MSCI 311 Notes For Test 1
MSCI 311 Notes For Test 1 MSCI 311
Popular in Biology of Marine Organisms
Popular in Marine Science
This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by BaylessK on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to MSCI 311 at University of South Carolina taught by Griffen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Biology of Marine Organisms in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
Reviews for MSCI 311 Notes For Test 1
No all-nighter needed with these notes...Thank you!!!
-Mrs. Linda Funk
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/08/15
Digestion absorption and Energy Budgets MSCI 311 September 3 2015 Digestion process of splitting up ingested food molecules into smaller chemical components that an animal is capable of distributing the tissues of its body extraceuar digestion in an extracellular body cavity such as the lumen of the stomach or intestines vert arthropods some mollusks intraceuar food particles taken into specialized cells prior to digestion and digestion occurs within the cell sponges cnidarians atworms some mollusks Stomachs Batch reactorleast ef cient food egested then digested then egested then restarts simpest type of gut sac with one opening Was the rst to evolve Polps sessile and medusae mobile have gastrovascular cavitydua function feedinggastro and circulation vascular One opening what goes in must come out Complete digestive system tube within a tube Unidirectional passage of food advantages specialized feeding structures teeth regional specialization food breakdown nutrient absorbtion storage elimination of indigestibles 2 body plans among those with complete digestive system pseudocoelomate and eucoelomates Continuous ow stirredtank reactor food ingested continually Newly ingested food mixes with previously ingested food Efficiency varies strongly by con guration of stomach and with feeding speed Pug ow reactor food continually ingested unidirectional ow of food through gut no mixing Higher concentration of digestive enzymes towards the front so digestion fastest in anterior portion Very high digestion ef ciency Variation in digestive systems Depends on evolutionary adaptations Structure varies strongly with diet Function generally the same Vertebrates vs arthropods vs molluscs digestion Vertebrates headgut gtmouth tongue pharynx foregutgtesophagus stomach cropgizzard midgutgtsmall intestine hindgutgtlarge intestines Peristalsis muscle contractions of the intestines moves food Arthropods foregutgtesophagus cardiac stomach pyloric stomach midgutgtceca hepatopancreas secretes digestive enzymes contraction of muscles attached to stomach moves food Moluscs Esophagus Stomach ntestine Rectum Mucus strand takes up food particles and is brought back in In tracellular digestion Food or particle is brought in by endocytosis either phagocytosis or pinocytosis gtproduces food vacuole endosome Lysosome produced by endomembrane systemgtcontains digestive enzymes The two merge and digestion occurs lndigestible material expelled by exocytosis Extracellular digestion 1 digestive enzymes released 2 food particles broken down 3 food particles engulfed and digested Digestive system tasks 1 mechanical breakdown a swallow food whole tear off chunks or completely shred food 2 Digestive function of the stomach a Mixes food secretes enzymes that break down food controls passage of food to small intestines Dietspeci c enzyme activity Six crab species two herbivors three omnivores and one carnivore Measures enzyme activity Measure enzymes used for digesting proteins meat gt carnivore has highest activityhigh protein digestive capabilities Cellulase used to digest plant cell walls and Chitinase used to digest chitin shells of animals and fungi gtherbivores highst activity Conclusion physiological adaptions for speci c foods Consequences for trying to eat the wrong foodgtnot enough digestions and nutrition Digestive enzyme purpose Process of breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by cells Occurs by hydrolysis using the digestive enzymes we discussed enzymes decrease energy that is needed for something to occur jump starts process 3 Absorption occurs in different location for different animalsgt in many is in the intestine Occurs at molecular level across membranesgtso organisms maximize membrane surface area a villi many ngerlike epitheliumcovered projections from the mucosa b microvilli at the free surface of an absorptive cell brush border cell INCREASING SURFACE AREA b hormone secretion regulates enzyme activity c lysozyme secretion regulates digestion 3 elimination of waste a wale barfgt ambergris i protective substance that protects whale intestine from sharp objects like squid beaks ii passes out intestine or vomited iii washes onto beachgtcollected and soldto make perfumes 4 Energy Budgets a Food consumed and assimilated energy available for maintenance growth and reproduction b 2 laws of thermodynamics i 1 energy is constant Neither created nor destroyed ii amount of useful energy decreases when energy transformations occur comes off as heat energy intakegtheat comes off energy assimilated gt energy left for growthmaintenance K and reproduction 1K Rorqual whale feeding How can blue whales get so big and fat Conversion efficiency usually 10 per trophic level Blue whales are largest animal on earthhow did they get so big Eat low down on food chaingtvery energetically dense buoyancy of water reduces energy requirements fat feeding strategy How can they support energetically such large bodies and high fat stores Feeding mechanismgain 77X more energy than use while foragingvery ef cient Due to volume engulfed of dives krill density and energy content metabolic rate How shing gear can cause slow death of whales Increase the drag on the organism due to engulfment slowing down the whale and causing it to spend energy where it normally wouldn t They don t dive as deep when they re entangled or as long Quiz questions nal stage of processing food the cell what is the bene t of increasing the surface area with villi gt greater uptake by cells and enhanced endocytosis other than increasing surface area what else can an organism alter in order to increase absorption of digested food gt the time the food is in the stomach the longer the food is in the gut the more get digested temperature on digestive rate increases digestion rate of the sharks Lecture 1 725 Tree of ocean life Bilateral symmetrygtcephalization Not a characteristic of chordates gt articulating jaws Evolutionary Advances Sponges Evolutionary advance over things not multicellular Collection of cells simple with complex ability to reaggregate to form individual with all cells in right place Cnidarians Complex cesgt nematocyst morphology Mobile Simple eyes Toxins depend on hunting mode amp prey size Breaks down proteins liipds etc Rise in Jelly sh Lack of predation sun sh and turtles Water warmgt speed up metabolic processes Increase nutrient pollution in coastal waters increase plants and food Acoelomategtquotwo body cavityquot Epidermis and gut cavity Organs packed between gut and epidermis cnidarian and atworm Advance Flatworm Platyhelminthes Movement free living swim in open ocean or parasitic form gttake advantage of other organism How Platyhelminthes can change animal behavior brain of sh increases predation of sh by altering natural behavior to cause the sh to swim up to the surf and ash its shiny side to the birds Affective method by parasite to complete its life cycle Pseudocoelomate Body cavity BUT not true cavity The cavity itself is not lined They have a complete digestive track and therefore more ef cient roundworms meiofauna Eucoelomategt coelomate Tissuelined body cavityall organs are no longer connected to the body wall They can grow and develop on their own Mollusks Camou age cephalopods or octopus De nite organ level development Skeletons Nervous System control cephaopod camo chromatophores pigment surrounded by muscle Change in shape in muscle and covers the pigment as needed This changes shape of skin too AnneHds Segmented bodycontrols many different parts independently regional contraction This is more ef cient burrowing activity Arthropods Most successful group of species and organisms Exoskeleton and jointed appendages Echinoderms Water vascular system most important adaptation used for everythinggt movement feeding respiration Pentaradial symmetry gt experience the world at all directions simultaneously Tunicates Most closely related to us invertebrates Dorsal hollow nerve chord Notochordgt start of vertebral column Pharygenal gill slitsgt lter feed Post anal tail Larval form have all four of these while adults only contain gill slits INVERTEBRATES A VERTEBRATES Fish Backbone Swimbladder both used for better movement Bilateral symmetry gt cephalization Reptiles Get rid of salt in tears Temperature dependent sex determinations and climate change Mammals Warm blooded Live birth A family tree of whales ear bones link groups of species of whales prehistoric like pakiecetidae transition of whales through timegt fresh water to marine Atauism Gene expressedorganleg that usually isn t Baleen Brush like Toothed enamel quot one speci c gene mutation genome cut out and inserted elsewhere to cause loss of teeth over time Development Ecolocation o Baleen don t have this meaning that it became after tooth loss split because only toothed whales have this all organisms are interacting communities trophic levels Humans are changing through shing practices Biodiversity reduced and large predatious sh are depleting 90 large sh are gone Causing ecosystem to be dominated by harmful algal blooms invasive plankton and jelly sh Gastrula tion Differs in early stages of development a Protostomes mollusk annelid arthropod a First the mouth develops b Deuterstomes echinoderms chordates urchins a First the anus develops then the mouth We are deuterostomes Complete digestive tracks and unidirectional movement END OF TREE OF LIFE LECTURE 1 Lecture 2 Evolution Gene region of a chromosome piece of dna that contains set of instructions for synthesizing a protein polypeptide Inherited as characteristics by one cell from another Alleles alternative forms variants that a gene can have on the homologous chromosome Locus precise location of an allele on a chromosome gametes have a single allele for each gene which pair during fertilization Evolution Changes in allele frequency in a population individuals cannot evolve or change inherited alleles But can change populations gene pool through reproduction relationve to reproduction by others Gene Pool collection of genes within a population for population gene pool to change there must be a mechanism that promotes differential reproductionevolution Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium if a population is in genetic equilibrium recessive genes are not lost from the population no matter how small their representation As long as certain conditions are met gene frequencies and genotype ratios remain constant from generation to generation 1 No mutation Only heritable changes lead to evolutionacquired somatic mutations are not passed on 2 No Gene ow via migration mixing of gene pool over large geographical area consequence of migration 3 No random drift large populations Chance events inversely related to population size Chance events happen in large populations too but are less likely to change gene frequencies because average out More serious on an island because small population but large populations can balance out Genetic drift reduces variation within populations but increases variation between population 4 5 a Genetic bottlenecks cause drift drastic reduction in population size resulting in population derive from only a few individuals b Founder events cause drift few individuals disperse to new area and new population arises from restricted genetic diversitysimilar to bottleneck Random Mating assumes that any male has equal chance of mating with any female In reality many types of mate selection naturally occur sexual selection harems selffertilization No Selection Not all individuals are identical Those that survive and reproduce better leave more genes in the next generationgt results in selection for favorable traits Selection acts on individual but it s the population that evolves Selection is not good nor bad but simply a response to current environment situations 3 types of selection it Diem ptiee selection is Stabilizing selection til Directional selection E Number of individuals with Flienotyp L Selection l Selectioii Selection Number of individuals with phenotype Sod size e EIIIIZII Sinauer Associates Inc Stabilizing reduction in variation through time Directional one extreme is more successful sh size decreasing over the years because need to be smaller to t through shing nets Disruptive either extreme is better than the average Evolution biologically de ned as the change in the frequency of gene s or allele s appearance in a population s gene pool from generation to generation through time More simply it is the inheritable change in organisms over time Necessary components for evolution 1 Changing Geneticschanges in the frequency of a genes appearancegt no change in gene frequency over timeno evolution 2 Timein generations multiple Single generations do not evolve 3 Populationsthe aggregate of individuals Single individuals do not evolve Species population of organisms that is naturally capable of interbreeding among themselves but does not interbreed with other populations of different species Allopatric speciation Formation of a new species due to a physical separation First there is physical separation then population divergence mating tactics habitat use etc and then reproductive separation no gene exchange possible Sympatric Speciation No physical separation but behavioral difference that causes divergence Killer whale speciation due to differences in diet and associated feeding behavior Microevolution Changes in allele frequency over time within a population Requires individual variation Sources of variation Meiosis o Recombination o Segregation 0 Independent assortment Mutation Frequency of alleles affects appearance in a population Macroevolution origination diversi cation and extinction of species over long periods of evolutionary time 0 Species diversity speciation extinctions 0 Species diversity can decrease because of Reduced speciation rate Increased extinction rate The Big Five Massive Extinctions caused by various combinations of factors including collapse of food webs changes in sea level climate change volcanic activity and asteroid impact The sixth mass extinction not at mass extinction level yetwe are getting theregt overexploitation habitat destruction climate change ocean acidi cation invasive species and pollution September 1 2015 Feeding and Trophic Interactions MSCI 311 Test next Tuesday iCIicker Wednesday online chat Thursday written portion Feeding Mechanisms Filter Feeding 0 Active moving yourself or body part through water 0 Passive taking advantage of currentssedimentary Effects of Flow on Filter Feeders oysters are active lter feederspump water through body If water is stationary food will run out around them ow brings in new food The faster the ow the more the growth due to increased food availability Lunge feeding rorqual whales 0 Active feeding facilitated by muscular contraction blue whale is largest whale Deposit Feeding Ingest sediment and digest stuff associated with Detritus dead and decaying plant material soluble compounds excreted by plants animals and dead animal remains Where do deposit feeders get their energy Each need speci c CN it varies spatially with grain size disturbance etc depending on location energy sources may differ for each deposit feeder Lugworm Importance ecosystem take stuff that would be unavailable to others add it into food web They resuspended sediments to lter feeders They turn the sediments by bioturbation as they burrow They create a mucus that keeps them from erosion Herbivory Microherbivores Macroherbivores Predation Feeding Mechanis s Lion shinvasive predator Sea starsevertible stomach P esteria piscicida dino agcreates open wounds on sh Releases toxin that breaks down sh tissue Canabilism Symbiosis coral symbiosis with zoozanthaellae Usually dino ag Coral provides algae with protection waste products of each produce substrate for other Algae provides 90 nutrition for coral Coral bleaching is loss of symbiont Parasitism isopod under shrimp gill Behavior and Foraging Humpack whales swim around to create bubbles around herring schools so they cant seeconfuse then group attack Dolphins use complex behavior to forage live in pods and transfer info between eachother Each pod has own strategy All get in line and do a traveling wave around sh to create pressure barrier and chirp to confuse sh Take turns by two going in circle to feed then all surface and restart Evolutionary trap Our behaviors affecting foraging behaviors if you remove a claw dives energy consumption daily in half In terms of reproductive potential less consumption less effort and time spent in making eggs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'