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Bio 220 Circulatory System

by: Blaise

Bio 220 Circulatory System BIO 220-01

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 220-01 > Bio 220 Circulatory System
La Salle
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Notes on Circulatory System
Structure and Function of Organisms
Geri Seitchik
Biology, Science, health, Circulatory System, structure, function
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Blaise on Monday February 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 220-01 at La Salle University taught by Geri Seitchik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of Organisms in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Circulatory System – Animals  Some aquatic organisms don’t have a circulatory system  Components o Fluid  Blood one of the fluid  Fluid what carries materials that need to be transported. o Heart  Muscular pump  In lower forms that’s all it is… a vessel that pulsates  Structure that creates the force to move the fluid through the system o Vessels  Conduits found throughout the body that allows the fluid to move from one place in the organism to the next place  Functions o Transport  Respiratory gases  Nutrients  Hormones  … anything that needs to get from one place to another o Help maintain Body Temp.  Particularly in warm blooded animals  Fluid mostly water  Water has high specific heat … good material to carry heat of the body o Maintain body fluid maintenance o Carries cells of the immune system … HELPS BODY DEFEND AGAINST INVASION  Contains cells and molecules that defend  Animals w. no circulatory system o Invertebrates  Porifera (sponges)  Cnidarian (hydra)  Platyholmenthes (flatworms)  Nematodes (roundworms)  All are either aquatic or have a gastrovascular cavity to transport material  All others have some trype of circ system  Types of Circ Sytems o Open circulatory systems  Allow the fluid to leave the system  Then to be picked up again  Open because vessels are open ended  Much less efficient than close  FOUND IN  Arthropods  Non-cephalopod mollusks o Closed  Fluid never leaves … under normal circumstances  Much more efficient  ALL OTHER INVERTEBRATES  Cephalopod mollusks  Analids  Echinoderms …etc  And all vertebrates  Open Circulatory System – named because fluid in system leaves the system o Components:  Hemolymph – fluid  Indistinct from interstitial fluid o Because it mixes with interstitial o When the fluid leaves the system it mixes with intersitial  Vessels - 2 types  Arteries – takes blood away from the heart o ENDS of arteries are open  Veins – moves material toward the heart o BEGIN open-ended  Hemocoels – large spaces within the body – cite of exchange  Where the hemolymph is dumped into  Arteries end here  Cite of exchange between circulatory system and the body cells o Anything that the cells need to take or get rid of occurs at the hemocoels  Heart (Pumping organ)  Some cases pulsating vessel  Some have chambers  HAS OSTIA o This is hole in the heart o Hemolymph can enter heart through ‘holes’  Sack around this organ is called the PERICARDIUM  Atria – receiving chamber  Ventricle – distributing chamber  Closed cirsulatory system o Types of vessels  Arteries  Veins  Capillaries – the cite of exchange between the cells of the body and the circulatory system  All three types are continues with each other  NONE are open ended  Much more efficient because it takes advantage of the pumping of the heart  Does lose pressure but not at mucha s open circ o Hemolymph vs. Blood  Blood  Distinct from interstitial fluid  Not dumped out like hemolymph  Hemoglobin is the only respiratory pigment in vertebrate o Found in red blood cells   Hemolymph  Indistinct  Hemocyanin is the resp pigment o Similar to Hgb o Not located in cells o Dissolves freely in hemolymph o Formed elements of blood  Erythrocytes- RBC – O2, CO2  Neutrophils- WBC - phagocyte  Basophils – WBC –anti inflamitory response  Eosinophils – WBC – allergies, parasitic germs  Monocytes- WBC – phagocytic -> macrophages (out of circulation)  Lymphocytes – WBC – T&B Cells – specific immune responses come from here  Thrombocytes- platelets – Blood Clotting  White blood cells also called leucocyte o In vertebrates all red blood cells are intact nucleated cells  EXCEPT IN MAMMALS IN MAMMALS THEY ARE INUCLEATED o Means they are not capable of dividing at maturity o In circulation they have no nucleus  Short-lived – apx. 120 days o All white blood cells in all vertebrates are intact nucleated cells o In thrombocytes  All verts except mammals They are intact cells  In mammals They are cytoplasmic fragments of multinucleated giant cells called: o Megakaryocytes o 90% of plasma is water – helps maintain body temp  Blood clotting – hemostasis o Three events occur and each event buys time for the next and each event are less efficient than the one after it. o However, none of them are effective in stopping bleeding in a medium or large size vessel. o It does slow down the loss of blood in all events though. o You don’t need a severed vessel to start process o Events  Blood vessel spasm – due to sympathetic innervation to the smooth muscle by autonomic nervous system Causes sympathetic impulses to cause the vessel to vasocontrict due to injury in vessel wall Chemicals released by platelets and surrounding tissue to prolong the spasm Very short livnd phenomenon Buys time for 2 event  Platelet plug formation Normally platelets do not adhere to walls of vessel But when there is injury they start adhering to the connective tissue in the wall of the vessel and form a plug of platelets If injury is small it may be enough to stop bleeding  Formation of a clot Takes a series of steps: o You need calcium ions as well as blood clotting factors and tissue thromboplastin  converts prothrombin to thrombin  thrombin is used to activate fibrinogen to fibrin  Fibrin is the basis of the clot… forms web of threads at area of injury … where blood cells and platelets, etc. can get caught up and form the clot  THE MOST EFFECTIVE MECHANISM  o over time the clot starts to retract (shrink) o then fibrinolysin causes fibrinolysis  responsible for dissolving clot Vessels o Arteries  Tunica intima Simple squamous Epithelial lines the walls – also called endothelium  T. media Smooth muscle with a little bit of elastic connective tissue Largest layer in the wall of an artery Smooth muscle controlled by ANS o Where we get vasocontriction and vasodilation.  Needed for blood clot and regulate blood pressure  T. adventitia Connective tissue layer Anchors vessels to organs they in and also anchors nerves to vessels Outer anchoring layer  Large arteries have their own blood supply called – VASA VASORUM o Vein  Has the same three layers with some differences  Looking at the lumen of a comparable veins and arteries Tunica media is different – much thinner  Veins have valves – flaps that jut out into the lumen There to prevent the back flow of blood Needed because veins are transporting blood under really low pressure Muscle contraction helps blood to move through veins o Capillaries  Only one layer thick – just tunica intima Simple squamous epithelium – endothelium o Allows for diffusion and filtration  Pressure from arteriole dissipates here and is the reason why blood in the ventriole has lower pressure Vertebrate heart o Enclosed in a serous memberane called – pericardium  Two layers: - prevent friction Outer layer – parietal pericard Inner layer – visceral pericad Pericardial space in between In mammalian heart visceral and outer layer of the wall of the heart are the same – called epicardium o Wall of the heart has three layers  Outer – epicardium Connective tissue Anchoring Protection Also the visceral pericardium  Middle – cardiac muscle – thickest Responsible for contraction and relaxation of the chambers  Inner – endocardium - endothelium – simple squamous epithelium  o all vert hearts have chamebrs  atrium – receiving chamber where blood enters the heart  ventricle – distributing chambers where blood leaves the heart  between the two are a atrioventricular valve found in all cases prevents backflow from the ventricle back into the atrium three components o flaps or cusps o chords called chorditendinae o mounds of cardiac muscle  papillary muscles -> where chorditendinae insert  Semilunar valves At the entrance of arteries that leave the ventricles Also prevents back flow back into ventricle Made up of three cusps Pressure opens them up Single type circulation o Only goes thru heart once o Deoxygenated blood – only blood that flows through the heart  These hearts only have one atrium and one ventricle  Found in most fish  Blood that is high in co2 o Animals with two chamber hearts  Most fish except lung fish o Least efficient than double circulation but more efficient than an open system Double type circulation o Blood flows through heart twice o Both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood flow through the heart  There Is little to no mixing of the two o Heart Has three or four chambers o Three chambers  Dipnoan fish, amphibians, most reptiles (exception croc and alligators)  Trabecula carneae – little things that keep the blood from mixing  There are some animals that start to have interventricular septum but doesn’t really stop mixing  They have elaborate semilunar valves in the vessels that leave the ventricle that prevent the mixing of blood  Amphibians respiration is through skin because lungs are under developed Has pulmocutaneous circulation o Four chambered – gators, crocs, birds and mammal -- slide 36 and 37  In mammals associated with the right and left atrium are auricles o 2 circuits  Pulmonary circuit Between heart and respiratory organs and back to the heart For oxygenation of the blood  Systemic circuit Between the heart and the body cells and back to the heart Oxygenation of the cells Conduction System of the Heart o Cardiac muscle is myogenic – doesn’t need nervous intervation to contract o Normal rate established my myogenicity o Conduction system is the reason why heart can contract without nervous stimulation o Responsible for cardiac cycle – rhythmic contraction and dilation of the chambers o Made up of special cardiac muscle cells that act like neurons in that they can initiate an impulse or action potential o There is no initial stimulus!! o Cardiac muscle cells : (all these things get the heart to contract)  Sinoatrial Node (Pacemaker) Establishes normal beat of the heart Belongs to mammals Inititiates action potential  Interatrial Fibers (internodal) Goes into the av node  Atrioventricular node Alternate pacemaker Slower beat but can take over in emergencies until artificial pacemaker is put in  Bundles of His In the interventricular septum  Purkinje Fibers In the Walls of right and left ventricles Gets excitation(action potential) then contracts Cardiac Cycle – RESULT OF THE CONDUCTION OF SYSTEM o Contraction and relaxation of the chambers o Relaxation (diastole) – chambers are filling o Contraction (systole) – they are emptying o They cannot contract and empty at the same time o R and L atrium act as one / R and L ventricle act as one Exchange at the capillaries o Caps are simple squamous o Two forces operating  Hydrostatic or Blood pressue – pressure from pumping action of the heart What causes blood to move thru vessels Exerts force out of container it is in OUT OF CAPILLARY Higher at arterial end and lowest at the venus end o Because the arteries are getting the push o At the venus it is just going through the capillary bed and there is no other pump after that  Osmotic pressure – pressure due to the solute concentration of the blood Has effect on the movement of water from solute concentration Under normal circumstances osmotic pressure of blood is the same – no increase or decrease MOVES INTO CAPILLARY


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