Grammar for Communicators: Quiz 2 Study Guide
Grammar for Communicators: Quiz 2 Study Guide
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Date Created: 05/20/14
101 Quiz Two Study Guide 1 Sentence Structure a Comma Splices two independent clauses joined together by a comma i Replace with semicolon period or coordinating conjunction FANBOYS b Dead Constructions starting a sentence with there are or it is i Confuses the subject PA Replace with the subject rearrange sentence c Parallel Sentences use the same verb noun form and or POV i WRONG Do one bad thing then be running away RIGHT Do one bad thing then run away d Modifier Position keep modifier close to what it is modifying i Ask the question Who is doing What W I shot an elephant in my pajamas Who s wearing the pajamas e Passive Voice the object is acted upon by the subject i Active Voice My cat sent the email M Passive Voice The email was sent by my cat Best when used if the object is more important than the subject f Redundancies repeating same thing in different ways i Avoid repeating thoughts and or actions 2 Punctuation a Periods End sentences used with acronyms and abbreviations i ONLY USE 1 punctuation to end a sentence p If a sentence ends in abbreviation don t add another period If a sentence has a complete sentence within it don t put a period after the inside sentence b Commas Separate dependent and independent clauses separate items in a list set off long introductory phrases help avoid confusion i separate independent clauses with coordinating conjunction and comma separate long introductory clauses from sentence with comma separate items in a series with commas iv use comma before complete quote v NC comma before partial quote vi use comma where reader would be confused vii Appositives give more information about noun 1 separate appositive from rest of sentence with commas 2 ex Jeff Merkley a US Senator represents Oregon a US Senator is not the subject of the sentence but it does clarify who Jeff Merkley is L op 5 viii DO NOT separate a subject from its verbs or objects unless there is a list or nonessential phrase in between ix DO NOT separate a noun or pronoun from its re exive x DO NOT separate subject from its object xi separate nonessential phrases from sentence with commas em dashes or parentheses Semicolons Separate independent clauses separate items in a list that have internal commas i separate two independent clauses P g separate series of items that have commas in them already h use before a conjunctive adverb iv DO NOT USE after dependent clause Colons Introduce something including another independent clause a long list or quotations longer than 2 sentences i introduce long lists f introduce quotes with two or more sentences Pn introduce a second related sentence iv something you want to emphasize Hyphens Join compound modifiers well known add a pre x un American i use with modifiers such as self ex quasi and well 0Uw use with fractions three quarters one half Em Dashes Emphasize and set information apart En Dashes Show a range 112 Ellipses Indicate missing information or dialogue that trails off Apostrophes Indicate possession or contraction quotes inside of quotes Quotation marks Indicate words spoken by someone else in AP style used for titles of books poems plays films speeches songs works of art subjects or lectures magazine articles i Periods and commas that are next to closing quotation marks go INSIDE quotation marks Parentheses Set non essential information apart from the rest of a sentence Question mark i use only with direct questions m Exclamation point i NEVER use more than one 3 Contractions and Possession 21 Plurals i NEVER use apostrophes to make a noun plural X lrregulars noes yesses IDs DVDs iPods A s P Make noun plural first THEN possessive b Possession i singular possession for word ending in s sound 1 use apostrophe s plural possession for word ending in s sound 1 form plural then add apostrophe c Contractions i require apostrophes goes where letter is removed limit use of conjunctions with nouns confusing apostrophe following personal pronoun signi es contraction not possession
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