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Child Psychology Psyc325 Exam 1 Material

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Child Psychology Psyc325 Exam 1 Material PSYC325010

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Child Psychology
Ball,Shellene Marie

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Child Psychology
Ball,Shellene Marie
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This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Notetaker on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC325010 at University of Delaware taught by Ball,Shellene Marie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
Psyc325 Child Psychology How did an adult get to be the way they are How does the physical body delvelop Brain eyes hair How do we come to have the skills and abilities that we do Memory language vision navigation How do we come to be as we are Parenting altruism sociopathic Why do we care Because understanding development helps us to 0 Understand adult psychological function 0 Understand child psychological function 0 You can do something about it o Educator doctor counselor Nature vs Nurture Nature genes contain the entire set of instructions for the human brain and the body development proceeds in exact accordance with the plan Genes instructions 0 Structures made of nucleotides Each nucleotide consists of a chemical base a phosphate molecule and a sugar molecule Nucleotides are strung together 0 Clicker Question In what sense do genes provide quotinstructionsquot for development The ordering of nucleotides within a gene determines the production of the various proteins these proteins guide the growth and development of various parts of the body Chromosomes o All the coiled DNA forms a structure called a chromosome The order of the bases matters 0 The chromosomes are copied and sent out of the cell nucleus 0 In the cell body ribosomes make different proteins in accordance with the particular ordering of the bases within a gene Clicker Question What is the different between genes and DNA Genes are structures composed of DNA Phenotype the particular ways in which genetic information is express 0 For some traits the dominant allele wins 0 eye color 0 For other traits there is an intermediate expression between both characteristics 0 skin and hair 0 It39s also possible to nd full expression of both characteristics 0 blood type AB blood Genetically identical twins occurs due to a random mutation in which a fertilized egg separated and develops into two genetically identical twins Nurture The structure of the outside world social experiences but also gravity light ect creates the human brain and body 0 Famine less growth 0 Development proceeds in accordance with the environment Kinship studies to tease apart nature from nuture People who share 100 of their genes share a very high percentage of their physical attributes People who share about 50 of their genes biological siblings share considerably less than 100 of their physical attributes People who share about 0 of their genes unrelated people share few physical attributes Nature and Nurture Genes and the environment interact in complex ways Clicker Question with regard to human development quotnaturequot refers to the inherited biological predispositions of an individual Clicker Question with regard to human development quotnuturequot refers to the in uences exerted on development by the individuals social and culture environment and person experiences Listening in the womb DeCasper amp Spnce 1986 asked pregnant women to read The Cat in the Hat aloud 2x a day 0 Last month and a half of pregnancy 0 23 days after birth 0 Actively modi ed rate of sucking to elicit recording of the mother reading the Cat in the Hat as opposed to a different story Clicker Question From DeCasper amp Spence 1985 s results what can we conclude about what fetuses are learning in the womb Fetuses are learning to recognize acoustic cues corresponding to a speci c spoken language passage Egg and Sperm Zygote doesn39t have sensory organs yet cant sense or perceive germinal period 8 10 days D blastocysts 60 cells in a ball 79 days later implant into fallopian tubes as an embryo embryonic period 37 weeks Nutrition is key need folic acid for successful neutral tube development Need for spina bi da and other malformations Fetal period respond to external environment 838 weeks sensory organ develop 7 weeks sex organs 89 weeks organs develop as a fetus detrimental external in uences o maternal stress adrenaline and cortisol hormones pass through placenta affect fetus motor activity 0 at 3 years children show more aggression low birth rate 0 following war 0 following negative thoughts about pregnancy teratogens environmental agents that affect development prescription drugs 0 thalidomide severe physical abnormalities 0 Accutane birth defects Caffeine low birth rate Tabacco abnormal growth Alcohol fetal alcohol syndrome Marijuana low birth rate Clicker Question At what point in prenatal development is a human most likely to die from the effects of a teratogen Germinal Period Clicker Question At what point in prenatal development is a human most likely to have a heart damage due to the effects of a teratogen 36 weeks Embryonic period is the most sensitive General Priciples Sensivitiy to a teratogen depends on the developmental stage of the organism at the time of exposure 0 Early death 0 Middle malformation Late slower growth and lower body weight Teratogens affect speci c organs 0 Mercury compounds brain damage and cerebral palsy Severity of the effects of teratogens vary across individuals but generally are harmful Forebrain Midbrain Hind brain Sulci groves on brain The newborn brain major brain structure have been formed and have neural connection to one another Neuron a cell that receives and transmits electrical and chemical signals Clicker Question Cell migration the passive movement of cells from a proliferative zone to their nal destination within the brain whereby the cells are simply quotpushedquot along from behind by newer developing cells Buddle form at the front of the neural tube 0 4 weeks after fertilization 0 Two large bubbles form 0 Buddle take the shape of cups Retinal neurons and the lens forms Forming layers ganglion cells 620 weeks Eye cups migrate 8 weeks are festination from the sides like sh to the front like humans Upper and lower eyelid folds form 0 Beginning of fetal period upper and lower form then fuse shit 0 They only nally separate before birth Subcortical visual areas develop 0 By 11 weeks Lateral geniculate nucleus neurons have forms 0 By the end of the rst trimester they are hooked up with the retinal ganglion cells Primary visual cortex develops Second trimester 100 million neurons between 1428 weeks Continues after birth at the rate of 10 billion new synapses per day Birth Development of higher visual processing areas in the temporal and parietal lobes By 4 months after birth the where pathway 0 By 8 months after birth the what pathway Synaptic pruning Kicks in at around 2 years old 0 40 of synapses die off Visual acuity acuteness sharpness of vision Depends on Retinal focus and functioning in the eye Neural functioning in the brain 2020 means that at 20 feet you can see edges Habituation method 0 Infant faces one stimulus that appears disappears and reappears Experimenter hides behind the whole displace and watches and or vide records through a peep hole 0 At rst the infant looks at a stimulus for a long time 0 But with repeated viewing each time it appears the infant spends less time looking at it Once the infant is habituated to the stimulus the experimenter displays a new stimulus If the infant doesn39t give the new stimulus any longer of a look than the previous old stimulus conclude that the infant doesn39t see the difference ie thinks it39s the same as the old one 0 However if the infant looks at the new stimulus for a longer time conclude that the infant can see the difference Preferential looking Method 0 First habituate infant to one stimulus Then infant faces two stimuli one is the habituated stimulus the other is new o If the infant looks at or orients head towards the novel stimulus for more time than the habituated stimulus the infant can see the difference Optokinetic Nystagmus Method 0 Drag visual grating across screen until infants39 eyes stop jumping from stripe to strip Visually evoked potential method 0 Instead of noting how long the infant looks or at what point the infants eyes stop jumping show different stimuli and measure ifwhen the infant39s brain activity changes 0 Greater acuity detecting by VEP than other methods Brain can detect more activity than the baby can show you 2020 can see edges that are 175 mm apart standing 20 feet from chart 20600 baby can see edges that are 175 mm apart standing 600 feet from chart Clicker Question to what extent does the experience of vision after birth in uence brain development At birth there are some existing connecting between the eye and the brain The experience of having the ability to see forms enter the eye after birth is required for these connections to be maintainedwithout the experience of forms these connections will die off How could you gure out whether brain development requires any visual expe ence Single cell recording revealed a topographical mapping in the cortex nearby cells in the cortex represented nearby region in the visual eld Simple cell in V1 sums input from neurons in LGN Effects of Monocular deprivation in kittens lack of sight in one eye 0 How do we prevent vision suture the eye closed for rst three months of life then open it again 0 Cant see any forms 0 Can barely see light Resu s 0 Most cells in striate cortex in occipital lobe respond to light presented to normal eye only 0 What is causing the lack of cortical cell response for sutured eye 0 Could be lack of input from LGN to V1 But no LGN looks ne They actually found cells that response to light presented to the previously sutured eye 0 Well actually there were anatomical abnormalities 0 The problem is V1 Clicker Question What would you guess the kittens needed to experience in that ye that they didn39t experience that led to the lack of V1 response They needed to be able to experience seeing speci c quotformsquot shapes Is the problem lack of light in general or speci cally lack of forms Kittens raised with a translucent occlude some light no forms 0 No cortical V1 cells responding to input from occluded eye However LGN didn39t have the abnormal shrunken cells 0 The problem is lack of forms If an older cat s eye was sutured after having visual experience for months and then reopened what amount of response would you predict in V1 It depends on how old the cat is when it experiences lack of visual input Kitten with one eye sutured starting at 9 weeks old lasted a month 0 Most cells respond to input coming only from normal eye Cortex is abnormal even when LGN is ne 0 Adult cat with one eye sutures No cortical de cit No LGN abnormality They have in mind an idea of how the brain works unused connections die off at any age Take away message visual connections are in place from birth but some required experience is necessary to be maintained If you get that experience early it can39t be undone later in life Critical period use it or lose it Also called the sensitive period Child physchology devleopmetal mental processes 0 The included sensation and perception Our ability to perceive what39s out there depends on our brain being able to process it Visual Problems in children 0 Up to 5 of infants born with develop visual abnormality in rst few years 0 Loss of acuity is virtually permanent beyond a certain age about 57 and stereovision at an even younger age Orientation selectivity Blakemore amp Cooper 1970 deprivation of horinzontal lines only see vertical lines Can newborns see color at all Could use the habituation test If they see the difference between colors they will quotdishabituationquot when presented with a new color compared to the color they39d previously been habituated to 0 Logic if they see the difference between colors then obviously they can see color Newborns can see color Over rst four weeks come to perceive smaller and smaller differences in hue the older they are Can newborns categorize colors If they look longer when a quotgreen switches to a blue than they do when a quotgreenquot switches to another quotgreenquot even though the difference in wavelength between pairs is the same Conclude they think one of these is green and one is blue dishabituation while the other two are both green dishabituation but less time looking due to similarity of green Categorical perception treating stimuli that vary along a continuum as they are in discrete categories Clicker Question What colors can newborns see All of them Dynamic cues relative changes in object observer relationship when observer andor object are moving Looming one object getting bigger relative to others Motion parallax relative movement of objects and observer Binocular cues differences in visual input between the two eyes Binocular parallax the greater the disparity in vantage point between the eyes the farther away the object is Motion parallax moving object smaller if further away Pictorial cues features of the 2D representation of a scene Interposition overlap of shapes means one is in front of the other Texture gradient repeating patterns get smaller as object is further away Comp is the distance parallel lines meet as they extend further away Clicker Question in the situation of baby on plexy glass with cliff that is not a cliff the baby hesitates This indicates that the baby can use dynamic cues Clicker Question what exactly do babies do in a preferential looking task that researchers take as evidence that the babies see the difference between the stimuli They look for a longer time at one stimulus compared to the other stimulus What can you conclude if infants look at the normal face more than the scrambled face 0 They can see that there is a difference between them Thy actually have a preference for the normal face 0 But this raises the question is it really that the features are in the right places Or is it something else they prefer Like having faces with more stuff at the top then at the bottom after all they can39t even see the features in great detail 0 Newborns prefer top heave face like stimuli What else can newborns understand about faces 0 They quickly learn to recognize parts of speci c faces separate from other parts 0 They don39t care if you spread features out wider or squished Prefer faces that adults consider to be attractive They prefer happy faces over fearful faces Two stage model of visual development c A rudimentary innate pathway 0 Innate born with it doesn39t require experience to develop 0 When certain cells are activated by the visual input of an inverted triangle in an oval that activation is passed along a pathway to a particular area of the brain 0 But the early existence of that area allows newborns to recognize and prefer normal faces 0 A sophisticated specialized processing system develops with experience 0 Over time that brain area develops neural circuits to do complex processing of the visual input it is getting Which just so happens to be faces Becomes the quotfusiform face areaquot of the temporal lobe You take for granted that you know what is a part of you and what is not 0 But newborn babies might not know this They might not realized that they are not the whole world they might not realize that they have a boundary If they aren39t currently experiencing an object then they are not experiencing it o In other words for all intents and purpose the object doesn39t even have a reality it doesn39t exist Out of sight out of mind existence for babies Object permanence the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when you have no experience of them A not B error 0 Infant watches as a toy is hidden He reaches out and recovers it 0 Repeat several times 0 Infant watches as toy is hidden in a new location He reaches out and looks for it in the original hiding location Clicker Question What is object permanence The knowledge that objects continue to exist even when you have no experience of them Clicker Question What is the A not B error After an infant watches an object hidden in one location A several times when he then watches the object hidden in a new location B he continues to reach out for it in the original location A jean Piaget 18961980 0 Developmental psychologist who noticed 0 That babies and kids interact differently with their environment than adu sdo Kids make weird mistakes 0 That all kids go through the same stages in the same order Egocentric Babies perceive and understand the world only in terms of their own interactions with the world 0 They do not understand there to be a boundary between themselves and quototherquot And therefore they do not understand that anything quototherquot had a continuing existence beyond their own experience 0 This is why they show a lack of quotobject permanencequot And therefore they believe that their actions bring about particular experiences 0 This is why they make the quotA not B errorquot Period of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor period birth to 2 years Preoperational period 27 years Concrete operational period 712 years Formal operational period 12 years on These are unavoidable unskippable periods during which 1 Kids understand their experiences according to a particular scheme their current state of knowledge 2 They adapt their schemes to make sense of new experiences Sensorimotor State Use of re exes birth 1 month Emergence of primary circular reactions 14 months Appearance of secondary circular reactions 49 months Coordination of secondary circular reactions 912 months Appearance of tertiary circular reactions 1218 months Invention of new means through mental combinations 18 months 2 years How do babies advance from one stage to the next 0 Whenever they encounter a new object event situation they 0 Make sense of it in terms of their current knowledge Assimilation 0 To the extent that what s happening doesn39t make sense alter something quotaccommodationquot Their behavior 0 If you just reach out under and grab the object the experience of the object continues Their understanding 0 You can grab something that has moved away independenUy Clicker Question Would you characterize Piaget as a nativist nature or an empiricist nurture Empiricism development of requires experiences to build and shape the mature organism What else do infants know that they can use to understand what39s going on in the world Solidity principle a solid object cannot pass through another solid object 0 Continuity objects exist continuously they cannot quotjumpquot from existence in one place to existence in another place 0 Contact objects cannot affect each other without coming in physical contact Gravity unsupported objects fall toward the ground lnertia objects don39t change the path of motion unless acted upon by some force Nativism have acquire knowledge via nature 0 These principles don39t seem built in given that they emerge months after birth 0 Maybe solidity continuity and contact are Empiricism acquire knowledge via nurture So maybe the evidence from the environment is better for solidity continuity contact than for gravity inertia 0 But what Poor evidence for gravity 0 And what would the relevant experiences be that nally allow infants to acquire these later emerging concepts Test the solidity principle Solidity principle a solid object cannot pass through another solid object o What will babies be asked to do in your study 0 What will you present them with Clicker Question What if the baby attempts to pass through a solid barrier What does that tell us about their understanding of the solidity principle It tells us that they do not understand the solidity principle that a solid object cannot pass through another solid object We should be cautious in interpreting their response since we know from other experiments that what babies do may not re ect their true understanding Clicker Question What if the baby does not attempt to pass through a solid barrier What does that tells us about their understanding of the solidity principle It tells us that they do understand the solidity principle We should be cautious in interpreting their response since we know from other experiments that what babies do may not re ect their true understanding What will babies be asked to do in your study 0 You do not want to have babies reaching or performing an action 0 Why not o If they are really young they can39t make guided reaching movements yet 0 Because we know that their actions can belie their true knowledge 0 And if they don39t do anything they you have no idea Stimuli Baillargeon 1987 0 First habituate them to the 180 degree event board lays at then rotates to standing then at to the other side 0 Why 0 Because if you don39t habituate them to the event itself they will nd it so interesting they will look just as long at the possible event as the impossible event 0 Instead we want them bored so we can detect surprise when things changes 0 How long will you show them the habituation event 0 As long as it takes to decrease the looking time 0 Second show babies either possible events or the impossible event rod blocking and sinking o How many times will you show them this events Not many Already by the second time they may be already be les surprised by the impossible event just because they ve seen it before 0 Measure dependent variable 0 Looking time o Dishabituation Given a possible event predict only mild dishabituation Given an impossible event predict signi cantly more dishabituation Independent variable 0 What varies freely across individuals or trials 0 Event possibility Possible event Impossible event This experiment tests dishabituation as a function of event possibility Looking times were not looking for the 180 degree event compared to the 120 degree event Looking times were looking for the impossible event compared to the possible event Clicker Question Looking times were longer for the impossible event compared to the possible event What does this tell us lnfants do not understand the solidity principle Clicker Question Looking times were not longer for the 180 degree event compared to the 120 degree event What does this tell us lnfants were not surprise at the event in which the board rotated and lay completely at compared to when it stopped before lying at Clicker Question from these two results we conclude that infants probably do understand the solidity principle Why do we feel justi ed in concluding this Because alternative explanation such as infants simply being surprised when the board doesn39t lay at have been ruled out Do infants understand quothow manyquot Of course they don39t understand the words quothow manyquot But do they consider there are individual objects If they look more at six dot display what does that tell you o It tells you that they see something newsurprisingdifferent about it compared to what they saw before 0 And they could only see it as different if they UNDERSTAND that there are more dots in the current display than there were in the previous displays When amount of quotstuffquot is kept constant and all that differs is numerosity lnfants still dishabituate to a change in numerosity Nine months old infants can add and subtract numbers that exceed objecttracking limits 0 Knowing quothow manyquot allows you to process larger quantities Categorization groupings based on shared features shared functions or shared meanings How did you come to know which things go together and which don39t In other words how did you get the concept of DOG Does it come from nature or nurture Clicker question how did you come to know which things go together and which don39t Certain simpler concepts are innate small animal and what you do is build up a concept from these based on what you encounterexperience in the world Nature 0 You are born with all of your concepts 0 Face 0 Dog 0 Fax Nurture You learn your concepts via experience with the world 0 Fur four legs tail barking noise D dog 0 You could have a built in ability to notice cooccurring features This is not the same thing as having the concept built in Clicker Question What does urg mean Yellow and or Triangle is urg Concept learning through inductive reasoning concept learning involved the formulation and con rmation of hypothesis about the identity of the concept being learned Fodor 1981 p267 Red andor circle is non urg Yellow andor triangle is urg Green andor triangle is non urg Yellow andor circle is non urg So urg means yellow triangle all other possible answers got ruled out by the counter examples What do you need to learn urg You need SOME concepts in order to form a hypothesis 0 Hypothesis I think it means quotyellow trianglequot 0 Based on concepts Yellow and triangle No nurture without a little bit of nature 0 You can t form a hypothesis about concepts if you39re a rock 0 You can t form a hypothesis about complex concepts if you don39t even have the simple ones 0 So you need at least a few built in Fodor39s Argument against Empiricism Every concept must be built in 0 Yellow o Triangle 0 Yellow triangle 0 o How could you come up with an idea you don39t have Fodor the environment quottriggersquot innate concepts 0 For all the concepts you haven39t learned yet you actually HAVE knowledge of them but it39s just that your attention hasn39t been brought to them yet 0 For example circle 0 You wouldn39t notice the circleness of it versus the squareness of it unless you had a concept of circle in the rst place so that you were able to identify it as a circle 0 For example yellow triangle 0 You wouldn39t notice the yellowtriangleness of it versus the green squareness of it unless you had a concept of yellowtriangle in the rst place so that you were able to identify it as a yellowtriangle But it39s hard to make the argument for things like fax machines 0 Do we really have an innate concept of fax that simply needs to be triggered by the presence of a fax machine 0 In nite possible concepts Easier to argue that we39ve built up the concept of fax machine from simpler concepts Fodor Well it may not be that all concepts are innate but most concepts probably are Clicker question how did you come to know which things go together and which don39t Certain simpler concepts are innate small animal and what you do is build up a concept from these based on what you encounterexperience in the world Theory of Mind An understanding of other s mental states and beliefs 0 This understanding allows us to infer others39 goals to explain their actions You quottake the other s perspectivequot and applying what you believe you would think under the circumstances False belief task 0 Person A and Person B know the initial state of things 0 Only person A observes a change 0 Will Person A realize that Person B will not have a quotfalse beliefquot o If yes Person A succeeds at the false belief task o If not Person A fails at the false belief task 0 Note Person B cannot fail or succeed at the test Make responding easier with a nonverbal task Violation of expectation method Take home message Children under 3 can pass a false belief task Children way under 4 years old can understand theory of mind lntuitive physics of the young infant Solidity one object cannot pass through another rigid object 0 Continuity objects exist continuously they cannot quotjumpquot from existence in place to existence in another place 0 Contact objects cannot affect each other without coming in physical contact Gravity unsupported objects fall toward the ground lnertia object don39t change path of motion unless acted upon by some force People move vs Cylinders 0 Even at 7 months they know that social agents can affect each other at a distance but objects cant Claw vs Hand grabbing At 5 months they interpret a human hand as having quotgoal directed behaviorquot Reasons to fail the false belief task It39s hard to inhibit salient knowledge YOU have this problem too It39s hard to inhibit a particular presentoriented response Sort of similar to the A notB response Here it would be failing to inhibit current knowledge in contrast to what you used to think YOU have this problem too It can be hard to attend to remember when you learned something and therefore when someone else might have learned it or whether they did at all Exam Wednesday


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