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Chapter 10 Notes Food Safety Management Systems: group of procedures meant to prevent foodborne illnesses. 1. Personal hygiene program 2. Food safety training program 3. Supplier selection and specification program 4. Quality control and assurance program 5. Cleaning and sanitation program 6. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) 7. Facility design and equipment managing program 8. Pest-control program Active managerial control: proactively control risk factors of foodborne illnesses. The FDA’s Public Health Interventions - Specific recommendations by FDA to control risk factors. o Demonstration of knowledge: you know what to do to keep food safe. o Staff health controls: procedures making sure staff practice personal hygiene. o Controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination: prevent bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food. o Time and temp parameters. o Consumer advisories. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) The Seven HACCP Principles 1. Conduct a hazard analysis. a. Determine where food hazards are likely to occur: i. Ex: prepping, cooking, holding, cooling, re-heating, and serving. 2. Determine critical points. a. Find points where hazards can be avoided. 3. Establish critical limits. a. Determine minimum or maximum limits for critical points. i. Ex: cook chicken to 165F for 15 sec. 4. Establish monitoring procedures. 5. Identify corrective actions. 6. Verify that the system works. 7. Establish record keeping and documentation procedures. a. Keep records for: i. Monitoring activities. ii. Corrective actions. iii. Validating equipment. iv. Working with suppliers. Specialized Processing Methods and HACCP - Specialized processes (variance required): Chapter 10 Notes o Smoking food to preserve it. o Using additives. o Curing. o Custom-processing animals. o ROP packaging o Pasteurizing juice on-site. o Sprouting seeds or beans. Crisis Management - Creating a Crisis-management team: o Include representatives from: Senior management. Risk management. Public relations. Operation. Finance Marketing Human Resources o Smaller operations may include chef, manager, owner. - Preparing for a Crisis o Emergency Contact List o Crisis-communication plan List of media responses (what to say in each situation). Sample press release. List of people to call for news briefings. Dos and don’ts for talking to media. Plan for communicating with staff in crisis. Spokesperson to handle media. o Crisis kit: notebook or binder enclosing plans materials. o Preparing for a Foodborne Illness Outbreak Incident report form containing: What and when the customer ate at the operation. When customer first got sick and how long symptoms were experienced. When and where medical attention was sought, the diagnosis, and the treatment received. What other food was eaten by the customer. o Crisis response: Media Relations: be honest, communicate and work with media. Direct communication: communicate to key audiences. Relay all the facts. Solution: fix the problem and let media know. o Crisis Recovery and Assessment: Work with regulatory authority. Clean and sanitize all equipment. Throw out all suspect food. Chapter 10 Notes Investigate to find cause. Review procedures and make new ones if needed. Develop a plan to reassure customers that the food is safe. - Imminent Health Hazards: significant threat or danger to health that requires immediate correction to prevent injury. o Ex: fire, flood, power outage. o Power outage: Arrange access to a generator and refrigerated truck. Prepare menu with items that don’t require cooking. Develop a cooler door opening policy. o Water service interruption: Prepare a menu that uses little to no water. Single-use items. Bottled water supply. Have a supplier who can provide ice in an emergency. Emergency contacts (plumber, regulatory authority, etc.) Procedure to minimize water use. Emergency handwashing procedure. When water is restored: Clean and sanitize equipment with water line connections. Flush water lines. Work with regulatory agency to resume normal operations. o Fire: Emergency contacts for fire and police. Throw out all effected food and utensils. Clean and sanitize. Check water lines. o Flood: Have a plan to monitor and control equipment (plumbing, sump pumps, etc.) Emergency contacts. Supply of bottled water. Chapter 9 Notes The Flow of Food: Service Holding Food for Service - Temperature o Hot food: 135F(57C) o Cold food: 41F(5C) o Use thermometer to check internal temp of food at least every 4 hours. - Reheating food: do not use hot-holding equipment to reheat food unless it is meant to do so. - Food covers and sneeze guard: maintain internal temp and protect from contamination. - Create policies on when to throw out food. Holding Food without temperature control: - Cold food: o Make sure it starts at 41F o Label for discard after 6 hours. o Throw away food exceeding 70F while being served. - Hot food: o Start at 135F o Label for discard after 4 hours. Serving Staff Guidelines - Do not touch food-contact areas of dishes or glassware. - Do not stack glasses, carry them in a tray. - Hold silverware by the handle. - Do not handle ready to eat food with bare hands. - Do not scoop ice out of container with cup. Preset tableware - Do not need to be wrapper if: o They are removed when guests are seated. o If they are cleaned and sanitized after guests have left. Re-serving food safely: - Do not reserve returned menu items. - Do not reserve plate garnishes (ex: pickles) - Throw opened condiments away, serve them in containers. - Do not reserve bread or rolls. - You may reserve unopened, prepackaged food. Kitchen Staff Guidelines - Single use gloves or utensils when handling ready to eat food. - Serving utensils: separate utensils to serve each food item. - Utensil storage: handle extended above food, or under running water. - Refilling take-home containers: you are able to with: Chapter 9 Notes o Reusable containers. o Provided to the customer by the operation. o Cleaned and sanitized correctly. - Beverage containers: o Refilled as long as it is not a TCS food. o Refilled if it is the same container. o Effectively cleaned at home or in operation. o Rinsed before refilling, hot water under pressure. o Refilled by staff with specific process. Self-service areas: - Sneeze guards o 14 inches above counter, 7 inches beyond food. - Labels - Raw foods are only allowed if they will be cooked immediately. - Refills with clean plates. Post signs to remind customers. - Correct utensils for dispensing food. Labeling bulk food: - Do not need to be labelled if: o Product makes no claim to health or nutrition content. o No laws requiring labels. o Food manufactured or prepped on premises. o Food is prepped at another establishment owned by the same person. Off-site Service: - Ex: delivery, moving kitchens. - Delivery: o Containers must be insulated without leaking ability. o Delivery vehicles must be cleaned. o Good personal hygiene. o Check internal food temperatures. o Labels: use-by date and time, and reheating instructions. o Storage: store raw meat separate from ready-to-eat foods. - Catering o Utilities: Safe water, garbage containers stored away from food. o Insulated containers. o Cold food: serve in ice or gel. o Store ready-to-eat and raw food separately. o Provide instructions for handling leftovers. - Temporary Units: operate for less than 14 days. o Keep menu simple. o Keep dirt and pests out. o Safe water available. o Disposable, single-use items. - Mobile Units - Vending Machines Chapter 9 Notes o Check product shelf-life daily. o Keep food at correct temperatures. o Dispense food in its original container. o Wash and wrap fruit with edible peels before putting it in a machine. Chapter 12 Notes Cleaning and Sanitizing Factors that Affect Cleaning - Type and Condition of dirt: o Ex: dried or baked on. - Water hardness: o Hard water can cause lime deposits. - Water temperature: o Higher temperature cleans better. - Surface - Agitation or pressure o Ex: scrubbing cleans better. o Length of treatment Types of Cleaners - Noncorrosive, stable and safe to use chemicals. o Follow manufacturer’s instructions. o Do not use on chemical in replace of another unless intended use is the same. Detergents: Contain surfactants: reduce tension between dirt and surface. High alkaline: heavy-duty. Degreasers: Grill, oven, or hoods. Contain grease-dissolving detergent. Delimers: Used on mineral deposits. Abrasive Cleaners: Contain scouring agent that helps scrub away dirt. Can scratch surfaces. Sanitizing - Heat sanitizing: soak in water 171F (77C) for 30 seconds. o Or high temperature dishwasher. - Chemical sanitizing: o Soak, rinse, spray or swab. o Chlorine, iodine, quats. - Sanitizer Effectiveness: o Concentration (use test kit to check) measured in ppm. o Temperature must be correct o Contact time: 30 seconds. o Water hardness affects necessary concentration of sanitizer. o pH can affect sanitizer. o Chart in book. How and to clean and sanitize: Chapter 12 Notes 1. Scrape and remove bits from surface. 2. Wash surface. 3. Rinse surface. 4. Sanitize surface. 5. Allow surface to air dry. Cleaning and Sanitizing Stationary Equipment: - Unplug. - Remove removable parts. - Scrape or remove food. - Wash surfaces. - Rinse. - Sanitize. - Air dry and put back together. When to clean and sanitize: - After surfaces are used. - Before working with a new type of food. - When food handlers are interrupted. - After 4 hours of constant use. Correct machine-dishwashing procedures: - Final sanitizing rinse must be 180F (82C). - Stationary single temperature must be 165F (74C). - Must have built in thermometer. Dishwashing machine operation: - Cleanliness: check at least once a day, clean as needed. - Preparation: scrape, rinse, or soak items before washing. - Loading: use correct dish racks, don’t overload. - Always air dry to prevent towel contamination. - Monitoring: check temperature, pressure, and sanitizing levels. How to clean and sanitize Items in a 3 compartment sink: 1. Rinse, scrape, or soak items before washing. 2. Wash in the first sink. 3. Rinse in second sink. 4. Sanitize in third sink. 5. Air dry on a clean, sanitized surface. Cleaning non-food contact surfaces: - Cleaning after people who get sick: o Think about: Containing liquid and airborne substances. Disinfecting surfaces. Throw out contaminated food. Chapter 12 Notes Equipment to clean up the substances and cleaning of this equipment. Personal protective equipment. Notifying staff on procedures. Segregating contaminated areas. When staff must be excluded. How to remove sick customers. Cleaning plan implementation. Storage and Disposal of Chemicals - Storing cleaning tools and supplies: o Separate area. o Good lighting. o Hooks for hanging cleaning tools. o Utility sinks. o Floor drain for dumping dirty water. o Air dry towels. o Clean and rinse buckets. - Wiping towels: o Store in sanitizer bucket. o Keep separate towels separate if they are used for different things. - Using foodservice chemicals: o Storage and labeling: Store in original containers. Label new container with common name if transferred. Away from prep areas. o Disposal: Follow instructions on label and local regulatory authority requirements. - Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) o States: Safe use and handling. Physical, health, fire, and reactivity hazards. Precautions. Appropriate protective equipment to wear when using. First aid and emergency steps. Manufacturer’s name, address, and phone number. Preparation date of MSDS. Hazardous ingredients and identity info. Storing Tableware and Equipment: - Storage: store tableware at least 6 inches off of floor. o Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves before storing clean items. o Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean rack. o Store flatware and utensils with handles up. o Clean and sanitize trays and carts to carry things. o Keep food-contact surfaces on stationary equipment covered until ready for use. Chapter 12 Notes Cleaning the Premises - Create a master cleaning schedule. o Train and monitor staff to follow it. How to develop a cleaning program: 1. Identify cleaning needs a. Ask staff, determine number of people and time it takes to do one task. 2. What should be cleaned? 3. Who should clean it? 4. When should it be cleaned? 5. How it should be cleaned. 6. Choosing cleaning materials: a. Correct tools and cleaners as recommended by supplier. b. Replace worn tools. c. Provide staff with appropriate protective gear. Implementing the Cleaning Program: 1. Kickoff meeting. a. Help staff understand why they are doing it. 2. Train staff. 3. Motivation: reward staff for a good job. 4. Monitoring: a. Supervise daily routines. b. Check completion of all tasks. c. Modify schedule to reflect changes in menu, procedures, or equipment. d. Request staff input on the program. Chapter 14 Notes Food Safety Regulations and Standards Government Agencies Responsible for Preventing Foodborne Illnesses - The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) o Inspects all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. o FDA Model Food Code: Regulate foodservice for: Restaurants and stores. Vending. Schools and daycares. Hospitals and nursing homes. - USDA (US Department of Agriculture) o Inspects meat, poultry, and eggs. o Regulates food that crosses state boundaries. - CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) o Investigate outbreaks of food-borne illnesses. o Study cause and control of diseases. o Publish data and case studies in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). o Provide sanitation education. o Vessel Sanitation Program (for cruise ships). - PHS (Public Health Service) o Investigate foodborne illness outbreaks and research them. - State and Local Regulatory Authorities o Inspect operations. o Enforce regulations. o Investigate complaints and illnesses. o Issue licenses and permits. o Approve construction. o Reviewing and approving HACCP plans. o Food Codes: Written by regulatory authorities. Differ from state to state. Regulate retail and foodservice operations. o Health inspectors: conduct inspections. Inspection Process: - Check 5 Risk Factors o Unsafe sources. o Failing to adequately cook. o Holding at incorrect temperatures. o Using contaminated equipment. o Poop personal hygiene. - FDA risk designations: o Priority items: Most critical to food safety. Reduce hazards to an acceptable level. Ex: correct handwashing. Chapter 14 Notes o Priority foundation items: Support priority items. Ex: having soap at handwashing stations. o Core items: Relate to general sanitation. Ex: keeping equipment in good repair. - Inspection frequency determined by: o Size and complexity of operation (larger places inspected more). o Inspection history (low scoring previous inspection places are inspected more). o At-risk populations inspected more. o Resources: how many inspectors may determine number of inspections. - Self-Inspections: o Benefits: Safer food. Improved food quality. Cleaner environment for staff and customers. Higher inspection scores. o Guidelines: Use the same type of checklist as inspectors use. Identify all risks to food safety. After inspection, meet with all staff to review problems. - Voluntary Controls within the Industry: o Results for food safety: Increased understanding of foodborne illnesses and its prevention. Improvements in safe design of equipment and facilities. Initiatives to maintain safe food. Efforts to make more practical, uniform, and science based foodservice laws. - Steps in the Inspection Process: o Identification: always ask for it when inspector comes in. o Cooperation: answer all questions. o Notes: note any problems pointed out. o Professionalism: be polite and friendly. o Records: Be prepared to provide: Purchasing records. PCO treatment plan. Proof of safety knowledge (certificate). HACCP records. o Corrective Actions when Violating a Rule: Action: Priority items: correct within 72 hours. Priority Foundation items: correct within 10 days. Closure: Hazards calling for closure: Chapter 14 Notes o Lack of refrigeration. o Sewage backup. o Emergency (building fire or flood). o Infestation. o Interruption of water or electricity. o Evidence of foodborne illness outbreak. Chapter 13 Notes Integrated Pest Management - Develop an Integrated Pest Management Program (IPM) o Infestation: pests entering a facility in large numbers. o Work with a licensed Pest Control Operator (PCO) o IPM has 3 Basic Rules: Deny pests access to the operation. Deny pests food and shelter. Work with licensed PCO when pests do enter. o Pests can enter with deliveries or openings in the building. How to keep pests out of deliveries: Approved, reputable suppliers. Check deliveries. Refuse shipments that have signs of pests. Denying access through doors, windows, and vents: 16 mesh per square inch screens. Self-closing devices and door sweeps. Air curtains: blow air across entrances. Tightly close exterior openings. Control access through pipes: Concrete: use concrete or sheet metal to fill holes around pipes. Screens over ventilation pipes. Grates: cover drains with grates. Floors and Walls: Seal all cracks and places where equipment is fitted to floor. o Methods for denying pests food and shelter: Remove garbage quickly and correctly. Store recycling in clean, pest proof containers. Keep food away from walls and 6 inches off of floor. Rotate items so pests cannot settle in them and breed. Clean (spills, bathrooms, lockers and break areas, store cleaning supplies on hooks, empty water buckets). Clean grounds and outdoor areas (mow, cover garbage, and remove food and dishes from tables, clean spills, and electronic zappers, call PCO about nests and hives, no feeding wildlife). o Identifying pests: Flies Cockroaches: Behind freezers, coolers, stoves, sinks and drains, in equipment, under shelf liners and wallpapers, under rubber mats, in delivery bags and boxes, behind unsealed coving. Chapter 13 Notes Signs: strong, oily odor, feces like black pepper, brown, dark red, black capsule sized eggs, leathery, smooth, or shiny in appearance. Rodents: can jump, climb, and avoid poison and traps. Signs: o Gnawing, droppings and urine stains, tracks, nesting material, holes. o Using and Storing Pesticides: Timing: only use when closed or when staff is not on site. Preparation: cover and remove food prep surfaces before applying. Post-applications: wash, rinse, and sanitize food prep areas. MSDS: must be present with use. Storage: stored by PCO, keep in original containers, store in secure location away from food and prep areas. Disposal: disposed of by PCO. Empty container disposal must be disposed of following manufacturer’s instructions. o Working with Pest Control Operators (PCOs) PCOs will: Develop pest management program. Stay current on new equipment and products. Provide prompt service to problems. Keep track of steps taken to control and prevent pests. How to choose a PCO: Make sure they are licensed. Provide in a contract: o Description of services to be provided. o Period of service. o Duties before and after treatment. Records to be kept by PCO: o Pests sighted and trapped. o Building and maintenance problems noted and fixed. o Facility maps with traps and problem spots. o Schedule for checking traps and reapplying chemicals. o Written summary reports. Treatment: o Prepare staff to answer PCO’s questions. o Building layout and plans. o Trouble spots. After initial inspection, PCO should write a treatment plan including: o What treatments will be used and their risks. o Date and time of each treatment (staff cannot be on site). o Steps to take to control pests. Chapter 13 Notes o Building defects creating problems to control methods. o Timing of follow up visits. Chapter 11 Notes Designing a Safe Operation - Construction Plan Review: o Must submit plans to regulatory authority. o Check with local building department. - Layout: o Work flow: Minimize time spent in temperature danger zone. Minimize number of times food is handled. Minimize cross-contamination. Make sure equipment is accessible for cleaning. - Materials for Interior Construction: o Sound absorbent and grease/moisture resistant surfaces that reflect light. - Flooring: o Smooth, durable, nonabsorbent, easy to clean, prevent slips. Porosity: extent to which a material can absorb liquid. Avoid high-porosity. o Nonporous, Resilient Flooring: Resiliency: material can react to shock without breaking. Rubber tile: kitchen and restroom. Vinyl sheet: offices, kitchens, corridors. Vinyl tile: offices, staff restrooms. o Hard-surface flooring: Marble; terrazzo: public restrooms, dining rooms, public corridors. Quarry tile: kitchen, service, dishwashing, receiving, offices, restrooms, dining rooms. Wood: offices, dining rooms. o Carpeting Most common in dining rooms, absorbs sound. o Special Flooring Needs: Nonstick surfaces such as rubber mats may be used but must be picked uo and cleaned separately. Coving: a curved, sealed edge placed between floor and wall to help with pest control, moisture control, and cleaning. Used on resilient or hard-surface flooring. - Finishes for Interior Walls and Ceilings o Light in color, smooth, nonabsorbent, durable, easy to clean. Stainless steel and ceramic tile: cooking areas, make sure to check grouting. Acoustic tile, painted drywall, painted plaster, exposed concrete (ceiling). o Studs, joists, and rafters should not be showing. o Plaster or cinder block walls must be sealed and are good for dry areas. - Considerations for other areas of the facility: o Dry Storage: Chapter 11 Notes Corrosion resistant metal or food grade plastic for shelving, tabletops, and bins. Windows should have frosted glass or shades. Pipes or hot water heaters should not be in the same areas. Cracks and crevices should be filled to prevent pests. Self-closing doors to exterior. 16 mesh screens without any tears or holes. - Handwashing Stations o Required in or next to restrooms, food service, prep, and dishwashing areas. o Cannot be blocked or stacked full with dirty kitchenware. o Must include: Hot and cold running water. Soap. A way to dry hands. Garbage container. Signage: telling staff that they must wash hands. - Sinks o Used for designated purpose. o At least one sink or curbed drain for dirty water must exist. o Restrooms: - Restrooms: o Separate for staff and customers. o If not possible, make sure patrons do not have to pass through prep areas to get to it. o Self-closing doors. - Dressing Rooms and Lockers: o Not required. o Only used for dressing. - Premises: o Grade parking lot and paths so standing water doesn’t form. Concrete and asphalt recommended. Gravel is acceptable but not recommended. Equipment Selection - Equipment Standards: o Created by NSF. Requires equipment to be nonabsorbent, smooth, corrosion resistant, easy to clean, durable, resistant to damage. Only use commercial equipment. o Dishwashing Machines: Single-tank, stationary-rack machine, with doors. Detergent and water from below and sometimes above the rack. Followed by hot- water or chemical rinse. Conveyor Machine: Conveyor moves dishes through various wash cycles. Carousel or circular-conveyor machine. Chapter 11 Notes Flight type: peg-type conveyor with possible built-in dryer. Batch-type, dump: stationary rack, combines wash and rinse cycles, timed cycles. Automatically dispenses detergent and sanitizer in hot water. Wash and rinse water drained after each cycle. Recirculating, door-type, non-dump machine: stationary rack, washed water diluted with fresh and reused. o Dishwasher Selection and Installment Guidelines: Installation: conveniently located, 6 inches off of floor, avoid contamination, follow manufacturer’s instructions. Plumbing: pipes should be as short as possible to reduce loss of heat. Chemicals: approved by regulatory authority. Settings must include: Water temperature. Water pressure. Cleaning and sanitizing chemical concentration. o Three-compartment sinks: Manual cleaning and sanitizing. Allows for cleaning of large equipment. o Coolers and Freezers: Walk in vs. Reach in. Doors must close with a slight nudge. Drain must be provided. Minimize excess condensation through gasket under the door. o Considerations When Purchasing Coolers or Freezers: Installation: sealed to the floor and wall, no access to moisture or rodents. Reach-ins: legs that raise 6 inches off of the floor. Otherwise, mount and seal on masonry base. o Also possibly consider castor wheels. Temperature: accurate within +/- 3F 0r 1.5C. Built in thermometers, easy to locate and read. o Blast Chillers and Tumble Chillers: cool food quickly. o Cook-chill equipment: food is partially cooked, rapidly chilled, and held in refrigerated storage. When needed, food is simply reheated. o Cutting Boards: Wooden or synthetic. Nonabsorbent hardwood, free of cracks and seams. Installing and Maintaining Kitchen Equipment o Easy to clean and easy to clean around. - Installing Kitchen Equipment: o Follow manufacturer’s directions. o Check with regulatory agency. Chapter 11 Notes o Floor mounted equipment: 6 inch legs or masonry bae. o Tabletop equipment: 4 inch legs or sealed to countertop. - Maintaining Equipment: o Maintenance schedule with manufacturer. Utilities: - Water Supply: o Water standards are established by local regulatory agency. Only drinkable water can be used. May come from: Approved public water mains. Private water sources that are regularly tested and maintained. o Tested at least every year. o Report kept on file. Closed, portable water containers. Water transport vehicles. - Hot Water: o Booster-heater: used to maintain water temperature. - Plumbing: o Cross-Connections: physical link between safe and dirty water. Can possibly let backflow occur. Backflow: reverse flow of contaminants into drinkable water supply. Backflow Prevention: o Avoid creating a cross-connection. o Do not attach hose without vacuum breaker. o Create an air gap: air space that separates water supply outlet from potentially contaminated areas. o Grease Condensation and Leaking Pipes: Use grease traps to prevent backup in pipes. Check overhead sprinkler pipes for leaking regularly. o Sewage: fix backups and thoroughly clean area. Stop service if there is a significant risk to food safety and contact local regulatory authority. Adequate drainage to prevent floors from flooding. o Lighting: Measured in foot-candles or lux. Prep areas should be brighter than others. Prep areas: 50 foot-candles (540 lux). Handwashing/dishwashing, buffets/salad bars, displays for produce or packaged food, utensil storage areas, wait stations, restrooms, inside some equipment (ex: reach-in refrigerators). Chapter 11 Notes 20 foot-candles (215 lux). Inside walk-in coolers and freezing units, dry-storage areas, dining rooms (for cleaning): 10 foot-candles (108 lux). Also: Maintain bulbs, shatter resistant lightbulbs or protective covers. o Ventilation: Removes heat, steam, smoke, fumes and odors. Clean and maintain to avoid grease/condensation build-up. Must be used in cooking, frying, and grilling areas. o Garbage: Garbage removal: Remove from prep areas quickly. Cleaning of Containers: Indoor Containers: Leak proof, waterproof, pest proof, easy to clean. Designated Storage Areas Outdoor containers: Place on smooth, durable, nonabsorbent surface. Tight fitting lids. Drain plugs in place. Chapter 15 Notes Staff Food Safety Training Critical Food Safety Knowledge for Staff - Good personal hygiene: o How and when to wash hands o Where to wash hands o Other hand-care guidelines (fingernails, polish, wounds). o Proper work attire o Reporting illness - Controlling time and temperature o TCS food o How to measure temp. o Holding and storing TCS o How to label o Temperature requirements for thawing, cooking, cooling, reheating. - Preventing Cross-contamination: o During storage, prep, and service. o Storing utensils and equipment o What to do if it happens o What to do in case of allergies - Cleaning and Sanitizing: o How and when o How to use 3 component sink and dishwasher o How to handle cleaning tools o Handling garbage o Spotting pests Ways to train staff: - On-the-job training (OJT): use trainer on site - Classroom training: o Information search: discover food safety info for themselves Operations manuals Job aids Posters Staff guides Share what they learned. o Guided discussion: ask questions and discuss. o Games: Easy to play Fun Suitable for all time frames Easy to bring to site Easy to change for audience and content o Role-play: Script showing how to perform skill Rehearse Act out Ask audience what they did right and wrong Chapter 15 Notes o Demonstrations Tell Show Practice o Jigsaw design Group learns specific topic. Form new groups and have members from other previous groups teach new groups. o Training Videos and DVD’s 10% what they read 20% what they hear 30% what they see 50% what they see and hear o Technology-based training: Online learning Most effective: Too costly to bring staff to same place Staff work at different locations and times Retraining Different learning skills Different levels of knowledge Learn at their own pace Collecting info (test scores, time spent, problem areas). How to ensure all staff are trained upon and after hiring: - Training need: gap between what staff know and what they need to know. - Critical food safety knowledge - Retraining - Record keeping: keep records of training, document upon completion Chapter 1 Book Notes Foodborne illness: a disease transmitted to people by food. Foodborne illness outbreak: two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food. - Requires investigation by a regulatory authority and confirmation by a lab. Challenges to food Safety: 1. Time: trying to work too quickly can make it easy to skip safety steps. 2. Language and culture: workers’ different languages can create communication barriers in teaching food safety. 3. Literacy and Education: less educated employees might have a harder time learning food safety steps. 4. Pathogens: Illness- causing pathogens are becoming more prominent in food. 1. Ex. Salmonella 5. Unapproved suppliers: supplier who doesn’t practice food safety. 6. High risk populations: populations more susceptible to food borne illnesses are growing. 1. Preschool-age children: little immune system development 2. Elderly: less stomach-acid to digest pathogens 3. People with compromised immune systems i. Ex: cancer patients, HIV, patients taking certain medications, bone-marrow transplants. 7. Staff turnover: hiring new workers makes it hard to train all the people. Cost of foodborne illnesses: - Loss of customers and sales - Loss of reputation - Negative media exposure - Lowered staff morale - Lawsuits and legal fees - Staff missing work - Increased insurance premiums - Staff retraining How Foodborne illnesses occur: - Contaminants: presence of a harmful substance in food. o Biological: Pathogens: viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria. Some foods naturally carry these unsafe pathogens. Responsible for most foodborne illnesses. o Chemical: Cleaners, sanitizers, and polishes. When cleaning, these things can get into food. o Physical: Natural occurring or foreign objects Ex: fish bones, metal shavings, glass, etc. Chapter 1 Book Notes - Food-handling mistakes: o Purchasing from unsafe sources o Failing to cook food correctly o Holding food at incorrect temperatures o Using contaminated equipment o Poor personal hygiene How food becomes unsafe: 1. Time-temperature abuse: when food has stayed at temperatures for too long that are good for the growth of pathogens. i. Can happen in many ways 1. Food not stored at correct temp 2. Not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens 3. Not cooled correctly 2. Cross-contamination: pathogens transferred from one food or surface to another. i. Contaminated food added to a meal that doesn’t get further cooking ii. Ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces iii. Contaminated food drips fluid onto clean food iv. Chef touches contaminated food then ready to eat food v. Contaminated wiping cloths touch food 3. Poor personal hygiene i. Fail to wash hands after restroom ii. Coughing or sneezing iii. Touch wounds then food iv. Work while sick 4. Poor cleaning an sanitation i. Utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized. ii. Food-contact surfaces wiped clean instead of sanitized iii. Wiping cloths not stored in sanitizer between uses iv. Sanitizing solutions are not at required levels. TCS Food (time and temperature control for safety): - Milk and dairy - Meat - Fish - Baked potatoes - Tofu or soy - Synthetic ingredients - Sliced melons, tomatoes, leafy greens - Eggs - Shellfish - Cooked rice, beans, vegetables - Sprouts - Garlic and oil Key Practices for Insuring Food Safety: - Purchasing from approved suppliers Chapter 1 Book Notes - Controlling time and temp - Preventing cross-contamination - Personal hygiene - Cleaning and sanitizing Food Safety Responsibilities as a Manager (Regulated and mandated by the FDA) - Food not prepared in a private home - Only food handlers are allowed in cooking area - Delivery and maintenance workers follow food safety practices - Staff handwashing is monitored - Monitored deliveries during and after hours. o Make sure: From correct supplier At the correct temperature Correct location Protected from contamination Accurately presented. - Check temps of TCS food and monitor food preparers. - Make sure TCS food is being cooled rapidly. - Posted customer advisories about raw or uncooked food. - Monitor cleaning and sanitizing o Correct concentration and temp. - Customers notified that they must use clean dishes in self-serve areas. - Staff handles ready to eat food with gloves or utensils. - Staff are allergy and food safety trained. - Staff reporting illnesses. - Food safety procedures are posted. Marketing food safety: - Display your commitment to food safety by: o Offering training courses o Discuss expectations o Award certificates for good food safety o Set an example by following procedures yourself. Chapter 2 Notes Microorganisms: small, living organisms that can only be seen through a microscope. - Pathogens: microorganisms that are harmful and can cause illness. o Viruses o Bacteria o Parasites o Fungi o Passed very easily from: Person to person Sneezing or vomiting on food Touching dirty surfaces then food. - Toxins: poisons produced by pathogens. Fecal-oral route of contamination: bathroom substances are not washed off of hands, and make a consumer sick when eating the contaminated food. Symptoms of a Foodborne Illness: - Diarrhea - Vomiting - Fever - Nausea - Abdominal cramps - Jaundice - Occurrence of symptoms can range from 30 minutes to 6 weeks. The Big 6 - Pathogens that can cause sever illnesses and are contagious. o Shigella spp. o Salmonella Typhi o Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) o Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) also known as E.coli o Hepatitis A o Norovirus Bacteria: single-celled, living organisms. - Found almost everywhere. - Cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted. - Some produce toxins that cooking may or may not destroy. - To prevent: control time and temperature. What bacteria need to grow (FAT TOM) 1. Food 2. Acidity (pH of 7.5 to 4.5) (neutral to slightly acidic) 3. Temperature (41 degrees F-135 degrees F) Temperature Danger Zone a. Grows most rapidly from 70-125 degrees F 4. Time 5. Oxygen (some need it, some need a lack of it) 6. Moisture (high levels) Chapter 2 Notes a. Water activity (a ): range between 0.0-1.0, the higher the more w bacteria grows. Bacterial Growth (4 stages) 1. Lag: number is stable as they prepare to grow. a. Prolong lag phase by controlling time, temperature, oxygen, moisture, and pH. 2. Log: bacteria reproduces by splitting in two. 3. Stationary: growth and death of bacteria at the same rate. 4. Death: dying bacteria outnumbers growing bacteria. Spores: to keep from dying, bacteria turn into spores, commonly found in dirt which can contaminate meat and animals that touch the dirt. - Resist heat and survive, also can change into a growing form. o To control, store food at correct temperature and cool food correctly. Know chart in book, bacteria, what bacteria is in certain foods, and the symptoms with them. 1. Bacillus Cereus: a. Found in: meat, produce, rice/grains, and milk/ dairy. b. Illness: Bacillus cerueus gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting. c. Prevention: control time and temp. heating, cooling, and holding. 2. Listeria monocytogenes: a. Found in: meat, ready-to-eat foods, and milk/dairy. b. Illness: Listeriosis. i. Symptoms: no symptoms except miscarriages in pregnant women. c. Prevention: controlling time and temp., cooking, preventing cross-contamination. 3. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli: a. Found in: meat and produce. b. Illness: Hemorrhagic Colitis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps. c. Prevention: cooking, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers, preventing cross-contamination. 4. Clostridium Perfringens: a. Found in: poultry and meat. b. Illness: Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea and abdominal cramps. c. Prevention: time and temp. control reheating, cooling, and holding. 5. Clostridium Botulinum: a. Found in: produce b. Illness: Botulism. i. Symptoms: nausea and vomiting. c. Prevention measures: control time and temp. when holding, cooling, and reheating. Chapter 2 Notes 6. Campylobacter jejuni: a. Found in: poultry, meat, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Campylobacteriosis. i. Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, vomiting, fever, and headache. c. Prevention: cooking and preventing cross-contamination. 7. Nontyphoidal salmonella: a. Found in: poultry, eggs, produce, and milk/dairy products. b. Illness: Salmonellosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramps, vomiting, and fever. c. Prevention: cooking, excluding food handlers, preventing cross- contamination. 8. Salmonella Typhi: a. Found in: ready-to-eat foods and contaminated water. b. Illness: Typhoid fever. i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, fever, and headache. c. Prevention: handwashing, cooking, excluding food handlers. 9. Shigella spp.: a. Found in: ready-to-eat food, produce, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Shigellosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, and fever. c. Prevention: handwashing and excluding food handlers. 10.Staphylococus aureus: a. Found in: ready-to-eat food. b. Illness: Staphylococcal gastroenteritis i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, and vomiting. c. Prevention: handwashing, holding, cooling, and re-heating. 11.Vibro vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a. Found in: shellfish and contaminated water. b. Illness: Vibrio gastroenteritis and Vibrio vulnificus primary septicemia. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, vomiting, and fever. c. Prevention: cooking, approved suppliers. Viruses: smallest of the microbial food contaminants - Carried by humans and animals. - Typically transferred through fecal-oral route. o Norovirus: transferred through airborne vomit particles. - Usually transferred to food from a sick worker. - Prevention by good personal hygiene and not working when sick. Major Foodborne Viruses - Norovirus - Hepatitis A Know chart in book about viruses. Chapter 2 Notes 1. Hepatitis A: a. Found in: shellfish, ready-to-eat food, and contaminated water. b. Illness: Hepatitis A i. Symptoms: abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 2. Norovirus: a. Found in: shellfish, ready-to-eat food, contaminated water. b. Illness: Norovirus gastroenteritis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramping, nausea, vomiting. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved food suppliers, excluding food handlers. Parasites - Cannot grow in food, require a host. - Seafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water. - Prevent by purchasing food from a reputable supplier and that raw fish has been correctly frozen. Know chart in book about parasites. 1. Anisakis simplex: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Anisakiasis. i. Symptoms: tingling in throat, coughing up worms. c. Prevention: Cooking and approved suppliers. 2. Cryptosporidium parvum: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Cryptosporidiosis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea. c. Prevention: handling, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 3. Giardia duodenalis: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Giardiasis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. 4. Cyclospora cayetanensis: a. Found in: produce and contaminated water. b. Illness: Cyclosporiasis. i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, nausea, fever. c. Prevention: handwashing, approved suppliers, excluding food handlers. Fungi: pathogens that sometimes make people sick, more often just spoil food. - Ex: Mold and yeast. - Mold: o Spoil food and sometimes cause illness. Chapter 2 Notes o Some produce toxins (such as aflatoxins) o Grows almost anywhere but best in acidic food with low water activity. o Cooler or freezer may slow growth. o Throw out moldy food. On cheese, cut off mold at least 1 inch around affected area. - Yeast: o Causes smell or taste of alcohol, bubbly white or pink discoloration. o Grows well in acidic food with low moisture. o Throw out yeast infected food. Biological Toxins - Seafood toxins: cannot be smelled or tasted, cannot be destroyed once they form. o Fish toxins: Systemic toxins: toxins that are a natural part of fish Can also be contaminated when they eat other fish with a toxin. o Shellfish toxins: Can be contaminated when they eat algae that have a toxin. Know chart in book about seafood toxins: 1. Histamine: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Scombroid poisoning. i. Symptoms: vomiting, headache, neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: holding at corrects temp. and approved suppliers. 2. Ciguatoxin: a. Found in: fish. b. Illness: Ciguatera fish poisoning. i. Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 3. Saxitoxin: a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 4. Brevetoxin: a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. 5. Domoic Acid a. Found in: shellfish. b. Illness: Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) i. Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps, vomiting, and neurological symptoms. c. Prevention: approved suppliers. Chapter 2 Notes Chapter 4 Notes Personal Hygiene and Contamination - As a manager you can: o Establish hygiene policies. o Train food handlers on these policies. o Model correct behavior. o Supervising food safety practices. o Revising policies according to changes in law and science. How Food Handlers Can Contaminate Food - Having a foodborne illness. - Symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice. - Wounds that contain a pathogen. - Sneezing or coughing. - Contact with a person who is sick. - Unwashed hands after touching a contaminant. - Not washing hands after using the restroom. - Touching the eyes, nose, skin etc. then touching food. Carriers: people who carry pathogens that infect others without being sick themselves. - Ex: staphylococcus aureus. Diseases Not Transmitted through Food - Laws concerning staff with HIV o ADA says people cannot be fired or not hired because of having AIDS. o Maintain confidentiality if staff has a non-foodborne illness. A Good Personal Hygiene Program - Handwashing/hand care o Proper sink, not food prep or dishwashing. o 100 degrees F o Wet hands and arms o Apply soap o Scrub o Rinse o Dry o
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