Test 4 notes bundle
Test 4 notes bundle PSYCH 201
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Lane Chloe on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Sexual orientation – preference for individuals of the same, other, or either sex There’s a continuum; only 5% of people are strictly gay Why are people homosexual 1) Psychoanalytic – Freudian; due to a weak father figure and an overprotective mother; wrong 2) Behaviorism – pairing; sees same gender while simultaneously getting aroused conditions homosexual feelings; wrong, but correct for fetishes 3) Biological – yes; major cause of homosexuality is biological; 75 – 90% of highly feminine young boys eventually turn out to be gay; strongest predictor; a. Correlation does not equal causation b. Genetic – if one male identical twin is gay, there is a 52% chance the other will be too; for fraternal twins, 22%; for adopted, 11% c. Brain – i. Hypothalamus – cluster cells are twice as large in heterosexual men as gays and women ii. Sweat – both women and gays are aroused by the smell of male sweat; straight men were not iii. Anterior commissure – 1/3 larger in gays than heterosexuals iv. EEG mental rotation – men tend to be better at spatial relations than women; gay men tend to be more like women in this department; d. Hormonal – very little difference hormonally between gay and straight men; however, prenatal hormone differences are present; i. Men with older brothers are more likely to be gay, even if they get adopted and are the oldest sibling in their foster family ii. Finger prints – fingerprints of gays are closer to women than straight men iii. Ring finger – a long ring finger is due to increased exposure to testosterone; so lesbians tend to have longer ring fingers than lesbians e. Cochlea – the cochlea develops differently in men than women; lesbians tend to have more manly cochlea Plasticity – how easily one is shaped by sociocultural influences; women have higher plasticity; for this reason, women are more likely to become gay in adulthood; men figure it out pretty early since men are more physiological and primal in their sexuality; There is likely some sociocultural influences in homosexuality. Emotion – complex evaluative feeling, which includes physiological arousal (no, not sexual arousal) 1) Cognitive – complex and evaluative 2) Physiological – bodily arousal (not sexual, mind you) a. Amygdala 3) Behavioral – facial expressions, etc. a. Facial feedback hypothesis – facial muscles send messages to the brain about emotion and your brain listens i. Smiling can make one happier; ii. People with Botox tend to be happier b. A real smile tends to last for around 2s; fake ones tend to last around 10s. c. 7 basic innate behaviors that are universal i. Joy – smiling is a human universal Poor predictors of happiness 1) Money – after $75k, happiness begins to level (it increases at a slower rate in correlation to monetary possessions) The impoverished tend to derive happiness from money Hedonic adaptation is the reason it’s a poor predictor; you get used to having plenty of money; neutral point Hedonic treadmill – neutral point keeps moving up. The evasive “if only I had” feeling 2) Age 3) Gender 4) IQ – “Ignorance is bliss” 5) Attractiveness Good predictors of happiness 1) Social relationships – single greatest cause of happiness; Married people tend to be happier (as long as the marriage is at least ok) 2) Work – people need to work 3) Optimism 4) Health – only moderately an indicator 5) Religion 6) Not being a parent – on an objective level, children make a parent less happy, though it does give them meaning a joy on a deeper level. The happiest time is being a married couple with no kids Happiness can prolong life Most people are happy – lake woebegone effect: if you ask people, many will say they are above average 50% of happiness is genetic, circumstances are 10% intentional activity is 40%. How to be happier 1) Make friends and see them! As Trent Reznor says in Closer, isolation brings hate 2) Optimism 3) Give thanks 4) Think of good things that happened to you 5) Help others - “It’s better to give than to receive” VIE Motivation theory 1) Expectancy – knowing you can do it 2) Instrumentality – does it benefit you 3) Valence – what it’s worth to you Social psych How affect, behavior and cognition is influenced by others Attribution – causal explanation we give for behavior of ourselves and others 1) Internal vs external factors Automatic response is internal; forced response is external People are cognitively lazy: Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) Others’ behavior – attribute too much to internal cause Self-serving bias – successes: internal, failures: external Internal stable – effort Internal unstable – ability External stable – task difficulty External unstable – luck Attitude – positive or negative evaluations toward an object or issue 1) Affect – I hate to eat … 2) Behavior – I refuse to eat… 3) Cause – It causes obesity Dimensions – a. Strength – how strong the attitude b. Accessibility – how quickly it comes to mind c. Ambivalence – both positive and negative feelings A-B problems – attitude doesn’t always match behavior 1) Failure to take all dimensions into account 2) Attitudes are managed in an overly general manner; behaviors used to measure them are often too specific 3) Situational constraints Good Samaritan experiment Performed once with seminary students. 2 conditions: high hurry, low hurry. Had a planted person slumped in doorway that required medical attention. The high hurry people tended to go right past him. Confederate – someone secretly in on the experiment Affect – prejudice (negative feeling) Behavior – discrimination (behavior based on group rather than individual) Cognition – stereotype (widely held belief based on group rather than individual) Representativeness – judge likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles a typical case Gambler’s fallacy – independent events are affected by previous events and “even out” in short term. Attitude formation and change Festinger – infiltrated a doomsday cult; found that when the world didn’t end when they said it would, people became even more involved in the cult 1) Cognitive dissonance – psychological discomfort caused by an inconsistency between A and B a. Motivates people to change either their attitude, behavior, or perception of the inconsistency b. Effort justification – after working hard and making sacrifices, we try to convince ourselves that it was worthwhile 2) Learning theory – (see Ch. 6) 3) Elaboration likelihood model – 2 routes to persuasion a. Central – logic and message content; i. Requires motivation and ability; tends to be more enduring though b. Peripheral – emotion and non-message content; i. The reason America will never have a good president ever again Conformity – going along with the crowd; Asch – line study Showed people a line and a card with three lines and ask which line matched; people would often pick the one they saw everyone else pick 2 determinants: 1) Unanimity 2) Group size 2 types of conformity 1) Normative influence – going along with the crowd to be liked and accepted 2) Informational influence – going along with the crowd because you think they know more than you; Obedience – following direct commands from an authority figure Milgran – did his experiments after WWII. People will often follow orders Ch. 12 p.420, 422 Human sexual response – p.312-5 p.427-8 p.433 bottom critical thinking ch 12
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