Selected Topics in Regional Cultures
Selected Topics in Regional Cultures
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 43 page Bundle was uploaded by Michelle Vaday on Thursday May 29, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at University of California - Los Angeles taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 152 views.
Reviews for Selected Topics in Regional Cultures
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/29/14
Anthro 179 52914 1 45 PM 4114 Classification of scholarly methods village studies interpretive and ethnosociology anti orientaIistdeconstructionistpostmodern historicist muti vocaIconstructionist Nipa has written 2 books on India Nipal says that India has no history he says it39s a victim of history From days of earliest kingdoms kings preform rituals Change has come from the communities Hindu concepts Dharma moral order Karma consequences of moral and immoral actions Danda royal power Bhkati devotion Moksha release from the world of salvation Indian Religious Leaders Sankara Ramanuja Gandhi Western Concept 4314 Hinduism is a product of a variety of forces during 17 century around 2000 BC These forces were political as well as religious and Hinduism by 7 AD had required basic and social forms Chiefs and warlords placed religion in areas Ariyan contribution to Hinduism was centered on open air sacrifices fire sun moon etc Perusha was dissembled in a sacrifice broken down into the different castes Brahman priest Kshatryia kings Vaishya merchants Shudra servants in contrast to Ariyan religion we know almost nothing to preAryiyan religion kings were the upholders of Dharma and protectors of their subjects kings were now settled rulers of agricultural domains with responsibilities of solving different conflicts period 2500500 BC regional kings were forbidden from preforming the sacrificial rights only the great Buddhist king preformed that right changed it to Maha Dana great right the Buddhist king is a world conqueror and a renouncer only the conqueror could perform the ritual and only he had the right to preform them Gupta dynasty in 4 century as it grew in power it elevated the same rituals had elaborate temples for their rituals Initially Buddhism entered the south with a migration of north Indian merchants Focus on the rivers Cagra river etc Old conflict with rise of Buddhist kingdoms gets replicated centuries later in the south of India Main centres of political control lay in the valleys The temple became focus of the varied system of social gradation The word karai was used to denote a share in a clan landholding the heirs of corporate controllers were known as the kaniyatchikarna and controers Warfare took place mostly on the plains and seems Tamilnad export raw materials and manufactured goods mostly cloth to Arabia and southeast Asia Valleys based on settled rice agriculture The pains animal husbandry and warfare 4814 ThemesOrganizing Concepts bands tribes states 0 describes an evolutionary sequence A difference in social and political organization A band typically under 100 people Tribes hundreds of thousands of people States millions of people Bands are typically very egaitarian don39t have a lot of political structures Tribes in contrast are very large and usually broken up of clans And a clan is made of up lineage Lineage is made up of households Some tribes have a hierarchical status structure There might be a king at head of the tribe and his lineage within that clan has a higher status and his household has the highest status Everyone in a tribe is related some closer to each other and some further away People have expectations towards some relatives Thinking of terms of relatives and relating to social institutions is what happens with tribes With states sometimes the kinship ideum remains The kings seem as the father or their lands Typically a state unlike a tribe monopolizes the legitimate use of force tribes amp castes O O O In india we have all types of groups of people We have kammas reddis Maravars and thousands more as well They are belonging to castes but what39s the difference between a caste and a tribe Theme of invading armies and merchants The big difference between tribes and castes if they live all by themselves in an area hydraulic civilization amp ecological zones caste castes castesism O in some cases we talk about castes as varna and in other cases we talk about castes as jati These castes are separated from each other by rules of endogamy You can only marry within your caste in your jati or varna Caste is an ideological category used to evaluate and understand relations between your group and another group of people A separated economically independent caste that keep the different caste groups apart You can have vaishas marrying brahmans you need to marry another vaishna But people don39t always follow the rules o How do you classify the child of a brahman who marries a ksatriya It depends whether the male has a higher status than the female or vice versa If a male has a higher status and they marry against the rules of endogamy it is called marriage within the hair and this is called analoma marriage If the women has the higher status than the man that39s against the hair and is called pratiloma marrigage o In the analoma marriage the child has the status of the lower ranked woman By contrast if 2 people engage in a pratiloma then their child will be in a much lower status group than both of them Casteism the racialization of castes This is a hybrid social formation that evolves over time British get control of 2339s of india and over the course of the 19 century the british take control and development and efficient structure Indian undergoes a huge transformation in India we are looking at long term trends barbarians maleccas Perusha myth Head brahmans Arms Ksatriiyas Groin Vaisyas Sudras feet If you are a king or merchant in the south Shannan 9 Nadar Words that end in signify more respect than endings in Q A nadar lord of a land Caste has many different forms In the end what really counts for status is power and money Varna and jati mean the same thing and what they mean is kind or category There are not just human varna and jati s there are also animal varna s and jati s 41014 Kinship as Politics 1 Reprise Political formations in economic perspective Reciprocity Redistribution market polony 2 Very handy way of thinking about was developed by a sociologist He talked about ancient economies In egalitiarian societies people give gifts to each other If you give a gift to someone they are obligated to give you a gift back If he doesn39t he is telling you he doesn39t want to be your friend Gift giving creates a relationship of people of equal status Dumont contributed by explaining alliance and hierarchy Marriage exchanges of women between male dominated descent groups predisposes an egalitarian society There is an anthropological idea where people engage in gift giving of goods service money or women What governs their relationship is reciprocity because they have equal status If they have superior status they can ask to get something and you don39t have to give it back When you have political hierarchy you have a king or chief then they can demand from you anything that you want The lower status men don39t get any women They can command verbal status praise They can also command that you give them your woman They collect this stuff and then they use the power of possession and authority to redistribute it to their subjects They collect taxes from their subjects and then will give it to temples or brahmans The king gives the gift and the Brahman conveys it to the god These are relatively small societies governed by face to face interaction Problems arise when people fight for a particular status Periods of political integrations Anthro typology 9 Egalitarian Tribes 9 conical tribes 9 Rational Bureucratic Sates they evolve at different times Ludder Tamil Polities 9 warriors 9 suttans 9 Coloniel Government Sangarm 9 Chola 9 Vijargnas 9 Coloniel Government 3 Apples and Oranges Kingship amp Kinship In the plains tribal organization The best documented case of kingship in the plains See how ideas of ritual rank and hierarchy structured them and said its hierarchical society and NOT egalitarian society 4 African molds in India 1 Segmentary State controversy in a given geographic area you have a bunch of little kingdoms And these are all segments of the overarching king Most authority was purely ritual These segments made up a kingdom As the population grows the kings send out armies into areas outside the valley to set up new towns 5 African molds in India 2 Segmentary lineage organization they are controlling these tribes or castes which are large kinship groups large groups of relatives Everyone in the tribes is related to someone else in the tribe You should only marry within your tribe it is endogenous Caste you MUST marry within the caste The caste can be quite large They are broken up into segments If you go into the plains areas instead of seeing 30 or 40 caste groups you will typically see 45 caste groups Much less economic production to support it In the village life the dominant caste owns all the land In valleys lots of caste groups You have the caste as a whole that39s the largest doll And inside the caste it is divided into clans and each clan divided into lineages Each lineage divided into sub lineages or households and this is an idealized model Each are regarded as a segment within a segmentary lineage organization In Dumont reading they are warlords they are dry plains they are all castes and each have castes and some have subcastes He is talking about the group of Kallar that become a dominant caste This is a very poor caste group It doesn39t have an elaborate social structure Pramalai Piranmalai Kallar Pudokottai Kallar 6 African molds in India 3 quasi kin groups kingship territory cult membership African molds in India 4 Decent is not enough hierarchy and marriage 4 different models from Africa that anthropologists have attempted to foist on india which dominant castes are from the valleys plains are in Congunad Think of native American tribes that belong in a particular area think of the dominant tribes in an area Economic interdependence cultural scale that gave them a status ranking This tribes would belong in a caste system In a given area with lots of tribes in one place one of those tribes will emerge as dominant will own the most land have largest population will have the most men at arms and everyone else who lives there has to accommodate these people There are a lot of variations from region to region Valleys the plains and the hills They are separated by availability of water and by altitude and difficultly of putting together a large population in mountains with not a lot of space to live In valleys amp plains you see many tribes living in the same area If they follow the doctrines of how you should live they are called caste groups there will always be one group that is dominant In the valleys vellalars are dominant Plains Maravars and kellars Kaveri river helps with the water supply has the biggest delta All the other rivers for most of the year are completely dry Kaveri has water flowing throughout the year In the river valleys the vellalars are the dominant caste they have developed a veaar brahman alliance In the plains and dry areas you get Maravars and Kellars and these are tamil castes that live in the dry areas Vigarnaga empire operates by sending Telluga warriors This environment is extrememly dry The major source of water is from the south east coast Vadinga include the Reddis and Kamas Only an emperor has the right to propose a special ritual which legitimized his rule as emperor The size of the gov t was getting larger because his control was minimal Overtime the apparatus of the government becomes more powerful and efficient 41514 Power in the valley is power over land and power in the plains is power over people Baker makes contrast between kinship and kingship apples amp oranges Gounder vellalars transit zone that armies traders could pass through on their way to the west coast or up north Control of the transit zone was important for the kings They had a hierarchical structure present Every relationship is defined in terms of how you39re related to that person and these obligations that you owe to these kinship reflect your position in a kingroup Tribe is divided up into 4 clans and each clan in turn is divided up into Hneages Look at the chart and it shows this represented in a different way There are brothers who will fight about who gets the fathers land etc Brother and cousin will come together and fight the other brother Kinship distance people in kinship family are those closest to you Dinka resides outside the tribe of the Nuer very warlike people Do Maravars use kinship the same way as Vellalars You would have to do a detailed study which hasn39t been done yet Professor looked at land castes Money is just a symbol for talking about social relationships The groups are not only structured about ideas on their relatives but how you can manipulate in your own favor or to help them out because you like them Structured about the land or territory which they live in also structured by membership of their cut which is a church All of these people are not just called relatives they are called pangali A pangali comes from the word pangu or share holder and the members of the groups on the chart are called pangi Everyone has a share in the territory controlled by the kinship group And everyone has a share participating in the rights of their local god The local groups on the ground can39t be only determined in terms of kinship also determined in terms of territory as well Marriage Alliance It is necessary to take into account if you want to understand society in India The African models look just at descent and isomorphic relationships but this isn39t going to be enough Breaks it up into kin and affine so we call them marriage groups affines and groups that are members of some descent group that you belong to these are people that you cannot marry Cross vs Parallel Affine vs Kin Marriageable vs Non marriageabe We have strong prohibitions in the west about marrying your first cousin Dumont says you almost never find bilateral cross cousin marriage Cross cousin marriage we can talk about bilateral matrilateral or patrilateral x cousin marriage Exchange system where women are being exchanged between descent groups Most people especially plains people practice matrilateral marriage Is effective for using alliances with lots of lineages to control lots of territory Patrilateral the pattern where women are exchanged changes every generation Typically tends to be between small groups of people We are also talking about patrilineal and matrilineal groups Lineal groups from father39s line or mother39s line You are born into it Traditionally people take their father39s name We have a patrilineal emphasis Linearity is a form of recruitment into a kin group Also talking about patrilocal and matrilocal Locality refers to where you live after you marry post marital residence Dumont talks about a lot of variation After a bride and groom get married either lives with the bride39s parents family but they have to supply them with their own house Patriarchy and matriarchy refers to a form of government Mauss Reading One major approach to personhood We39re going to look at an analytic context Mauss was nephew of Dirkine he took a look at nonwestern societies In this paper he did his own translations from transcript He died very young in World War I Dirkine and Mauss find their intellectual descendants both whom are working together Mauss are still writing as if they were in the 19 century You have a social evolutionary sequence a sequence moving from savergy 9 barbarianism 9 civilization Hopefully got the distinction between subject amp object between I in the first person and me in the second person between the personage and the personne between the self and the character or role or mask Between a psychological agent and a juristic object In the case of Northwest coast Indians we are looking at a savage society a mechanical society and he sees this as reflected in Pueblos Australian aborigines People don39t distinguish between their inner self and their character The names masks and roles typically symbolize that persons totemic clan In short by acquiring the name and the mask of a clan ancestor a person becomes that ancestor and according to Mauss everything is dictated to them You have no freedom of will in a savage society you have to do what your totemic ancestor is supposed to do Just as your father took on the mask of his ancestor you must do the same as well For Mauss there is no distinction between the person and the object But when he gets to the barbarian society and talks about India and china there he says you have an abortive distinction between a personage and a person between an agent and a object They are beginning to distinguish these types of things He says that in India he distinguishes between the Brahman and the Atman So in rituals the goal is to take yourself and merge with Gah head Needs to be characteristic of modern society but he says it39s an abortive because it39s one reaching with the universe and putting society behind you where you can free yourself from the role that society puts upon you to become one with god There are dualistic philosophies of Hindu but also monistic philosophies that deny that distinction When it comes to China he does a similar kind of thing The Ming is internal and insoluble replacing birth order rank and ancestral identity They revert to personhood they he associated with totemic ancestors in savage societies He looks at Roman law legal person as an object A distinction between a person39s family name his nickname and his forename Also observes that in roman law the noman is both falsifiable and transferable Slaves are defined as someone who has no personality does not own his own body has no ancestors has no personal belongings There is a distinction and in general he takes a look at what happens with certain moral conceptions that he finds in ancient Roman law and in Christianity He notices that persons are constructed as rational as being made of substance indivisible and individual as something that modern philosophers call a consciousness There is a little bit of a qualification Mauss makes reference between essence and substance The individual agent persone is a shadow by the underlying essence of reality Here there is a parallel with dualistic beliefs is an illusion against the underlying truth of the subdividing truth Mauss reviews a lot of western philosophers dealing with this issue According to Mauss in the west as in China but not in India the reflection or shadow is the title of a social group We are now civilized persons agents living in an organic society and not a mechanical society You can decide if you want to accept society39s value or since you39re an agent with free will you can take off your mask be yourself and reject what society wants 41714 Mauss presented the 19 century social evolutionary scheme for different people who life in different societies corresponding to different kinds of societies you have different kinds of persons in savage societies can tell different between themselves of agent to object of moral prescription if they are an object there are laws written about it thou shall not Mauss assumes for every person in savage society it39s as if you put on a mask and once you put it on then you can39t act in any other way that society prescribes for you In civilized society people have a self of their own sensehood and they can decide if they want to follow the rules or break them they have agency One hand they have agency one hand free will and barbarian is a mixture abortive Not until you get into the West that you have free will Don39t take the evolutionary scheme but contrast as self as agent vs self as object People can act as agents if they are given a Social definition of who they are Mauss argues that people only get this choice in organic society and civilization and in mechanical society they have to follow blindly what society sets for them Society puts expectations on how to be good moral and proper people of that time Since you have free will you can decide if you want to refuse what society expects do it or something in between Expectations of people as certain kinds of objects Your choice is an agent dealing with these social definitions The objects the rules that you have to behave Goffman excellent observer At a playground watching kids playing acting as cowboys and Indians They are kids 610 He notices that the older kids are also playing but they are distancing themselves from the cowboys and Indians Making a nonverbal statement that they know it39s not the real thing Goffman calls this role distance a sense of self that is distant from the role Proposing a developmental sequence from childhood 9 adolescence 9 adulthood As we get older or become more civilized as Mauss describes we can look at the role that society provides for us distance ourselves and decide what we want to do Or we can bend the rules Is a very interesting kind of parallel We have a notion that people can act as agents when given a special set of social expectations of how they have to act Work rationality if you have a bunch of goals you will act most rational to get to those goals Ends rationality goals given to you by society Not rational in that sense of calculation It is the cultural givens that within which you will operate with means rationality which is bound by social preferences for goals Different socieites define social identity in different ways Anthropology describes and understands how society describes what they are trying to do Goodenough Reading He was strongly influenced by linguistics Funded a project on the island of Truk Trukese people Goodenough was anthropologist on the team with linguistic background Linguisticethnographic approach to kinds of speech acts Statements that give rules on how you should behave He identified behaviors by putting them together to see if they were similar todifferent from another statement or action Have to identify a schema of categories and see how they relate to each other in that schema Man as a rule following or ruleoriented animal Goodenough breaks into social identity social status personal identity and role He describes role as the dynamic enactment of social status Two possible problems in this essay Systematic ambiguity in social status Potential ambiguity Rule theory talks about status talks about status and identity Status used to be defined as a collection of rights and duties Role dynamic aspect of status the putting into effect of its rights and du es Social identity particular positions like policeman student He says that identity is separate from the status A policeman is one until they take his badge away his status is different from his identity Social identity is a cultural variable it remains easy to confuse issue by using it to refer to a social variable For Goodenough a social identity is a cultural variable A culture is a set of values that members share Frequently the cultural category and social position are similar Goodenough remains consistent in his use of social identity use notes the cultural category and not the social position Social identity is linked to concept of social status Linkage of social identity and social status He is talking about jural and communicative rues there is a problem about how Goodenough is talking about it He is discussing rules in a communicative sense He fails to the extent rule breaking and rule bending relationships Communicational status definition on worksheet You have a situation we are students and we have a teacher He is going to lecture and we are going to listen and if things are confusing we will raise our hand and ask a question His social identity is teacher and ours is student and we have certain norms on how to behave But if he breaks that expectation such as saying if anyone wants an A write a note on the back of a hundred dollar bill What would you do Either leave or call a lawyer Once he breaks the rules we are entitled to use our knowledge and break the rules in an appropriate way This is appropriate to break the taboo because he broke it first Goodenough talks about the status communicated and occasions where it39s appropriate to comply with the rule and violate the rule some occasions where you would want to bend the rule Talk about status and identity keep them separate and you can talk about role as a dynamic enactment of status for rule following rule bending or rule breaking People frequently break codes of behavior in a meaningful ways relationship of status to identity is open and variable People choose to ask in ways that are socially approved Week 4 Notes 52914 1 45 PM 42214 Character who is the heroine has a social identity within the cultural framework of her community also has a social position On Thursday be prepared to identify the different identity relationships that she interacts with 3 women the co viagers adult mature married women reciprocal status relationship They are all equally mature women in the village There are a lot of expectations about the normative status they should have There are ways mature women should act with each other They may bend or break the rules Good house wife Rukmati vs bad house wife Kundti Rukmati is also a wife to her husband Nathan the status relationship is very asymmetric She never called him by his name in her entire wife because it is appropriate for them to refer to their husbands as husband She deals with her husband and children deals with sons differently then daughters deals with Kenny then deals with the authoritative figures differently then she deals with other people Make a list of the other social identity relationships that she comes through and identify the normative status relationships which they need to enter Status dimension of respect between everyone she has a lower status then the male figures The interactions of the women with each other have an equal status She should only have a sexually close relationship with her husband Kundti the prostitute is violating expectations of society What kind of rules get broken Look at the taboos and how they are broken will show a status dimension Rules that are violated taiti 42414 Nectar in a Sieve people from untouchable castes and they serve as bonded labor even slaves for the landowners some people like Nathan he has physical strange and can work on the land of the Zemindar Tenant farmers if you get a bad year with no farmers the people who are barely scratching out enough to survive then they are screwed when this bad weather comes They may be kicked off their land The only social assurance you have are your kin your relatives In the Harper piece in one essay you get incredible detail about the ins and outs of daily life will see wedding rituals other ceremonies he will explain the ideas and concepts by which people understand these events Wedding of Rukmani and Nathan move to Nathan39s house patrilocal postresidence Rukmani s famiy her dad owned land he was wealthy and power was the village headman Owned a lot of land and had political authority then he became unimportant and the collector supersedes him In countries like India and China they have a strong preference for males and the numbers are increasing while there should have been more women yet they were not raised properly After she moves to Nathan39s house they have a baby girl Rukmani s mother dies and Kenny is needed Rukmani is unable to bare children again so she goes to Kenny We don39t know why she was infertile Son39s are really important but we see that Nathan doesn39t leave Rukmani through this yet it affect Rukmani terribly Rukmani went through every traditional means she could to bare a child but it didn39t work so she went to Kenny Kenny is a hero he has some attachment to India and he does a lot of good things After Rukmani sees Kenny she bares 5 sons There is a tannery being built represents industrialization the tannery requires a lot of water the ringleader is Kundthi s son he makes friends with Rukmani s sons and together they form a union to try to get better unions but that doesn39t work well and they go off to Sri Lanka to try and find work 0 One of Rukmani s sons is killed Ira gets married but then returns childless Nathan is the father of Kunthi s sons Kunthi blackmails both Nathan and Rukmani They don39t have enough money to feed themselves Kenny has given Selvan a job at the hospital and he promises he will take care of Ira and herson Nathan and Rukmani head to find their other son Meets Puli he is a leader even with his disease Nathan39s death and Rukmani is by herself with no husband and persuades Puli to stay with her she promises to take her of him and Kenny will help he will have a family with her Return of Rukmani with Pull Kenny39s hospital with Selvan and Kenny will help with Pui s leprosy Harper reading for Tuesday Village for Brahman s a king took this land from the dominant caste and allowed him to give it to a bunch of Brahmans will be a much wealthier village of landowners and they are concerned with orthodox practices and beliefs It39s an ethnographic description Different categories of people have towards each other As you read this if you look at your syllabus look at the study guide which is on the syllabus which gives a list of the categories and rituals to focus on gives the page number on which it occurs What do members of a family owe to each other on an occasion of a funeral What about if a daughterwife is having her period Look at the status dimensions they express when they interact with each other Week 5 Notes 52914 145 PM 42914 endowments to temples to Brahmin s priest India failed to become industrialized A Brahmin will always be more pure than a Shudra You cannot have that exalted Brahmin status When the British came over they realized there were too few British to control a country as big as India You have to involve the local society so they go to Brahmin administrators Purity is developed in a village where the dominant caste is Brahmins legitimizes their control In Harper article explains how well the ideology works 5114 The Weeds The Hindu Cootie theory of pollution 0 There39s always that kid who has the cooties they are polluting members of their class and if you come in contact you can catch their cooties so you stay away from them 0 Preliminary way of translating all these Hindu ideas The social selectivity of substances touched and eaten The conductivity of mediating substances The General Model that Harper gives us Harper39s model of a socially fit meme The Model religion worship and exchange Individuals and the social order 7 Caste and kinship 8 How pollution operates in between individuals or individuals in themselves This essay was written a long time ago Different analytic traditions of Anthro you can say it39s an example of structura functionaism Looks at the structure of beliefs and asks how that structure functions to create and reproduce over time the caste system Is like a form function how does this relate to function Presupposes that all non western societies are cold and unchanging societies they don39t have the heat to change they are traditional because they don39t change Non western societies unlike our own got stuck in a 19 century revolutionary rut which they couldn39t change Some stuck in savagery some evolved and got stuck in barbarism it is only us in the west who kept evolving to become a modern civilization Post structura functionaists would paste this label of being racist Difficult doing historical studies with people who don39t have written documents many people speculated There are ways of tapping into the past though archeological documentation Retrieved from structural functionaism if we drop the thought that societies are frozen in time and instead believe that they are constantly going under change then we can get back to asking structure and functions Does it evolve What is it about some customs or rituals that makes it socially fit enough to be reproduced An individual is always emitting behavior Certain individuals repeat themselves over time Models of evolution that were available to people need to be modified if we want to see something useful We can take a lot of biology and borrow their ideas broadly Socially fit means that they can last a long time What are the qualities of this whole system of pollution beliefs that Harper describes They continue to reproduce over time and how do they work They work by providing people with a way of adapting to their environment which is attractive to the people Motivates them to guide their actions System of relationships that exists between people amp gods and between different types of people A model of worship and exchange On first or second page he gives an outline form of the qualities that he wants to look at Begins on pg 151 he has 8 or 9 points 1 the basic belief about how worship is done and what it constitutes A relationship of exchange between man and god You give a gift as a token for gratitude and something you had done for you Model of Hinduism and Hindu worship talked about outside of anthropology Becoming one merging your soul with the over Lord becoming one with the universe Exchange mode harper points to this at the core Gods can be worshipped only by mortals of high virtual purity Brahmins can only intercede on behalf of the community if the non Brahmin community takes on an action that makes him so polluted If you want to gain the benefit of someone superior to you offer to exchange something Purity status dimension of relative purity Heightened purity normal state state of being polluted Brahmin priests going through rituals to achieve heightened state they are culturally becoming gods in order to worship the gods It39s a reciprocal relationship To achieve this state Brahmins who are already in a high status will achieve an even more heightened status When a devotee wants to give to a god first gives to priest who becomes a god to give it to the gods then the gods will distract its subtle essence leaving behind the garbage Ritual pollution transmitted through certain kin relationships Born from same parents you have the same substance Men plant a seed in the womb of the women oven where it cooks for 10 months Among kinsmen you have people that are status equal they are of the same caste so people are very concerned about pollution and status of their kinsmen If your aunt or uncle does something it affect you even if you don39t see it How it39s shared is a big question Harper what you can do to avoid pollution or to remediate pollution if you become polluted This is high thing When you have two status dimensions and they are not congruent that is the essence of the caste system in its most idealized form If the 2 systems are congruent a divine king who is the most wealthy and pure kings then you have 2 status dimensions that create a class system Types of pollution Saivayetchi a lot of people drink cups where they don39t let their lips touching the cup It39s very pronounced For us it is compared to touching pee fear of sef poution You eat on a banana leaf and when you39re done someone in a lower caste will fold it over and throw it away so you never eat on that again They don39t eat off plates because you can39t clean it all that well some lingering pollution will stay on it Clay seems to retain pollution more than metals do Coming in contact with saliva is polluting but you don39t have to come into direct contact with saliva They can be polluting in their own right but also work as conductors of pollution In life some things may pollute you but something s are worth it because of the benefit such as child birth Death poution what does Harper tell us about that Social conditions how close you are and how pollution is spread to you your close relatives are how they spread to you mostly if it39s a close relative you are polluted for a long time if it39s a distant relative you are not in pollution for as long and don39t have to do many things to get out of it Some things are more polluting than others some kinds of food are polluting Conductors of pollution some things conduct more pollution than the others Menstrual poution if you39re interacting with someone that will come in contact with this you would rather not do it There is someone who washes menstrual clothes Week 6 Notes 52914 145 PM Harper was an anthropologist at University of Washington from what Rudner characterized as a structuralfunctionalist approach If you have a different thought on this discuss why From the movie see the kinds of concerns Harper was talking about exemplified in the movie About Samskara the people of a village Samskara means a transition a rite of passage What is the connection about the theories of pollution Douglas and turner ideas of rites of passage and the rule that rituals play moving from one status to the other old fashioned 9 modern condition How do you use the ideas of pollution to understand the plot development Many castes within this village although it39s primarily made of the Havik Brahmins 1 short answer talk about structural functionalism then talk about Douglas turner and and talk about analyzing the book 5814 Breakdown for HW 3 bibliography amp citation if you make a claim about what a theorists says you need to cite the course in the body of your text author harper bio data some information from first page of article in the footnote He was at the University of Washington and had an associate position harper39s central argument Central argument connection between culture of pollution and central organization of castes pg 151152 He lays out his argument in 9 steps talks about why the Shudras or Untouchables buy into this system they will do this because if they don39t do the polluting activity to help the higher ups than they can39t worship the gods trickle down theory of pollution Just like we believe raising economy raises all ships Hindu s believe that raising level or purification raises all ships This ideology provides basis for people at the bottom this is the only way they can get any benefits from the gods They might think that this really disadvantages them and they may convert to Buddhism or Christianity and this creates its own counter reaction Sometimes they use force to stay in the Hindu system this is an ongoing thing attacks from upper castes to lower castes This could well be understood as the structuralfunctionalist anaysis form on anthropological analysis categories of actoractivity don39t only look for people who belong to different castes or different kinds of kin categories take a look at entities that are not people like ghosts gods spirits and these can have their own jati or castes Word for caste is jati or varna this means kind or category harper as a structural functionalist if you are doing a structural functionalism argument you are constructing a form function argument Something has a form which is adapted for what it does 0 Birds have wings and they fly Fish have fins and they swim but so do whales and seals Even though these are entirely different orders of biological entity they have overtime evolved this adaptive form such as the wings or a fin but they are very similar in form because it has consequences in the real world and biological form of evolution in a similar way they are saying if you structure society in terms of kinship then that is good but if you have 1039s of thousands of people you cannot know that many people so it doesn39t help to have a classification there so talk about kinship societies vs beurocratic societies criticisms of structural functionaism argument that they confuse function with causation You need to unpack what39s going on In 1950s linguistics had a powerful impact on anthropological theory especially in America It could be structural analysis with respect to the argument on the first couple pages applied to Harper douglas says you can39t just extract a single piece that you find you have to look at the total system ex for the bible can39t just look at one portion must look at all of it everything taboo in viticus is not mentioned in genesis jews and Muslims not eating pork characterize douglas as a british Structuraist because she isn39t talking about the functions of these beliefs for social organizations she39s proposing a theory of cognitive dissidence if it39s broken up into different categories then it39s fine but if it doesn39t fit then the universe falls apart for ex if you39re a farmer you love dirt Good dirt will save your bacon and other crops But if someone throws mud on your plate than that39s not good But what39s change The context has changed Pollution rules fit the cognitive dissidence when things fail to fit categories of the universe Respect to the ideas with what she has to the world British in contrast to French Structuralist More focus on ideas less emphasis on how ideas might identify social structure How applied to Harper dirt out of place cognitive dissidence how does this apply to things that are polluting in Havik Brahmin O O Polluting object or activity saliva is a polluting substance for everybody If you were douglas why would you say saliva is polluting She would say saliva in your mouth is okay but on the plate it is not okay because it is not meant to be there Things having to do with the body are typically what people may find problematic in a context Cow dung their status is so high so you can use their cow dung to clean things Death pollution why does this or any life cycle event a cause for pollution An initiation or puberty right You have kids running around get older and become adults At a certain point they are neither child or adult They are in turners phrase betwist and between They don39t fit into our categorization of the world They become a little dangerous You need a ritual to transform their identity and status expectations You may have a puberty right Same thing happens with death You have someone alive vs someone who is dead You know how to deal with them in these cases but in the transition there39s a problem Deal with a funeral transfer living 9 dead person When someone first dies he has a spirit but if his son39s don39t do the proper rights or if a women is killed in the wrong way the spirit may go on but the ghost may get left behind this causes trouble Non iving and spiritual thing Who will the ghost haunt It will haunt people of the immediate family Deals with rites of passages generay beyond rites of passage to change in status in society at all You have one status inside the house and one outside threshold when you are neither inside nor outside If you39re in a village in India you would take off your shoes before you go inside Rites and passage comes along what happens during period of transition People undergo all kinds of tings Stripped of old identity go through a bunch of rituals which may involve giving emblems or identity that are not their own all of this highlight Week 7 Notes 52914 1 45 PM 51314 first essay by Mary Douglas she began talking about some of the older theories that her work was based on she mentions theories on Durkeim and wanted to make a distinction on what they had done and what she was going to do Provided with a different analysis than Harpers 2 clear examples 1 of structural functionalist and the other was british structuralism Douglas doesn39t deal directly with Hindu ideas of pollution How do these different approaches analyze those beliefs Harper and Douglas In common they both present functional arguments Look at a function belief and ask what that does Structural functionalists reproduce society Douglas pollution thesispoution beliefs and taboos about it are there so you do not experience a cognitive dissidence as you operate in the world And if you experience it then there39s something you can do to remediate it It is focused on the individual A need to get away from whatever it is that39s polluting Durkeim beliefs expressed in rituals and pictures ultimately say something about society and any action that you do that conforms with beliefs and functions will have a function in reproducing society that it symbolizes Douglas says throughout 19 century it causes problems if you look around people have all types of taboos that can undertake the context of the sacred Others take place in the profane world In 19 century instead of calling those things religion they call it magic Douglas there is no difference from goodbad pollution They are about providing people a way of handling things that don39t fit with their view of the world Turner inevitability of coming across things that are confusing not one category or another and these are the things around which ideas about taboos and having to arise with objects arise Focusing on how the mind operates with process experience Structures of knowledge that people learn that there39s a normal state of things and non norma state of things Van Gennep for him a ritual that has a social function in a stable society of transforming a status from one to another or one social identity to another social identity Marriage changes from unmarried 9 married Funeral living 9 death Rituals change your state and generalize life cycle rituals To go through another state must go through liminality and the stage in the middle is negotiated through the use of rituals British look more at social explanations Harper idea of the caste system and the need for high caste people to worship is based on pollution beliefs Douglas in a caste society they will be worried about bodily emissions as sources of purity In harper the more like someone else you are the less at risk for pollution if you interact with them Sociological discussion in Douglas but she is talking about the categories It39s the cognitive structure the mental structures that people have in their mind categories that are regarded as polluting because they are anomalies they are dirt out of place DOUGLAS Harper represents the structural functional approach sociological function of the ways that rituals reproduce society Douglas look at the whole package taboos apply to things that don39t fit your package things that are okay in one context that aren39t okay in another context British structuralism focuses less on institutions and more on cognitive structures more on cultures Turner influenced by ideas on conflict and change in society the way some societies do seem to reproduce themselves and stay the same over time influenced by structure of mind and cultural pattern Influenced by Van Gennep In what context do people encounter objects that are taboo He comes across his own figures Middle phase not in one normal state nor another separated from one status but not reincorporated into another one We have Naranappa the bad Brahmin drinks liquor consorts with untouchables eats meat prostitute He39s a polluting character and other Brahmins don39t know what to do with him They ignore him but now he dies he39s an anomalous character Should they treat him like a Brahmin Didn39t he outcaste himself by doing all this He39s a Brahmin but not a Brahmin so how do they deal with him They would be more sympathetic as treating like Brahmin if they inherit his gold Maybe they are no better Brahmins that Naranappa was Turner likes to look at initiation rites in societies that seem to be stable Society is moving people from one status to another according to social norms that will reproduce society There are anomalous things in society but there are phases we go through He says that sometime liminal characters stay this way and instead of changing themselves they change society Pranachariya and naranappa together change society On the end p is undergoing major changes himself Becoming more liminal with respect to cultural norms Ramanajan draws on turner to explicate plot of samskara Douglas gives good sense about what needs to be cognitively anomalous and dysfunctional Harper detailed systematic analysis of individual pollution events His is not a theoretical piece gives ethnographic detail of what39s going on so in the novel in samskara and when they find that naranappa is dead he runs to the village and tells them to not eat Harper describes the taboos on behavior that follow they cannot eat unless the cremate the body but cannot cremate body because there is no solution for this 51514 Understanding human behaviors as signals Daniel adopts an approach developed by Charles Sauder that focuses on the rules for ranking people of different castes based on the attributes of the collective conscious of the people View culture as a system of rules that people internalize and follow Another approach to understanding how different castes get ranked try to get the highest possible purity rank that they can interaction approach British colonial industrials faced with problem of the enormous population so they went to people who were experts They tended to be the administrators who tended to be Brahmins They told the British how the Brahmins are the most important people they are more pure they worship the gods Brahmins and British administrators worked together to plan out a caste Caste was invented by colonialism this is one view But before the British arrived what was there Val Daniel Daniel said you don39t just want to look at caste Jati s are separated by rules of endogamy economically interdependent different castes specialize in different ways and they are ritually ranked in terms of relative purity Daniel says that we are making too much of the notion of caste He says caste simply means kind type category What kind of person are you You can39t just talk about social groups must expand to see what all these different types of things are made of What is there substance He says that it s a complex substance made of elements and humors and dispositions In some contexts purity is very important and if you have an entity that has goona intellectual spiritual disposition that you find in the substance of Brahmins it is not found so much in other castes There are multiple rankings that jump up to the level of theory Daniel and Kim Marriot Transactional theory You have view of India being structure by ritual purity Opposite view to universal Brahminism multiple status skills based on different statuses Marriot evolved into ethno socioogy out of an interactional approach to caste ranking Saussure basic distinction between language langue and speech parole Any utterance you make is your speech Your language has a pattern which you can infer inductively by watching how people speak to each other For Saussure the subject matter of linguistics is language is a disposition to pattern your utterances in a certain way You have a knowledge of pattern in English that you can39t see but if you listen you can make a deduction Pierce said that signs are triadic between and objectreprestarraninterpreter According to Pierce the world is the idealized view of the universe that we will arrive at in the end of time There39s a progress in our understanding of the world We have a better understanding of the world now at the end of time they will have a perfect understanding about the world Icons are sign that refer by virtue to the thing they are referring to And index refers to it s object either connected to it or causing it When a thermometer get s hot the mercury rises The length of the column of mercury is caused by temperature is an index of the temperature Likewise if you39re on the beach and you see a crow s nest coming over the horizon you say ah it39s a ship It39s connected to the ship for the crow s nest to act as an indexical sign Week 8 Notes 52014 El El El El 52914 1 45 PM Way of looking at how to be a person Daniel39s perspective is a newer way to look at it Final paper interested in having an essay about different ways to study personhood ethnographic and theoretical perspectives we have readtalked about in class Take 1 specific ritua ritual of divination of flowers We encountered this in Samskara failing to find an answer to the dilemma of burying Naranappa goes to Hindu monkey god and asks him by dropping flowers on the statue If it falls to the rightleft this will tell him what he should do But he ends up being useless Maybe it39s because he didn39t attain a state of purity for him to talk to him Ch 4 or 5 on divination and concerns with health Daniel will take the whole divination by flowers and explain how it works in detail His technique is different instead of dropping flower petals he talks redwhite flowers and throws them and sees what combination of red or white comes up 0 Yet there are connections that could be made between ideas of rightleft and ideas of color symboism redwhite and all the ideas that go along with that 0 We have both in Karnatika and Tamildad 2 ways that they ask the powers how to make a decision to remedy a problem that we have in life o Analyze this process of divination of flowers as described by Daniels but explain how Daniel says it words and then speculate how Harper Turner Douglas etc might have explained it if they had the information that Daniel provides 0 Will see how Daniel takes these ideas and applies them to how people think about their villages Different ways of approaching any society there was a Durkeimian approach more or less which you can conceive of as a dramatist approach society writes the rules You internalize as you grow up and then you follow them What you do according to the mechanical view and what you39re supposed to do as a person is follow the rules of society Most of our behavior is not deliberate is not rational A lot of our behavior is entirely unconscious think about the ant and centipede example With Daniel we see another body of theory people began to take ideas seriously about symbolic mediation When we communicate with each other we do so through symbols which we exchange Words gestures clothing that serves as symbolic emblem of who you are and what statement you want to make makeup Increasingly focus on symbols as objects of study so we could understand whether people were saying things verbally or non verbay Saussure came up with the definition as a sign as something that stands for something else The word dog stands for an animal Signifier to signified is extremely important reference of signification He was not interested in reference but interested for what it could tell about something else He was primarily interested in the value of the sign in contrast to the reference of the sign and relationship to other signs in the language Definitions of the sign Says that Saussurian definition of a sign isn39t right but it39s actually a communication process Daniel talks about this triadic relationship not just 2 things involved Reference and communicationspeech acts Signifiersignified Bring Saussurian and Piercian together Speech acts People have developed the locutionary meaning of words then illocutionary meaning Jessica it39s hot in here illocution meaning is for Jessica to turn up the air Doesn39t mean that she39s going to do it even though she understands She may not understand She may be feeling cold and won39t adjust the thermostat What is the intent of the speaker Perlocutionary affect 2 What is the difference between an iconindexsymbol Signs that refer to an object signifiers that signifies a signified Icon resembles the object that they refer to o Iconic signs onomatopoeia eg woof woof Making an utterance that refers to the sound that a dog makes Physical similarity between the two 0 Culturally variable standards of resemblance o A wooden cross is a sign of the crucifixion of Jesus and the suffering that he went to 2 Major points that Daniel wants to make an assertion that Tamils are different from us what39s the big difference Tamils engage in communication that makes use of indexical signs but us in the west make signs symbolic in nature 2 Innermost nature of a person dharma kharma 2 Daniel looks at how people understand themselves and each other 2 Fundamental distinction between dispositional and man 2 Danie fluid signs because your nature is variable and your life is obsessed with constant struggle to maintain your status 2 Harper says everyone is concerned with avoiding pollution or remediating it 2 Daniel is saying is what people are really concerned about is maintaining their identity 2 Contrast these 2 approaches to everyday life how does one approach deal with divination of flowers vs the other approach 2 Are they inconsistent and contradictory Or consistent and complimentary Maybe they are the same thing and using different words 2 How do 3 frameworks help you to understand what tamils are thinking when throwing redwhite flowers on the ground 2 Core hindu concepts Puja worship Transaction between humans and gods Moksa Mayasamsara Atmanbrahman Dharma 52214 Artha Kama Vidya Bhak Houses Daniel points out they are very similar to persons They are metaphors have very similar structures When he talks about the similarities of a house amp person it39s not just the different parts of architecture it39s also the whole functioning of persons He talks about how one makes a house similar to how persons are conceived Teshi 9 deshi Kiraman gt graman Koundar 9 gounder Ur amp Kiraman Difference between an Ur and a graman A graman revenue village which is a taxation from the state The state puts circles around a number of villages and hamlets ceri or chen 0 Will lay taxes on the whole group of things 0 There are fixed boundaries for revenue villages The dominant caste Ur may be surrounded by hamlets of untouchables Tamils do not have a boundary has an open ended frontier Boundaries are fixed by the state Frontiers are open ending variable changing Talk about them in terms of what is contained in a conceptual sphere Things in the center of this village are important and things which control entrances and exits Concerned where things are and where you actually go tocome from is not marked in anyone s conception When british took over and faced with issue of collecting taxes they would go out and tax a landlord who owns a lot of villages or they bypass and go down to the level of agriculturists called riots They want to know how much land the farmers are farming 0 Figure out how many bigha s someone owns and how big is it o This determines how much you owe In the south they have a concept similar to bigha called a pangu share People who own a share in territory or share holders are called pangai s If you have a large family and give each a share of your land one year you have good rain and you water a lot of land Next year there39s a drought and you water a little land The number of shares your son gets remain the same but depends on how much land is there There is a variability of reference Val wants to talk about the difference of thinking in Tamilnad He39s looking just at villages Do villaqes exist Dumont says that they don39t exist He is a major player in the field historically O O O Says you have to understand marriage alliances and anything that doesn39t fits he disregards The way to study India is study it39s ideology Trying to understand castes in Indian society he wants to say that primary thing is kinship When he looks at residence and territory he says that it39s not important Marriage relationships extend between villages The fact they39re living in a single village is not important Daniel claims there are 2 kinds of villages and maybe more 0 O 0 Daniel is saying that Dumont is full of it People talk about villages all the time Where is connection between Dumont amp Daniel39s view What is the name of the dominant caste of kulipur that Daniel is studying Vellalars of the 6 Nadu We have a caste that is dominant over a large area Daniel is looking at one segment of them Is this a representative sample of all Vellalars Villages don39t only exist on the ground but they are also ideas in peoples heads This is where Rudner disagrees with Dumont ANV DominanceHistory Dispositions of ANV s to be crafty and business men What activates a disposition to make it manifest Contextual things Daniel missteps on a couple different places distinction between signifier and signified 0 when asking about the meaning of a village he is asking about the meaning of the word Distinguishing the word Ur person39s defined territory Graman symbolic bounded territory the difference is the context Ur is flexible something refers to district state country You know because of the context although on occasions it refers to multiple things 2 Ambiquitv amp Variability of Indexical reference Depending on context and person meaning can be variable All cultures are indexical and symbolical Signifiersignified When ask for the boundaries of the Ur they get uneasy Each year the boundaries of the Ur changes Karai boundaries of a river can also talk about lineages 0 Used to talk about the boundaries of a Ur o The boundary changes from year to year The fact that it varies for Val means that it39s vague that there is no boundary Rudner thinks at a given time and place it39s there but the following year it39s in a different place A sign is a signifier that stands for a signified Can break down different signs in a variety of ways Can break down into iconindexsymbol 0 Icon similarity of context Eg walking man on crosswalk o Indexical refers to object because it39s connected to it A thermometer reading The column of mercury is indexical of temperature It is not iconic The length of the column of mercury caused by heat the hotter it is the more it lengthens in a confined space Caused by the temperature 0 Symbolic refers to object but no connection The connection is arbitrary 0 Daniel wants to say that signs use indexical signification in communicating with each other Context sensitivity Fluid boundaries Whether they are actual boundaries or relatively bounded Person viaqe relationships amp dispositional properties of puttis and qunas Settlement tvpoloqies and the flavors of personsamp villaqes Villages built with different flavors depending on the persons living there Differences between putti and gunan Gunans are part of your core essence It is difficult to change your gunan nature Week 9 Notes 52914 1 45 PM 52714 Take 1 of the rituals that Daniel analyzes specifically flower divination in ch 5 and explain the analysis of how it works speculate about how Harper would have analyzed it do a comparison and contrast about what harper would have done and what Daniel actually did do and then focus on 3 different things These use different vocabularies have different kinds of goals Come up with translation that allows you to see if these 2 guys are talking about the same things or different things If they are different do they fit together or are they contradicting each other When you talk about flower divination talk about metaphors in how flower divination works External 9 internal perspective about how it39s like to be a person in Tamil Fear about being polluted and maintaining a level of purity for the people who produce wealth necessary to give to the gods to reciprocate the favor High status vellalar can function as Brahmins follow their strategies and ways of life You can worship gods in order to escape this world the world Samsara is all an illusion Point of worshipping is to achieve knowledge or vidya to escape from ignorance that allows you to pierce the veil of illusion of maya to see through Samsara Merge your individual soul with the universe this is called liberation Perform karma appropriate for dharma Harper would talk about this How would Daniel talk about this You would want to maintain a humeral balance You want to maintain a certain high level of heat If you get a cold it39ll make you metaphysically cold and in order to deal with that and get humeral balance to rise you may want to eat some high food All food classified as being hot or cold Daniel39s discussion of sex 5 auspicious fruits The hottest fruit of all papaya So hot that no woman should ever eat a papaya Only reason why would be because she wanted to heat up her womb because she had pregnancy out of wedlock so she wants abortion cooking the seed to induce an abortion May affect your state of pollution Danie maintain humeral equilibrium you don39t want to get too hotcold for yourself 2 different ways about talking about the same concerns harper doing some polluting activity so the priests don39t pollute it themselves work through life trying to convey right karma to satisfy dharma another way to get moksha which is bypassing everything bypass the priests and codes of conduct through shear force of devotion and love Daniel said it39s appropriate to do the action to your gunam Harper will talk about dharma Daniel talks about gunam Daniel talks about moksha quipoise and says it is temporary You engage in an act of devotion engage in exchange of love with the deity and emerge with him When you succeed then you39re there temporary or permanently If you purse sanyasi you undergo a ritual funeral ceremony for yourself and cut off ties for everybody Differences in what the authors are looking at Are they talking about same things or different things Indexical signs are always context sensitive Depends on who39s speaking who the audience is and the occasion of the communication Tami s use symbolic signs and we use indexical signs Houses really emphasizes the metaphorical quality in which people use the idea of a person as a metaphor for houses 52914 1 45 PM 52914 1 45 PM 52914 1 45 PM
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'