Intro to PSY 0010 First Two Exams
Intro to PSY 0010 First Two Exams PSY 0010
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by Nicole Riggs on Monday February 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Melinda Ciccocioppo in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology 0010 in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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The Biology Mind Psych Exam 1 Neurons Neuron (nerve cell): Basic building block of the nervous system (see powerpoint) Neural Communication o 1) Dendrites of one neuron receive messages from the surrounding neurons and send message to the cell body o 2) Cell body “fires” action potential which travels down the axon to the terminal branches (see powerpoint) o 3) Terminal branches release neurotransmitters into the synapse o 4) Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on the dendrites of the receiving neuron (see powerpoint) o 5) Reuptake: Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons How Drugs Work Some drugs block the reuptake of neurotransmitters SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors): Block the reuptake of serotonin (neurotransmitter involved in regulation of emotions) Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuro in a keylock mechanism (see powerpoint) Agonists The agonist molecule excites. It is similar enough in structure to the neurotransmitter molecule that it mimics its effects on the receiving neuron. Morphine, for instance, mimics the action of endorphins by stimulating receptors Antagonists The antagonist molecule inhibits. It has a structure similar enough to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor. Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by blocking ACh receptors involved in muscle movement. The Nervous System Sensory neurons: carry info from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord Motor neurons: carry info from brain and spinal cord to muscles Interneurons: process info in the brain PNS: Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic: arouses and expends energy Parasympathetic: conserves energy Central Nervous System Brain: contains a majority of the body’s neurons clustered together in neural networks The Biology Mind o Responsible for decisionmaking concerning most of the body’s thoughts and movements Spinal cord: carries info to and from the brain (from PNS) o Reflex: simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus The Endocrine System Influences bodily functions through gland’s secretion of hormones: chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream Pituitary gland: o Secretes growth hormone & oxytocin o Sends instructions to other glands in the body Brain Imaging Techniques Electroencephalogram (EEG) o An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp PET Scan o PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task MRI Scan o MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce picture of brain tissue fMRI (functional MRI) o fMRI (functional MRI): can reveal function of brain regions by showing blood flow to different areas of the brain during a task Parts of the Brain Older brain structures Brainstem: contains medulla: controls heartbeat and breathing and pons: helps coordinate movements and control sleep Thalamus: Sensory switchboard Reticular formation: helps control arousal Cerebellum: enables nonverbal learning and memory, helps us judge time, modulate emotions, discriminate sounds and textures, and coordinates voluntary movements Limbic system o Hippocampus: process conscious memories o Amygdala: fear and aggression o Hypothalamus: hunger, thirst, body temp, and sexual behavior Upper Brain Cerebral cortex: covers cerebrum (upper brain) o Glial cells: provide nutrients and myelin to neurons and guide neural connections o Divided into 4 lobes Cerebral Cortex The Biology Mind Frontal lobe: enables judgment, planning and processing new memories o Thought to be involved in personality, inhibitions, and moral decision making Parietal lobe: processes info for touch and body position Occipital lobe: includes areas involved in sight Temporal lobe: includes areas involved in hearing Association areas: areas of cerebral cortex not part of motor or sensory cortex o Involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking Our Divided Brain Our brain is divided into two hemispheres These two hemispheres specialize in different areas. This specialization is known as lateralization Motor and sensory info cross over from one hemisphere of the brain to the opposite side of the body Splitting the Brain A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them Split Brain Patients With the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot RightLeft Differences in the Intact Brain Left Hemisphere o Believed to control conscious thought o Houses language areas o Involved in logic tasks Right hemisphere o Especially active when performing perceptual tasks E.g., visualizing objects, artistic endeavors Leftbrain: major in logic, learn new words, write for a magazine, analyze market trends, be a comparison shopper, study literature, write a novel Rightbrain: major in art, create a new toy, draw a landscape, do carpentry work, mold with clay and putty, visualize & rearrange furniture, build a house Brain’s Plasticity Plasticity: ability of the brain to modify itself after damage Constraintinduced therapy: Restraint of one area in order to rewire the brain and improve functioning in individuals with braindamage in another area Neurogenesis: production of new brain cells o Stem cells: cells found in human embryos that are able to develop into any type of brain cell o Natural promoters of neurogenesis: exercise, sleep, stimulating (not stressful) environment Introduction Psych Exam 1 What is Psychology? We define psychology as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings) The ABC’s of Psychology o Affect (emotions) o Behavior o Cognitions (thoughts) History of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1879 o Father of psychology o Measured reaction time to hearing a ball drop Early schools of Psychology Structuralism o Edward Titchener o Introspection used to explore structure of mind Functionalism o Why does mind function the way it does? o William James o Mary Whiton Calkins Trends in Psychology 1920’s – 1960’s o Behaviorism John Watson (with Rosalie Rayner) & B.F. Skinner Only interested in observable behavior o Freudian Emphasis on unconscious mind 1960’s o Humanistic Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow Growth potential o Cognitive Return to focus on mental processes Memory, speech, perception Current Trends in Psychology Biological basis of behavior, thoughts, and feelings o E.g., neuropsychology, evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics Health psychology Introduction o Addiction o Stress Positive psychology o Martin Seligman Nature vs. Nurture Nature: Human characteristics are determined by our biology Nurture: Human characteristics are determined by our environment Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science How do psychologist ask & answer questions? The Scientific Method o 1) Form a theory Theory: explanation that integrates principles, organizes observations, and predicts a behavior or event Should be something that is testable o 2) Develop a hypothesis (prediction) Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory Operational definitions: clearly defines all variables Typically by defining how the variable will be measured Variable: anything that can vary within the research design E.g., gender, age, liking, mood, etc… o 3) Design a study and collect data Case Study Examines one individual in depth in the hopes of revealing truths about all humans Benefit: Can gain indepth info Drawback: Individual case may be atypical and not generalize to the rest of the population Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals and humans in their natural environment Benefit: Participant is behaving as they normally would in their environment Drawback: Can only describe behavior, not explain it Survey A technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people Benefit: Can gain a lot of info in a short amount of time Drawback: Must be careful of wording and representatives of the sample Sample: participants included in the study Population: group researcher wants to generalize to Introduction Random sampling: everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected o Correlation Study design that measures 2 or more factors Can measure of the extent to which two factors vary together Correlation coefficient When one trait or behavior varies with another, we say the two correlate Correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variable Scatterplots Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship Perfect positive correlation (+1.00) Perfect negative correlation (1.00) No relationship (0.00) Correlation does NOT equal causation Positive correlation between aggressive behavior in children and the use of corporal punishment by their parents o Spanking causes aggressive behavior? Aggressive children are more likely to get spanked? o There is an unmeasured variable associated with both aggressive behaviors in children and use of corporal punishment by parents? Experiments Researcher manipulates one factor (independent variable) and observes the effect on another factor (dependent variable) Benefit: Can determine cause and effect Drawback: Can be difficult and, in some cases, impossible to conduct (some variables cannot be manipulated) Independent variable (IV): factor manipulated by the experimenter the presumed cause Dependent variable (DV): factor that may change in response to an IV Introduction the presumed effect Random Assignment: Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by random assignment minimizes preexisting differences between the two groups and helps to control for the influence of factors other than the IV on the DV o 4) Analyze the results Measures of Central Tendency: single number used to describe entire data set Mode: most frequently occurring score Mean: average of all scores (add scores and divide by number of scores) Median: Middle score (put scores in chronological order and find number that divides the sample in half) Measures of Variability: indication of how similar or diverse scores are Range: report lowest and highest scores Standard deviation: reports how much scores hover around the mean Smaller = less variability Histogram: visual representation of the distribution of scores xaxis = score yaxis = frequency Skewed Distributions Statistical significance Introduction Statistical significance means we can be fairly certain (usually at least 95% sure) that findings are not due to chance Statistical significance does not mean practical significance Introduction Drugs & Behavior Block 1 What is a “drug”? Generally accepted definition: a specific substance (not a food) that has a physiological effect when taken into the body Colloquially, we use the term drug to describe a medicine or a substance taken to alter psychological or physical states in a noticeable way Drug Terminology Illicit drugs = illegal Licit drugs = legal Therapeutic use: drug use for a specific purpose other than getting “high” Recreational use: drug use to achieve some pleasurable effect Drug abuse: drugtaking behavior resulting in some form of physical, mental, or social impairment Psychoactive (psychotropic) Psychoactive (psychotropic) drugs: drugs that affect behavior by altering the function of the central nervous system Two categories of psychoactive drugs: o 1) Drugs of abuse (recreational drugs) o 2) Psychotherapeutic drugs Categories of Psychoactive Drugs CNS stimulants o Amphetamine, Cocaine, Nicotine CNS depressants o Barbiturates, Alcohol Analgesics o Morphine, Codeine Hallucinogens o Mescaline, LSD, Psilocybin Psychotherapeutics o Prozac, Thorazine What is “behavior”? Formal definition: the actions or reactions of an organism in response to external or internal stimuli In this class, we will mostly focus on basic behaviors/emotional states such as being alert, calm, happy, distressed, agitates, “high”, depressed, active… Why study the effects of drugs on behavior? Scientific reasons o Mechanisms of brain function (How does the brain work?) Introduction o Mechanisms of addiction improved methods for treatment o Mechanisms of disease improved therapy Socioeconomic reasons o Big business (pharmaceutical, legal, illicit) World’s largest pharmaceutical firms Johnson & Johnson (US) Novartis (Swiss) Pfizer (US) HoffmannLa Roche (Swiss) o Deleterious economic costs: o Costs of Substance Abuse Abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is costly to our Nation, exacting more than $700 billion annually in costs related to crime, lost work productivity and health care Cultural/Social reasons: Drug use is not new o Opium 5000 BCE o Alcohol 3500 BCE o Nicotine ~ 1 BCE o Caffeine (tea) 600 CE o Caffeine (coffee) 1000 CE o Drugs are a part of many cultures and can directly influence your life o Can you make informed choices? Five Basic Principles of Psychoactive Drugs 1) Drugs are molecules that interact with neurons in the body o Drugs affect neurons by attaching to proteins call receptors, which are on the surface of neurons o When a drug (or neurotransmitter) binds to a receptor, the receptor changes how the neuron works o For example, some drugs cause neurons to reduce how much neurotransmitter they send to other neurons, which reduces communication between the neurons Introduction 2) The effects of a drug depend on more than just its direct biochemical effects o Every drug has specific & nonspecific effects Specific effects are due to molecular interaction with receptors Nonspecific effects are due to the characteristics and current state of the individual, including: Previous drugtaking experience Present mood Expectations of drug effect (e.g. placebo effect) 3) The effects of a drug are dependent on how much is taken and how it is taken o The amount of drug taken and the way it is taken (the “route”) can affect: One’s experience of the drug (How does it feel?) How strong the effects are (How high does one get?) How long the effects last (How long until one wants/needs more?) Amphetamine Dosages: o Therapeutic: 1040 mg, Oral o Recreational: 10100 mg, IV o Lethal: >200 mg 4) Drugs can change how neurons and the brain work o Both short and longterm exposure to a drug can lead to longterm neurological changes that can cause: Addiction Changes in ways parts of the brain connect to and communicate with other parts of the brain Death of neurons 5) The effects of drugs are hard to predict o Why? The brain is a complicated, dynamic system. o The brain has many selfregulating mechanisms that change its response to a drug over time. o Drugs affect any receptors they can attach to (not just one type!), which means they can affect many parts of the brain and body. o Some drugs mimic neurotransmitters, but not perfectly. Introduction Addiction Drugs & Behavior Block 1 Definition of drug addiction? “Certain individuals use certain substances in certain ways thought at certain times to be unacceptable by certain other individuals for reasons both certain and uncertain” Burglass and Shaffer (1984) 1) Physical dependence: o abstinence causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms that lead someone to start taking a drug again o But, not all drugs are particularly addictive 2) Compulsive drug seeking and drug use in an addict, which is driven by a craving for the drug 3) Chronic relapse o an addict can have drugfree periods, called remissions, but then will relapse to using the drug again, despite negative consequences Another definition, which incorporates #2 and #3: “A behavioral pattern of drug use, characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug (compulsive use), the securing of its supply and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal” (Goldstein, 1989) Recent change in official terminology Addiction o Has strong negative connotations/associations for many people o Not always urban, poor o Because the term addiction has conflicting definitions and strong negative associations, the American Psychiatric Association stopped using the terms addiction and addict The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to define substancerelated disorders as: o Substance abuse: may or may not lead to substance dependence o Substance dependence: more severe; corresponds roughly with addiction Historical use of drugs: US drug use and cultural attitudes o ~200 years ago, alcohol and caffeine were widely used and tobacco use (largely chewing it) was increasing o Opium was available for pain relief, either along or as laudanum (opium extract in alcohol) o No other drugs we currently identify as illicit, such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, ecstasy, meth, LSD, PCP… o Also: few drug control laws; none at a federal level o But, the governmental regulation of drugs began to change… Addiction Medicalization of drug abuse o An additional shift in attitude about drug use occurred largely in the second half of the 20 century; the medicalization of addiction o Addiction became thought of as a disease Addiction was previously seen as a sign of personal and moral weakness In the 1950’s, alcoholism was declared to be a disease by the World Health Organization and the American Medical Association Concept was later applied to cocaine and opioid addiction The most widelyaccepted model of addiction in the media, by addicts and their treatment providers (e.g. medical doctors, self help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous) o Consequences Because addiction was considered a disease, it came to be treated largely in medical settings Much of the research on drug use and abuse uses this medical model Is addiction a disease? The disease model does not exclude the neurobiological changes that occur with addiction or the biopsychosocial model It is based largely on evidence of the dysregulation of brain function in addiction Dr. Leshner, former director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), said that addiction is a brain disease because it is as though a “switch is thrown” when someone goes from voluntary drug use to the “state of addiction”. Despite largescale acceptance of the disease model, there is still ambivalence about this, including the fact that illicit drugs will get you arrested rather than treated Benefits & criticisms of the disease model of addiction Some benefits of the disease model: o Reduces stigma (no one blames someone for coming down with a disease) o Involves the medical profession in treating addiction o Can reduce guilt experienced by a recovering addict which helps in the recovery process (e.g. a lapse does is seen as part of the recovery process, not a horrible thing) Some criticisms of the disease model: o How does one define “disease”? Does it require some sort of definitive test (e.g. a blood test)? Addiction, like psychiatric disorders, can only be diagnosed through clinical signs and symptoms Additionally, the disease model is criticized by people who use behavioral approaches to understanding and treating substance abuse and addiction Why does drug use persist? Addiction Drug use can have extremely negative effects on many aspects of life Why do the shortterm rewards win out? Personality traits that can contribute to the initiation and continuation of drug use Substance abuse is lined to a cluster of traits: impulsivity, antisocial tendencies, unconventionality, aggressiveness, and low levels of constraint and harm avoidance Stress reduction: high scores on traits like stress reactivity, anxiety, and neuroticism are indicative of heightened vulnerability to stress. This pathway fits with the selfmedication hypothesis “Reward” sensitivity: Drug abuse is related to sensation seeking, reward seeking, extraversion, and gregariousness. Individuals scoring high on these traits would seek out drugs for their positivereinforcing qualities (i.e. the “reward”) Is there such a thing as an “addictive personality”? Sociocultural factors that contribute to drug use Sociocultural studies identify four functions of drug use: o When consumed in a group setting, drugs may enhance social bonds o The user escapes from normal roles and responsibilities o Drugs can enhance solidarity within a group o Distinct drug subcultures: users embrace social rituals surrounding a particular drug and reject conventional social norms and lifestyles Risk factors for drug addiction Why a given person becomes an addict, and another who takes the same drug and does not, is not well understood. But, there are some known risk factors: o 1) Heritability o 2) Growing up in a family with a substanceabusing parent o 3) History of physical and emotional abuse o 4) Being with drugusing peers o 5) Sociodemographic variables, including: younger age, less education, nonwhite ethnicity, lack of employment o 6) Stress o 7) Psychiatric disorders often accompany drug abuse (three theories): Selfmedication hypothesis: drugs are taken to alleviate conditions such as anxiety or depression Drugs cause psychiatric disorders Shared susceptibility o 8) Access to drugs (e.g. among medical professionals) Risk factors: cause and effect? For all of these risk factors for drug addiction, it is very difficult to tease out what causes what o For example, with drug use and psychiatric disorders: Do psychiatric disorders lead to drug use, or do drugs lead to the psychiatric disorders? Addiction Or, is there a shared factor (genetic or environmental) that predisposes a person to both drug addiction and mental illness? For the risk factor of growing up in a family with a substanceabusing parent: o Did drug use in the child(ren) or adult child(ren) of the parent use drugs because it replicated what they grew up with? Or was the fact of the parent’s substance abuse casual? Or was there a genetic component that led to both the parent and child(ren) to be substance abusers? Protective factors against drug addiction, for stopping addiction and preventing relapse No history of psychiatric disorders, abuse, not spending time with friends or family who are addicted to drugs If a person is able to stop taking the addicted drug, this can be initiated by a number of major life events, including: o Positive events: marriage, a religious/spiritual experience o Negative consequences of drug use, including: health problems, financial problems, loss of a job, or the death of a drugabusing friend If drug addiction was a problem, there are factors that prevent relapse, including moving to a new area and establishing social relationships with nonusers Drug use statistics: overall illicit drug use Percent of Americans with a substance abuse disorder by drug of choice A barrier to stopping drug addiction: tolerance Tolerance: decreased response to a drug after repeated exposure One very important consequence of tolerance is that increasingly larger doses of a given drug must be administered to get the same effect of the drug o For example: if you rarely have caffeine, the effect of a single cup of coffee is typically larger than for someone who has a few cups Addiction every day. A similar effect is found with alcohol. This is because the body and brain gradually adapt to chronic use of these drugs With other drugs, tolerance can be dramatic: e.g. heroin addicts rapidly build up tolerance to opiate drugs, and can then/need to take doses that would have killed them the first time they used these Characteristics of drug tolerance: o 1) The degree of tolerance is dependent on dose and frequency of drug use, as well as the environment in which a drug is taken o 2) Tolerance can occur rapidly (e.g. with LSD), or after long periods of chronic use (e.g. barbiturates), or never (e.g. antipsychotics) o 3) Not all effects of a drug (desired effects, side effects) show the same degree of tolerance. This can be beneficial, if it causes side effects to be reduced but not the desired/therapeutic effects, or it can be harmful if the reverse occurs o 4) Multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms explain different forms of tolerance o 5) Tolerance is reversible once drug use stops Two types of drug dependence 1) Physical o Physical dependence: defined by the occurrence of withdrawal syndrome o Withdrawal syndrome: set of defined symptoms associated with a decrease in the blood levels of a particular drug o Symptoms tend to be opposite from the effects of the drug If a drug makes you sleep, withdrawal may cause insomnia If a drug makes you numb, withdrawal may cause pain If a drug makes you happy, withdrawal may cause sadness Detox is a set of procedures designed to get a person through withdrawal syndrome but does not address psychological dependence 2) Psychological o Psychological dependence: desire or compulsion to experience effects of a drug because it produces pleasure or reduces discomfort Comes about because of the “rewarding” effects of the drug Psychological dependence may also be related to an individual’s fears about experiencing withdrawal symptoms Characterized by cravings How does drug addiction develop and progress? Addiction Biopsychosocial risk factors contribute to initiating and continuing drug use The brain’s reward circuitry reinforces drugtaking behaviors despite negative consequences Motivation and compulsion to take drugs increases Tolerance develops, requiring increased drug taking The body adapts to continued drug exposure by changing its setpoints, leading to psychological and physical dependence When abstinent, withdrawal symptoms occur, contributing to relapse How does it stop? General treatment strategies Treating a Biobehavioral Disorder must go beyond just fixing the chemistry Pharmacological Treatments Psychosocial Therapies (Medications) Medical Services Social Services Treatment statistics: Need for substance abuse treatment in 2014 in the US Addiction Treatment statistics: where did people get help? Reasons for not getting treatment among those who felt they needed it Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, & Health What is emotion? Physiological arousal Expressive behaviors Consciously experienced thoughts TwoFactor Theory Emotions have two factors: physical arousal & cognitive label Experienced Emotion 10 basic emotions: joy, interestexcitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, guilt Expressed Emotion Display rules: cultural rules for how often we display emotions & what emotions we are “allowed” to display o E.g., individualistic cultures tend to be more emotionally expressive than communal cultures Gender, Emotion, & Nonverbal Behavior On average women are more expressive than men (with the exception of anger) & are better at reading others’ emotions than men Universal Emotional Expression When culturally diverse people were shown basic facial expressions, they did fairly well at recognizing them Emotions are Adaptive Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival Facial Feedback Effect If facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowing brows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures Anger Venting Tips for managing anger o Wait o Distract yourself o Approach the source of conflict when you are no longer emotionally charged Happiness Emotion affects thoughts, memories, & behaviors People are generally bad affective forecasters Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health o Happiness & sadness are both more shortlived than we expect Happiness & Wealth Wealth not associated with happiness o Adaptationlevel phenomenon o Social comparison Stress & Health Stress Stress is dependent on our appraisal of a situation Stress occurs when we feel that the requirements of a task (stressor) exceed, or push us to the limits of our resources The Stress Response System FightorFlight response marked by the outpouring of epinephrine & norepinephrine from the adrenal glands, increasing heart & respiration rates, mobilizing sugar & fat, & dulling pain General Adaptation Syndrome Phase 1: Alarm Reaction o Mobilize resources to face challenge o Heart rate increases & blood is diverted to skeletal muscles Phase 2: Resistance o Designed to help body cope with stressor o Temperature, blood pressure, & respiration rates are high o Outpouring of stress hormones Phase 3: Exhaustion o Resources have been depleted o Body is especially vulnerable to illness & infection Stress & Immune System Functioning Chronic stress can weaken our immune system making us more susceptible to disease & infection Stress & Colds People with the highest life stress scores were also the most vulnerable when exposed to a cold virus Stress & Heart Disease Chronic stress can lead to elevated blood pressure which may result in coronary heart disease, a clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle Personality & Heart Disease Type A: competitive, harddriving, impatient, verbally aggressive, & angerprone people Type B: easygoing, relaxed people Coping with Stress Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health Problemfocused coping: developing a strategy & taking steps to eliminate a stressor Emotionfocused coping: focus on managing the negative emotions associated with stress o Rumination vs. distraction Perceived Control The absence of control over stressors is a predictor of health problems o Nursing home patients who feel that they have little control over their activities decline faster & die sooner than those who are given more control Optimism People with an optimistic (instead of pessimistic) explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods, & have a stronger immune system Social Support Receiving support from close others has been shown to lower blood pressure & inhibit the release of stress hormones Aerobic Exercise Aerobic exercise triggers the release of endorphins & serotonin which lowers tension, depression, & anxiety Spirituality & Faith Communities Faith effect: religiously active people tend to live longer on average than those who are not religiously active Relaxation & Meditation Can help alleviate hypertension, anxiety, headaches, & insomnia Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health Chapter 3: States of Consciousness Forms of Consciousness Consciousness is an awareness of ourselves & our environment o Some occur spontaneously Daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming o Some are physiologically induced Hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation o Some are psychologically induced Sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation Dual Processing Our conscious awareness processes only a small part of all that we experience. Much of the stimuli we encounter is processed unconsciously. o Unconscious parallel processing vs. Sequential conscious processing Selective Attention Focuses like a flashlight beam on only a very limited aspect of everything we experience o Senses take in 11 million bits of info per second. We only consciously process about 40! Inattentional Blindness Failure to see visual objects when our attention is directed elsewhere Circadian Rhythm: “biological clock” Regular bodily rhythms of temperature & wakefulness that roughly follows a 24 hour cycle Body temp rises in the morning, dips in early afternoon, and drops again in evening Light triggers the Pineal gland to decrease melatonin production in the morning & increase it at nightfall Alters with age Young – night owls o Performance is worst in the morning Older – morning larks o Performance is best in the morning Sleep Stages About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of four distinct sleep stages NonREM stage 1 sleep (NREM1) Slowed breathing & irregular brain waves Hypnagogic sensations: mild hallucinations NREM2 Periodic sleep spindles: bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health NREM3 Deep Sleep Stage Delta Waves: large, slow brain waves Sleepwalking REM Sleep Rapid eye movement Breathing becomes rapid & irregular, heart rate rises Time when we dream Brainstem blocks messages from motor cortex Sleep Cycle As night goes on REM periods increase & NREM3 sleep decreases Awakenings at night become more common with age Why do we sleep? We spend onethird of our lives sleeping What happens when we don’t get enough sleep? Sleep Deprivation Brain: decreased ability to focus attention & process & store memories; increased risk of depression Immune system: decreased production of immune cells; increased risk of viral infections, such as colds Fat cells: increased production; greater risk of obesity Joints: increased inflammation & arthritis Heart: increased risk of high blood pressure Stomach: increase in hungerarousing ghrelin; decrease in hungersuppressing leptin Muscles: reduced strength; slower reaction time & motor learning Accidents Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep o Less sleep = more accidents o More sleep = fewer accidents Sleep Theories Sleep protects Sleep helps us recover Sleep helps us remember Sleep helps us think more creatively Sleep helps us grow Good Sleep Strategies Add 15 minutes to sleep each night Exercise regularly but not right before bed Relax before bedtime in a dimly lit room Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health Avoid caffeine after early afternoon & avoid food & drink near bedtime Sleep on a regular schedule If suffering from insomnia, engage in relaxing activity outside of bed Avoid sleeping pills & alcohol Dreams – Content Incorporates experiences of previous day Incorporates current sensory experiences o Cannot memorize information in our sleep! Dreams – Purpose Freudian explanation o Provide a safe way for people to discharge unacceptable thoughts & feelings o Manifest content: remembered storyline of the dream o Latent content: unconscious drives & wishes that cannot be expressed directly (symbolized in manifest content) Informationprocessing perspective o Dreams help sort through the day’s experiences & fix them in our memory o However, memory consolidation can occur during nonREM sleep Physiological Function o Provides sleeping brain with periodic stimulation o Stimulation necessary to preserve & expand neural networks Neural activation o Brain trying to make sense of neural activity in visual centers & emotion related areas of the brain Little activity in frontal lobe Drugs & Consciousness Psychoactive drugs: chemical substances that alter perceptions & moods through their actions at neural synapses (affect consciousness) Tolerance Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance. With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug’s effect lessens. Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect. Withdrawal & Dependence Withdrawal: upon stopping use of a drug, frequent users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal & intense cravings for the drug Physical dependence: withdrawal leads to physical pain & intense cravings Psychological dependence: do not experience physical withdrawal symptoms but develop need to use the drug to relieve negative emotions Addiction Addiction: a compulsive craving for a substance, despite its adverse consequences (physical & psychological) Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health Consequences: impaired functioning, physiological disorders, conflict in personal relationships Psychoactive drugs Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups: depressants, stimulants, & hallucinogens Depressants Depressants: reduce neural activity & slow body functions Alcohol, barbiturates, opiates (1) Alcohol causes: disinhibition, slowed neural processing, & memory impairment (2) Barbiturates (tranquilizers): depresses the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory & judgment o Can cause death if taken in large doses or with alcohol o Examples: Nembutal, Seconal, & Amytal prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety (3) Opiates (Opium, morphine, & heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain & anxiety o Mimics the actions of endorphins o After repeated use can cause the brain to stop producing endorphins Stimulants Stimulants: temporarily excite neural activity & speed up body functions o Examples of stimulants: caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, MDMA (1) Caffeine stimulates nervous system & increases heart & breathing rates to create a burst of energy that lasts about 34 hours o One cup of drip coffee contains more caffeine than a shot of espresso! (2) Nicotine takes away unpleasant cravings by triggering the release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, & endorphins (3) Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, & norepinephrine causing an immediate euphoria followed by a crash (4) Methamphetamine: triggers the release of dopamine which enhances mood & energy o After repeated use the brain stops naturally producing as much dopamine (5) MDMA/Ecstasy/Molly: stimulant & mild hallucinogen. Triggers release of dopamine & serotonin & blocks reuptake of serotonin o Dehydrating effect o Can damage serotonin producing neurons Hallucinogens Hallucinogens: distort perceptions & evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (hallucinations) o Examples: LSD, Marijuana Unit 2: Consciousness, Emotions, Stress, & Health (1) LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide): blocks the actions of a subtype of serotonin, leads to vivid hallucinations; emotional reactions can range from euphoria to detachment to panic depending on the user’s current mood (2) Marijuana: major active ingredient (THC) causes similar effects to alcohol but is also a mild hallucinogen; amplifies sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, & smells; heavy use can lead to shrinkage brain areas that process memories & emotions Influences of Drug Use Genetic predisposition o Adoptive & twin studies o Dopaminerelated reward system Dopamine release associated with pleasurable activities Genes identified that produce deficiencies in dopamine reward system –more common among people predisposed to alcohol use disorder Psychological & environmental influences o Coping Drug use associated with feelings that life is meaningless & directionless o Peer influence Drug use more common if best friend or parent also uses Pluralistic ignorance: occurs when people misperceive a social norm
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