation I Are supported by broader social norms Kin selection 0 Organism are most likely to help others with whom they share the most genes namely their offspring and genetic relatives Empathy altruism hypothesis 0 Altruism is produced of another and to share what the person is experiencing Bystander effect 0 The presence of multiple bystander inhibits each person39s tendency to help largely due to social comparison or diffusion of responsibility Why do people help Similarity Gender Perceived fairness and responsibility Catharsis 0 Stated that performing and act of aggression discharges aggressive energy and temporarily reduces our impulse to aggress Psych 101 Page 11
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