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Rest of Unit 2 Notes

by: Jessica Pflugler

Rest of Unit 2 Notes 624784

Jessica Pflugler
Penn State

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These are the rest of the notes for the Unit 2 exam. Good Luck!!!!!
Chemical Principles I
Audrey Smeltzer-Schwab
Chemistry 110
75 ?




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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessica Pflugler on Monday February 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 624784 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Audrey Smeltzer-Schwab in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles I in Chemistry at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
 5.2 o The First Law of Thermodynamics  Energy can neither be created nor destroyed  Energy is conserved- first law of thermodynamics  Internal energy- the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of the components of the system  In thermodynamics, we are concerned with the change in E that accompanies a change in the system  Positive value in delta e means that E final is greater than E initial  A negative value results in the opposite  A system may exchange energy in one of two ways with its surroundings: as heat or as work  When heat is added to a system or work is done on a system, its internal energy increases  Page 172 and 173  Endothermic- which a system absorbs heat  Exothermic- system releases heat  State Function- a property of a system that is determined by specifying the system’s condition or state  The value of a state function depends only on the present state of the system, not on the path the system took to reach that state  5.3 o Enthalpy  Enthalpy- symbol H, the internal energy plus the product of the pressure and volume of the system  Pressure-volume work- the work involved in the expansion or compression of gases  W=-P Delta V  The change in enthalpy equals the heat qp gained or lost at constant pressure  5.4 o Enthalpies of Reaction  Enthalpy of reaction- heat of reaction; enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction  Thermochemical equations- balanced chemical equations that show the associated enthalpy change in this way  Enthalpy is an extensive property  The enthalpy change for a reaction is equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign to Delta H for the reverse reaction  The enthalpy change for a reaction depends on the states of the reactants and products  5.5 o Calorimetry  Calorimetry- measurement of heat flow  Calorimeter- device used to measure heat flow  Heat capacity- the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1K  Molar heat capacity- heat capacity of one mole of a substance  Specific heat- the heat capacity of one gram of a substance  Page 182  5.6 o Hess’s Law  Hess’s law- if a reaction is carried out in a series of steps, Delta H for the overall reaction equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps  Page 188-189  5.7 o Enthalpies of Formation  Enthalpy of formation- heat formation  Standard enthalpy change- the enthalpy change when all reactants and products are in their standard states  Standard enthalpy of formation- the change in enthalpy for the reaction that forms one mole of the compound from its elements with all substances in their standard states  The standard enthalpy of formation of the most stable form of any element is zero  Page 192 and 193


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