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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashlyn Peach on Monday September 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL2013 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Timothy Kral in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Wednesday September 2 2015 Microbiology Chapter 1 History of Microbiology 1 Scientific Method 1 Observe some aspect of the universe 2 Come up with a tentative description called a hypothesis with the observation Use the hypothesis to make predictions 3 Test those predictions by experimentation or further observations and modify the hypothesis in light of the results 4 When consistency is obtained between hypothesis and experiment observations the hypothesis becomes a theory A theory is a framework within which observations are explained and predictions are made 5 Law 2 Ockham s Razor William of Ockam 14th century The simplest theory is probably the correct one 3 What is microbiology the study of organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye A Microbes in Our Lives Microorganisms are organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye Microbes include bacteria fungi protozoa microscopic algae and vkuses A few are pathogenic disease producing Decompose organic waste Generate oxygen by photosynthesis Produce chemical products such as ethanol acetone and vitamins Produce fermented foods such as vinegar cheese and bread Produce products used in manufacturing eg cellulase and disease treatment eg insulin Knowledge of microorganisms aow humans to prevent food spoilage prevent disease and understand causes and transmission of disease to prevent epidemics Wednesday September 2 2015 B What are the branches of Microbiology bacteriology study of bacteria mycology study of fungi agoogy study of algae protozoology study of protozoans virology study of viruses protozoa helminths arthropods 4 History of Microbiology when did the science of microbiology begin A Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth B The first microbes were observed in 1673 Wednesday September 2 2015 lnmIxm of Mothmist Rm Ipm and In hmquv Inn uh Ml v li ilavvmr 4uvu Inwmnr 1041nl whim ran1mmmt un tV l39n v39v nn 39 aolul viquot n nl u muralu l tiuyhu w lubvi x HIr w 391II0 4l39bt 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alumnaluau J quotquot quota d rhr u U W V K wrI 1 Aquot MVur I mu1 rN km 1 m 11quot arch 2006 N1 wa v quotI quot gt quot1 quot 39 w 39 m 3 n w g y qu l 17 anquot r nrnv39vvl 39r w u39 4 w Ohmu I 4 LI 1 A x 1 r 988 93 2001 u quotquotquotquotquot quot Wm m Maw hullhull i 3939 y l to Draw u39 quot H39 quoth 39 W 39 39139 quot 0 m mm 439quot ti 3939Vquot IL A r1 r u v 39 wn39If p39 K Hurvdw r01 r 1 539 39r quotrquot V 89 IA pun tu39hfvor quotrmquot f hutum he K quotVquot 1 u nut4 IA 139 a r Kr v vvv r n n kuw A r ura r bu rd quot 1quot T r Jim run x m mLu Kn at J whiff u m quotv m 0 1 n n r a uid In 1990 no z u P J MNO quot394 quot 39 quot nuunion unw M I39quotI n A Aw N x I 39wlen39i39lu a v qu i u umquot In 394 quotquot 99 0 wa my mum quot 39quot39 quotquot hennanoun I u i u wan um hquot rquot quot39 39f FA 39 391 W TWM 1 MMN mMIuouu amn A war 0quot quotL W 7 39 quot 39 39 1 nu ma wa a r n 1rf 1 mm M M Iluldhutl u a m u quot91 I m 39 39 M Ml tub 4r is pfaj39lv v M Tu 1 n a W39 L39 quot 1quot quotFC39WW N uncutum quot 39u 39 r F w V H II than I r39mr nunu w r I at w hank0n n 2002 w quothfmr murmur mumuczv um1 vsHI m Vquot ammo AI a warr no a1v u r 4 Mv w m w quotquot 39 man u w 39nr 39JH II a 1902 numu 1 396 1 A u no u w 39 IA39NALHr 39i fquot In munu 01 mm m 1 I39l up 1 IANwar u t J quot93 u39 quothe Vivvcu39dv hno lmO o trll I quoth u 1 1ro39A quart mm 2 W 1quot Innn rt 00 IA H 39139 39 Lr 1 n flhquot IA 1 1 D an En m4 1 u u 4 IA 0 amtu a quotquot NW quot1quot Jim5 tutualum v 3 AM m mm L Wquot V 0 quart tr 43th a w hp C Father of Microbiology Louis Pasteur Debate over spontaneous generation Spontaneous generation the hypothesis that life arises from noniving matter a vital force is necessary for life Biogenesis the hypothesis that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells Controls Pasteur s experiment 1 Pour meat broth into flask watch 2 Pour meat broth into flask bend neck watch 3 Pour meat broth into flask boil watch D Fermentation and Pasteurization Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation Fermentation is the conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage of food Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it Wednesday September 2 2015 to vinegar acetic acid Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine Pasteurization is the application of a high heat for a short time first pasteurization of grape juice was in 1869 How was Pasteur lucky apparently no endospores in the meat broth 5 Koch s Postulates A The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease B The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture C The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy susceptible laboratory animal D The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the original organism 6 Exceptions to Koch s Postulates A Viruses many rickettsias Treponma pallidum syphilis and Mycobacferium Ieprae leprosy do not grow on artificial media B Humans as the only test host ethical issues ex HIV 7 The Germ theory of Disease A 1876 Robert Koch proved that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps Koch s postulates to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease B Vaccination 1796 Edward Jenner inoculated a person with cowpox virus who was then protected from smallpox vaccination is derived from vacca for cow the protection is called immunity C A Fortunate Accident Antibiotics 1928 Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic Fleming observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic penicilin that killed S aureus Classification of Microorganisms 1 Types of Microorganisms A Bacteria prokaryotes prenucleus Wednesday September 2 2015 singlecelled peptidoglycan cell walls divide via binary fission derive nutrition from organic or inorganic chemicals or photosynthesis B Archaea prokaryotes lack peptidoglycan cell walls often live in extreme environments Include methanogens extreme halophiles extreme thermophiles C Fungi eukaryotes distinct nucleus chitin cell walls absorb organic chemicals for energy yeasts are unicellular molds and mushrooms are multiceuar molds consist of masses of mycelia which are composed of filaments called hyphae D Protozoa E Algae F Viruses G Multicellular animal parasites 2 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic A Prokaryote comes from the Greek words for prenucleus B Eukaryote comes from the Greek words for true nucleus C Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells An Overview Prokaryote one circular chromosome not in a membrane no histones no organelles bacteria peptidoglycan cell walls archaea pseudomurein cell walls divides by binary fission Eukaryote paired chromosomes in nuclear membrane histones organelles Wednesday September 2 2015 polysaccharide cell wallswhen present divides by mitosis Naming and Classifying Microorganisms A Carlos Linnaeus established the system of scientific nomenclature B Each organism has two names the genus and specific epithet C Scientific Names are italicized or underlined genus capitalized the specific epithet is lowercase are Latinized and used worldwide may be descriptive or honor a scientist D Escherichia coli honors the discoverer Theodor Escherich describes the bacterium s habitat the large intestine or colon E Staphylococcus aureus describes the clustered staphylo spherical cocci cells describes the goldcolored aureus colonies F How big are cells Eukaryotes 10 100 uM Prokaryotes 02 2 uM Mycoplasma 02 uM Viruses 002 03 uM 20 300 nM G How much bigger is an average eukaryote average prokaryotic cell with respect to volume Assume each cell is cubs in shape and the eukaryote is 20 uM in one dimension and the prokaryote is 2 uM in one dimension Structure of Prokaryotic Cells A Shapes and Arrangements of Bacteria Basic Shapes bacillus rodshaped coccussphencaD spHal spirillum vibrio spirochete Arrangements dipole pairs Diplococci Diplobacilli staphylo clusters Staphylococci Wednesday September 2 2015 strepto chains Streptococci Streptobacilli Motility ability to move via flagella spirochetes have axial filaments which wrap around the cell causing it move in corkscrew manner Staining simple stains special stains capsule stain differential stains gram stain Oxygen Requirements aerobic requires presence of oxygen anaerobic requires absence of oxygen facultative can grow with or without oxygen but prefers oxygen microaerophilic prefers less oxygen than the levels found in the atmosphere B Structures that are not always present Inclusions usually for storage transportation energy production and defense Pilus pili sex pili are used for conjugation in certain species Fimbria fimbriae used for attachment Glycocalyx external to the cell wall viscous and gelatinous made of polysaccharide andor polypeptide two types capsule neatly organized amp firmly attached slime layer unorganized and loose contribute to virulence capsules prevent phagocytosis extracellular polymeric substance helps form biofilms Plasmid extrachromosomal genetic material always made of doublestranded DNA C Plasmids and conjugation Flagella 3 parts filament outermost region hook attaches to the filament basal body consists of rod and pairs of rings anchors flagellum to the cell wall and membrane many arrangements for flagella 5 Flagella movement A Cytoplasm guts of the cell Wednesday September 2 2015 B Nucleoid Bacterial Chromosome no nuclear membrane usually single usually circular usually haploid always made of doublestranded DNA Klebsiella genus pneumonine species C Ribosomes site of protein synthesis 708 in prokaryotes 808 in eukaryotes many antibiotics affect 7OS ribosome activity eg tetracycline erythromycin 4a Cell Wall contain peptidoglycan lipopolysaccharide LPS endotoxin polymer of a repeating disaccharide in rows Nacetyglucosamine NAG Nacetymuramic acid NAM rows are linked by polypeptides functions of the cell wall shape of the cell prevents osmotic lysis A GramPositive Cell Wall thick peptidoglycan teichoic acids B GramNegative Cell Wall thin peptidoglycan outer membrane periplasmic space C Gram Stain Christian Gram in 1884 see picture below for example Wednesday September 2 2015 Gram Gram positive 1 negative bacteria 4 bacteria Copyright 2008 Pearson Education Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings cell walls of grampositive bacteria contain teichonic acid 4b The Plasma Membrane Animation phospholipid bilayer peripheral proteins integral proteins transmembrane proteins A Fluid Mosaic Model membrane is as viscous as olive oil proteins move to function phospholipids rotate and move laterally B The Plasma Membrane selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Wednesday September 2 2015 enzymes for ATP production photosynthetic pigments on folding called chromatophores or thylakoids damage to the membrane by alcohols quaternary ammonium detergents and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents C Movement of Materials across Membranes simple diffusion movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration facilitated diffusion solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane active transport requires a transporter protein and ATP group translocation requires a transporter protein and PEP Endospores the most resistant forms of life D Resistance Factors high temperature toxic chemicals desiccation ABSOLUTE radiation low temperatures ABSOLUTE Seconddeadliest toxin diphtheria toxin E Organisms which produce endospores and their associated diseases 1 Bacillus aerobic Bacillus anthracis Anthrax Wool Sorter s disease 2 Clostridium anaerobic Clostridium botulinum botulism problem with food preservation canning toxin prevents contraction of muscles flaccid paralysis botox SIDS sudden infant death syndrome no honey children under 1 yr both are soil organisms can survive lack of water 3 Clostridium tetani tetanus endospores get into deep puncture wounds make puncture wounds bleed oxygen flushing toxin prevents relaxation of muscles lock jaw DPT vaccine 4 Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene organisms grows in tissues which have poor blood supply toxin kills cells Wednesday September 2 2015 necrosis death of tissue treatment oxygenation 5 Unique Bacterial Groups A Rickettsia obligate intracellular parasite transmitted to humans by vectors damage cardiovascular system and affect permeability of capillaries resulting in spotted rash B Chlamydia obligate intracellular parasite 1 sexually transmitted disease in US It can be asymptomatic in women causes trachoma most common infectious cause of blindness in the world C Mycobacteria acidfast organism cell walls contain mycelia acid a waxy substance that retains carbolfuchsin medically important genera Mycobacterium tuberculosis animation Mycobacterium Ieprae D Mycoplasmas smallest living cell no cell wall contain sterols in cell membrane cause walking pneumonia E Actinomycetes look like molds but their cells are prokaryotic they have filamentous growth and some produce asexual spores genus Streptomycin produces geosmin which gives soil it s fresh dirt smell streptomycin produce many of our antibiotics F Major Difference between Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria peptidoglycan in cell walls ester linkages in cell membrane lipids 11 Wednesday September 2 2015 Archaea no peptidoglycan in cell walls ether linkages in cell membrane lipids 6 Eukaryotic Microorganisms A Fungi mycology chemoheterotrophs decompose organic matter aerobic or facultative anaerobic 1Molds and fleshy fungi the fungal thallus body consists of hyphae filaments a mass of hyphae is a mycelium septate hyphae contain crosswalls coenocytic hyphae do not contain septa vegetative hyphae obtain nutrients while aerial hyphae are involved with reproduction 2 Vegetative structures yeasts non filamentous and unicellular budding yeasts divide unevenly fission yeasts divide evenly dimorphic fungi yeastlike at 37C and mold like at 250 3 Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually via the formation of spores that detach from the parent and germinate in a new mold 4 Differences in molds and yeasts mold many are multicellular aerobic yeasts singlecelled facultative anaerobes 5 Importance of fungi diseases many foods cheese bread beer wine antibiotics penicillin drugs LSD 6 Slime Molds moving blobs moves like protozoa forms spores like fungi important in the decay process B Protozoa classified based on motility structure pseudopodia amoeba flagella euglena cilia paramecium 1 2 types of cytoplasm ectoplasm endoplasm 2 Importance of protozoa food chain and diseases malaria amoebic dysentery malaria caused by Plasmodium P falciparum which is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical 12 Wednesday September 2 2015 areas It is estimated that every year approximately 1 million people are killed by P falciparum P vivax P ovale P malariae P knowlesi Malaria parasite was discovered in 1880 by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran french army surgeon who noticed a parasite in the blood of patient with malaria Clinical signs fever cough headache vomiting chills sweating anemia C Algae organisms that perform oxygenevolving photosynthesis and possess chloroplasts used to make agar few diseases like Paralytic shellfish poisoning associated with Red Tide 1 Kingdom Protista Nutritional type photoautothroph Multicellularity some Cellular arrangement unicellular colonial filamentous tissues Food Acquisition Method diffusion Characteristic features pigments 2 Algae to fuel Most valuable sustainable and renewable energy source In Spain sewage is being used to feed algae and produce fuel while cleaning up waste water 13
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