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Class notes up until first midterm exam

by: Janey Lyon

Class notes up until first midterm exam 3365

Marketplace > University of Utah > Environmental Science > 3365 > Class notes up until first midterm exam
Janey Lyon
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These class notes covering everything from what was on the slides, to extra comments made by the professor. Everything you need to know before the first midterm exam.
Global Sustainability
Mariko Lin Frame
Global Sustainability, Global Economics
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Monday February 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 3365 at University of Utah taught by Mariko Lin Frame in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Global Sustainability in Environmental Science at University of Utah.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
Tuesday, January 26, 2016 Global sustainability Class notes FREE MARKET ENVIRONMENTALISM - Source exploitation and environmental degradation are not inextricably linked to economic growth. - First, the world is not running out of resources. - According to Malthus, population growth will overwhelm productivity and result in famine and pestilence (this is a classical economists approach) - FME’s say that none of this is happening. the Environmental pollution is actually improving, we are not running out of food and global demands on water are slowing. - Human ingenuity is stimulated by market forces and will find us ways to cope with resource constraints - Market prices will be switched on by human ingenuity. - When market prices signal increasing scarcity there are rewards provided for those who mitigate resource consumption by finding substitutes and improve productivity. - Generally, FME’s believe that positive incentives in the market like prices, profits and entrepreneurship will keep things moving forward while negative incentives like regulation and taxes are needless… - They suggest that well specified property rights to lands and resources and private lands will encourage discipline. - Man is self interested and social institutions must harness that self interest through individual incentives. - Decentralized governmental management will compliment diffuse knowledge rather than allowing control of a centralized group of experts. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS - arose as a criticism of mainstream neoclassical economics. Similar concepts here but differing in important ways. 1 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - one major way is in terms of growth because economic growth is a creed of both moderns society and neoclassical economics. - Important assumptions underlying neoclassical economics: - non market goods don’t count as GDP - humans are considered insatiable. - market is considered the most efficient way to allocate goods and reveals the most desired ends. So, economic growth is always desirable. - these economists focus solely on allocating resources efficiently. - Ecological Economists believe that efficiency is important but not our end goal. - There ARE overall limits to growth - fair distribution IS important. - we don’t need to end capitalism BUT, the market may not be the ideal system for allocating resources in an efficient way. - Neoclassical beliefs allow the economy to become bigger than the earth itself while E.E’s want the economy to be a smaller subset of the Earth. Earth is more important than economy. - Growth results in an increase in through put which is the flow of natural resources from the environment, into the economy and back to the environment as waste. - growth is the quantitative increase in the physical dimensions of the economy and or the waste stream produced by the economy. - we MUST differentiate growth from development. It is a qualitative change, realization of potential, evolution toward and improved but not larger structure or system. - sustainable development must be about development within the sustainable limits of material throughput. - GDP lumps together quantitative and qualitative growth, so it is not a very useful measure because it tells us nothing about sustainability. - ALL HUMAN ACTIVITY IS EMBEDDED IN THE ENVIRONMENT. - the fundamental vision: 2 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - while conventional economics sees the economy as the whole with the environment as a subset, ecological economics sees the environment as the whole with the economy as a subset of a larger, sustaining whole being the Earth. - As the Economy grows bigger, growth has a cost and when it is no longer sustainable, it becomes uneconomic growth. - There is an optimal scale relative to the ecosystem, but have we reached the limits? - Empty world vs. Full world - In an empty world, the environment is not scarce and there is no opportunity cost to further growth. - in a full world, this is not the case, we can keep increasing our technology and building shops, but if there is no fish in the sea, what good are fishing boats? - we are now in a full world. - TECHNOLOGY WILL NOT SAVE US. - E.E’s insists on differing between manmade capital for natural capital. - manmade capital may compliment our economy but is cannot substitute natural capital. “you can’t substitute a fishing boat for the fish in the sea.” - On the topic of humane evolution: - 90% of human history, we lived as hunter gatherers. we met our basic needs by spending a few hours a day gathering or hunting for food and making tools. There was no private property, food was shared in common. - E.E’s question whether or not private property is even a part of our human nature. - gradually, our technology improved, food storage was invented, it led to a surplus in riches which then led to private property. - This also led to class division, specialization of labor, inequality, class conflict, hierarchy, slavery and some would argue, patriarchy. - higher population and agricultural needs led to greater ecological disruptions forcing humans to rely increasingly on agriculture, technological growth and so on. 3 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - the industrial agriculture led to greater trading and also enabled colonialism and global specialization- and international division of labor began. - after the industrial revolution, humans became completely reliant on fossil fuels for the first time. it vastly replaced human labor with machines and increased production. - With capitalism, this all led to an unprecedented rate of growth, stuff, population increase, international trade, and of course, rapid consumption and degradation of the environment. The entire globe is now drawn into orbit of industrial civilization and capitalism. - Irony that is pointed out: after all this, humans are laboring for more hours than ever- why is this so? - We live in an era of rapid change and we have come to view growth as always increasing and making things better but this is a false perception. We are rapidly undercutting our ability to survive ecologically. - E.E’s believe in taking seriously the issue of scale and distribution. - future generations are likely to suffer worse than we do now - we must care about sustainability for the future, as well as current people living in abject poverty - current policy and macroeconomics to try and grow the economic pie bigger so the poor are less poor with out need of distribution. But if the environment is taken into account, this is not an option. ENVIRONMENTAL MARXISM reading: “what every environmentalist needs to know about Capitalism” - wrote the Communist Manifesto - Was German, learned Russian, Greek. Spent everyday reading in the library, learning languages. He studied economics and the environment. - He was known to be pretty extreme. - “nothing is enough for the man to whom enough it too little.” -Epicurus 4 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 • Epicureans engage in all the pleasures the world has to offer. If we have infinite desire, how can we ever be satisfied. We always seek more. Its an endless quest of non-satisfaction. • ecological context: there are physical limits to our planet like fossil fuels, minerals, nonrenewables. Land is a physical limit, we only have so much space for humans to dwell, grow food. Non-biodegradable goods the collect in our earth. • Freud talked about our infinite world and our infinite expectations. The telephone and internet made our possibilities for communication endless. With all these possibilities come infinite struggle - humans exist in a biophysical world. But nature of this earth has existed much longer than the rest of us have. The Earth doesn’t need us and can carry on with out us. At the same time, we impact the Earth so harshly. We are of the natural work and we are shaped by it. As we actively transform our environment, we actively transform ourselves. - Marx was a great student of history. He asked when does human history start?- With the first act of production. The labor of providing food for ourselves. The engagement with the environment. Labor is the primary interaction where we confront conditions and limits. - How we organize production shapes the relationships between ecological practices and society. - When we transition to capitalism there is a sure switch between classes. Proletariats (workers) and bourgeoisie (means of production, factory owners, resources buyers). Power tends to be concentrated into the capitalist class of those who own the means of production. This takes away democracy because its geared towards accumulation and expansion. - Capitalism creates a pressure of a larger system that creates the ways individuals of our country are acting. - Marx argues that in a capitalist means of production, we undermine the realities of biophysical limits. The majority of people no longer have access to decision making. They just work for people. They work for people who make the bigger decisions under pressure of an ever expanding economy. This affects all of us. Lecture on the reading: (Mariko) What Every Environmentalist should know about Capitalism. 5 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - What makes capitalism so distinct today? The goals of production are determined by profit. This is historically unique. When profit is the end goal it can expand and expand non stop. - Two major inputs: labour and natural resources. Labor is sellable on the market, its a commodity. Nature also becomes a key commodity in the pursuit of accumulation. - Why are we forced to compete? economies of scale: the bigger your production, the cheaper you can sell things for to undercut your competition. Walmart is huge and so it is very easy for them to sell things for very cheap. Technology can easily replace labor in these situations. - Marx talked a lot about structure, its not all individuals. Capitalism is not just an economic structure. How we view things, doesn’t conflict with our economies. So with Feudalism it was easy to view the kings as divine rulers. Under capitalism we feel that selfish competition is a good thing. Every one can be a millionaire. Economic growth matters most. Inequality is deserved because the people at the top worked hard and deserve it. Our worldview as americans supports capitalism. - The political system is part of the superstructure. There is a hierarchy in academia. Wealthier students go to better colleges. We all are fit into a particular class. Environment and Globalization: The 5 Propositions - how does globalization affect the environment? • the market decides where we will and will not drill • labor is dispersed around the world economic integration and national trade • - Why do we have global trade? • increased population, technological advances, cheaper labor, cheaper materials and high demand in wealthy countries. 6 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - Three important definitions of globalization: • globalization of the political economy through trade between countries. This trading began typically at the beginning of colonialism, when al the countries in Europe began to be drawn into these new lands and their economies were becoming completely restructured. This is when certain countries had cash crops and they were only exporting product for small pay to imperialist countries. Integration through foreign direct investment, capital flows, movement of workers, flows of technology. • then, globalization of knowledge. Information, culture, ideology, technology. The spread of democracy, COP21, World Bank, IMF. • globalization of governance - The Five Propositions 1: rapid acceleration and global economic activity means increased demand for • critical finite resources. Economic growth is measure by GDP, it accounts for the totally economic activity through the market. So when trade is increased, goods become monetized and increased used of natural resources. Our dependancy on natural finite resources are increased as globalization continues. Our natural resource base is dwindling. Then when there is depletion, there is an undermining of economic prosperity. - emerging economies like China and India have resulted in enormous increase in resource use. This could not have happened with out globalization. The global North still uses the most resources, but these up and coming countries have such huge populations that the effects on the global environment are very harmful. - increasing geopolitical competition over resources. - If all we want is prosperity for every population, how can we keep up and give these opportunities to the entire world? - While prices rise as stocks of resources dwindle, it might be good for the country exporting, but that doesn’t always trickle down to the poor. - rising prices of essential goods like food, can be very detrimental to the poor. Sometimes it pinches our market in the US and holds a terrible impact on poorer countries. 7 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - communities that are dependent on exploitation of natural resources like fisheries and lumber tend to lose out in the overall industry. i.e.: Cambodia with all kinds of agro land and lots of foreign investors fragmenting the land for profit. - E.E’s point out that technology does not offer the solution for running out of ecosystem services. These service cannot be valued or replaced. Biodiversity and its services cannot be replaced - Enviro problems also negatively affect health. • Proposition #2: globalization and enviro degradation pose new security threats. - water scarcity is already a problem for the world’s poor, climate change will make it worse. - the number of people effect by water scarcity will increase to 5 billion in ten years. - Crop yields expected to decline in tropical and sub tropical regions. - Malaria will spread, extreme weather will increase. - All this increases society insecurity and in many cases, violence. Unfortunately, violence and insecurity travels easily with globalizations - As we already know, the poorest will always be the most affected - Three key security challenges in this context: water scarcity, food shortages and disrupted access to strategic minerals. (UN report). - Back when we were hunter gatherers, if we made an environmental mistake it happened in our own back yard. Today we just don’t experience that first hand from our own products. - These have all been the causes of conflict and war, which is a major barrier to sustainable development. War has a terrible impact on not only the crust of the earth itself but the people in danger and diaspora. - Enviro degradation leads to competition for scarce resources and leads the powerful to secure resources for their own use. • Proposition 3: the wealthy will have to come to terms with the limitations of ecological space, and also with the news and rights of those not as lucky. - As china and india grow, they are adopting our same destructive consumption of resources. 8 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - Our consumption is very much continuing, and its not easy for us to tell emerging economies that they shouldn’t industrialize and consume like us. - BOTH DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES NEED TO NOTICE LIMITS. - China is the workshop of the world, but most of the exports come to the US, that makes us just as responsible. Not to mention, China gets their resources from the poorer countries of the world. - The pressing Question: will emerging economies of the Global South follow a more eco friendly development plan? Proposition 4: consumption in both the north and south will define future of • globalization and global environment. - The global media encourages higher levels of consumption at unsustainable levels. This promotes growth and destruction of earth and equality. - we must delink consumption from growth and growth from consumption. - technology can be helpful but the right policies have to be adopted and consumption must be delinked. • Proposition 5: the global market and global environment are projected to increasingly intertwine and each will become increasingly dependent upon one another. - existing global environmental policy based on creating, regulating and managing markets. - Much international trade is in environmentally related goods. The transportation part of trade itself, uses the masses of fossil fuels all over the world. - trade is supposed to work in the context of sustainable development. most decision regarding the global market place ad global environment are still kept too far apart. International Trade - international trade is one of the main pillars of globalization. - you may hear terms like “liberalization, free trade and integration.” 9 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - A country becomes more liberalized when it has a free market - when this happens, governmental protections or regulations like tariffs, (taxes on imports and exports) are removed. - it can also mean that restrictions on foreign investment entering into a country are removed. - political ecology: an historical struggle for resources that started before colonialism even started. It plays out with changes in foreign investments and national trade. - as economies become more liberalized, trade increases and economic integration is in conjunction. - after decolonization, many countries tried to protect their economies to avoid neocolonialism. - by the 1980s many countries through out the developing world went into debt for various reasons. They were forced to take out loans through the world bank and IMF. So they forced them to restructure their economies to be more like the free market. to make them once again, “liberalized.” - This all means removing tariffs, restrictions on foreign investors. this has caused international trade to explode. All facilitated through the WTO which sets rules and restrictions for the world. So what is the effect of trade on the environment? (video on comparative advantage). - we can make more stuff through specialization and trade. if you get better at something, it benefits you and the buyer. rearranging tasks can increase production. Opportunity costs reflect what it costs you when you are doing another task instead of all your tasks. Whoever has the higher opportunity cost should continue making that product. A Case For Free Trade Bhagwati. - Bhagwati: a proponent of free trade, economist. A global North perspective. - environmentalists wrongly fear that free trade and economic growth harm the environment. - growth actually allows gov to raise taxes that can in turn protect the environment. 10 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - rich countries have more environmental groups that poor countered. - Efficient policies can help the environment. - Race to the bottom: globally, certain countries have lower enviro labour standards. When companies get up and move they go to these places. This creates a competition among countries to lower their standards to gain investors. • we shouldn't fear this because different countries will will create different standards for their cultures. • ethics and values are explained through the market- vote with the dollar. The problem is that environmentalists impose their own ethical views and take away other peoples choice to vote with their dollar. The government shouldn’t be imposing ethics on any one. • John Stewart Mill, classical liberal. Writes about freedom. Your freedom cannot harm somebody else. Milton Freedman shows a much less sophisticated understanding of freedom. • animal and enviro rights aren't universally accepted like human rights are. Some places use trade sanctions on fisheries who harm dolphins. These types of environmentalists put ethics above the rights of people who would gain economic growth from their practices. Daly: The Perils of Free Trade - we should favor domestic production over international trade. - international trade should not be aloud to risk a countries environment. - the real debate is over what regulations and goals are appropriate. - free traders seek profit with out regard to enviro social consequence. - free traders argue with growth from trade, enviro can be cleaned up after. - environmental damages of growth outstrip the benefit. - we should call free trade “deregulated international commerce” 11 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 COLONIALISM: JAMES CYPHER - Parts of Asia, Africa and the Americas were colonized and a competitive race between capitalist countries for world resources began. Incipient* countries were not fully capitalist yet. - little thought was given to development of the colonies - Lasting Effects • sever demographic crisis, forced labour, disease, overwork, violent struggle, slavery • these all play into the enviro crisis today • loss of population, culture and labor. - effects of colonialism • salve trade in Africa, encourage inter tribal wars because european powers encouraged manipulation. The chieftains would capture other tribes and sell them off. Authoritarianism became strengthened. We see this today in governments where resources are sold off despite protests and harm. This is a legacy of a class structure that helps facilitate degradation. • importation of european manufactured products come into competition with local manufactures. when they can sell it cheaper in ruins these local manufacturers. • Vertical trade patters with Europe vs. horizontal trade patterns across Africa, so there is dependance on Africa. • Dependent growth upon Europe instead of independent growth in Africa - Forms of colonialism: • Spain and Portugal were the earliest colonial empires. • looting of gold and silver • no real benefit in the end to colonial powers • but, devastating social and economic changes on colonial regions. • This is where we see the beginning of certain european countries like Britain getting way ahead. • Mining booms became exhausted and Spain’s economy imploded 12 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 • other economies in Europe flourished because wealth is produced by producing. - Dutch system: characteristics of merchant capitalism - Merchant capitalism: complex translation between feudalism and capitalism emerge - Sugar Plantations: slave labor, maximized yields, goal of production and profit - British rule in india: merchant capital to industrial capital • to pay taxes, farmers were forced to start making cash crops. British won control over india • • mono-cropping for profit began to denigrate the soils • privatization of common lands: expands tax base, peasantry teased and undermining of traditional food security. Functional role of colonialism • - contributed to the British industrial revolution. profits from the slave trade, plantations, india. - exceedingly large fortunes were squandered in conspicuous consumption - however, these were turned into money in the banks which then allowed for industrialists to borrow it. Colonialism provided the money for this further production and tech advancements. - also, a market for ships an goods were created in Africa. • Colonial Elite - indigenous elite played a role with the colonial elite and thus creation of new class - corruption, favoritism patronage in employment, absence of labour rights and norms all became transplanted onto the colonized regions during this period. • Deindustrialization of the colonies - india had a thriving textile industry, but the british wanted the market, so they increased investments and their production styles. Local textile industry lobbied for protection from imports. they really only wanted to accept raw cotton from india 13 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - Indian textiles begin to deteriorate because british textiles start pouring in. India becomes deindustrialize and only exports raw cotton. • Colonial industrialization - these powers pushed production of everything but goods that might compete with their own markets. - Disarticulated development vs. articulated development - colonial powers begin articulated development - colonies are disarticulated - infrastructure: primary served interests of colonial powers. - major cities and regions are not well connected because infrastructure was originally designed to move tropical products from the interior to the coast. - colonies become mono exporters :( - today, certain countries specialize in different things. Least Developed Countries emerge as exporters of primary products. - colonialism stopped formally in the 1800’s, dangers of relying on exported commodities became more apparent • Credit and Debt - formal colonialism ended in 1820’s and neocolonialism rose - developed countries wanted to send manufacturers somewhere so we extended credit to the developing world. So that they could actually buy our manufacturers and build that infrastructure for trade - LDCs borrowed large sums of money to build infrastructure and had to pay it back with interest and feeds. Of course, elites were also borrowing. So no one was really benefitting - 1870-1914 massive increase of european powers, 84.4 % of global landmass. • Mature Colonialism - nationalist movements pushed colonizers to create more industry - adverse paths of dependance were created • Decolonization 14 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - supported by US after WW2 • Economic Dualism - worst feature of colonialism. - Peasantry/handiwork/agriculture & plantations/mines/refineries. No real links between these two. - Its an enclave economy because it is enclosed - this results in urban bias of governments, they live in capital cities. Lack of countryside development. Social elite is isolated, lacking middle class. The Neoliberalization of African Nature as the Current Phase of Ecological Imperialism. By Mariko Frame. - nature literature traces neoliberalization. The enclosure of commons, privatizing it and giving a value to it, then marketing it. This is increasingly becoming part of our relationship with nature, turning it into a commodity. WHY? - colonialism began the integration of the world market. - Independence in Latin America in the 1800’s, political independence, UN vote. - With political independence there was economic dependancy. “Neocolonialism:” - Structural bias from colonialism; primary commodity exporters, reliance on imported manufactured good. (blanket definition for neocolonialism) - vertical trade relations to masters, credit and debt, foreign control over industries. - Unregulated multinational corporations. Overall, hierarchical international division of labor. Economic Nationalism - happening through out the third world as a response to neo colonialism. modernization is forced as a response to neo colonial issues. rejection of liberal economics. free market is the ideology of the repressors. - import substitution: high tariffs on on the imported goods so that the local industries could have a chance to grow. 15 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - socialism, communism, capitalism with in the state is on the rise. - “developmentalist state”: heavy push towards economic intervention and industrialization. - import substitution was a means to this. to release dependancy and break down international means of labour. Trade and foreign investment - nationalizations. - resources are at the centers of this whole effort. economic nationalism was an attempt to regain sovereignty over resources. - this brings OPEC and primary commodity cartels. States that can get together to control prices. - New international Economic Order: brought together by the UN proposing the right for countries to nationalize with out being militarily interfered with, better terms of trade, reparations from colonialism, techno transfer to help develop. Sovereignty over resources and the right to form cartels on their own exports. With out any bigger countries interfering. - Economic nationalism brought rise of socialist movements, social democracy in Europe, labour movements, keynesian economic in the US. Free market economics at this point are too radical. - Economica nationalism lasted 1960-late70s - Global north is advancing with reliance on the global south. - by 1980, the winds started to shift ideologically through the north and south. It stopped with Reagan in the US and tThatcher in the UK in 1980. - From the free market perspective: the global south problems is not inequality and division of labour, it is the policies within the south themselves. Domestic policies should be changed so that they can have economic growth. - In the south, economic nationalism collapsed due to inability to create cartels and to break out of the cycle of commodity producers. worsening terms of trade, overestimating profit, too much borrowing, reliance on imported machinery, foreign aid and manufacturing. 16 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - extra money was reinvested in banks to grow it. So banks did an aggressive low interest rate pushing of loans onto the global south. They ran up quite a bill trying to industrialize. As a primary commodity producer you become very dependent. Eventually these economies collapsed, third world countries were heavily in debt. These countries could not sell enough of their commodities to pay off debts and keep up with developing. This issue sweeps through latin america, africa and some countries in asia. - Global south results in borrowing from the International Monetary fund and the World Bank. (largely controlled by the global north). Discourse had changed from developmentalism to free market ideologies. - South had to restructure their economies in order to borrow loans. - SAPs: structural adjustment policies: sweeping adjustments along free market lines. - neoliberalism vs. economic nationalism. - Free market idea: economic nationalism had created inefficient, corrupt, state run enterprises. - Free Market: privatize state owned enterprises, sell them off, even to foreign investors who can run them more efficiently. - Free market idea: investor friendly rhetoric, reduce taxation, allow 100% foreign ownership, remove regulation. This should stimulate growth and alleviate poverty. - Free trade: remove tariffs, free trade according to comparative advantage. - export led, investor led development. no mention of the environment Global Ecology today - Enviro crisis - northern consumption - industry in emerging economies - global scramble for resources, in the poorest regions like Africa. - high demand, little regulation, ‘neoliberalization of nature” - corruption among elites. - social unrest, fishery collapse, land grabbing etc.. 17 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - Neoliberalization is the counter counter movement. - Capitalism is an expansionary system - expansionism allows for offloading of environmental burdens rom oe place to another - capitalism is built upon free gifts of nature. These are found in deregulated countries of the south. IMF and deforestation
 - Austerity measure cut funding for environmental regulation and protection agencies. - increased foreign investment, more forestry, agriculture and mining. - increased exports in general, cash crops, timber, metals - ————> all this has environmental harm - Social Structures that harm the environment - corruption among domestic elite POLITICAL CARBON ECONOMY CRITIQUE 1997: Kyoto Protocol. The first world policy to halt climate change. First convention for all countries to deal. 1988’s; IPCC Carbon Prisoner’s Dilemma: There are reasons why we have issues of collective action as a society and groups of nations. We have hard time getting together to pursue action. While we want to do something for the entire social good, there are some countries that keep polluting and reap the advantages. The countries that choose not to pollute re likely at a disadvantage. We are a carbon economy and we cannot help but pollute. Developing countries don’t want to stay at the bottom of the chain and not be aloud to pollute. ITS NOT FAIR :(. Developed countries don’t want to reduce carbon because then then they can’t compete in the world market. Solutions and Policies. - market based solutions: things will be accomplished in a market where people can buy and sell something. Generally against regulation. 18 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 • You pay the polluters to stop polluting. We can’t all pay, those that do pay might get an unfair advantage. No one has an incentive to pay. It’s like a hostage situation, expecting citizens to pay companies not to harm the collective society. • consumers paying with their dollars. Buying products that don’t contribute to climate change. Voting with your dollar, green consumerism. Buying things to fix things. Doesn’t really work. Everything you buy uses energy and materials to produce. No matter how “green” it is. Green products probably costs more and this is a socio economic problem. Poorer people will have less influence over the market if they can’t afford the greener products. • Cap and Trade: Companies that use less carbon can sell their extra cap and trade it with companies that use too much carbon. Permits are free, the more you pollute the more you get. Polluters make more money and increase the market. Offsets happen when a firm uses less carbon and sells them as a permit to a polluter that needs more. This is very hard to track and prove. PARIS AGREEMENT ON CLIMATE: COP21 - Dec. 12, 2015 the Paris agreement was adopted by 195 countries defining a course of action between 2020 and 2030. - 1988: IPCC: provide governments with science, impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation and mitigation of climate change. - 1994: UNFCCC ratifies 195 nations and the EU - 1997: kyoto protocol first commitment from 2005-2012 where a number of countries made commitments. - COP21 to the UNFCCC: newest agreement • marks major steps beyond Kyoto protocol - because this protocol really didn’t work. Emissions actually increased. it was only binding to those who chose to ratify it. It also did not include China or India - It was legally binding but countries were still able to withdraw. • COP21 involves voluntary actions by all 195 countries in attendance. 19 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 - loopholes in Kyoto: rich countries can meet their targets by moving carbon intensive industries to offshore nations not covered by the protocol. • Goals of COP21 - hold global temperatures to no more than 2 degrees C above preindustrial values, with more ambitious target of 1.5 degrees C. - All the reductions are totally voluntary. The amount you choose to reduce is voluntary. There’s no real penalties if you do not keep the cuts down. Besides public shame. It was only considered a “success” because it was totally voluntary. - 185/195 countries submitted INDC’s. Current pledges are not enough to secure us under 2 degrees C. - to reach more ambitious goals, the agreement includes 5 year cycles to review goals and ratchet up targets. - again, all voluntary. - along with pledges from high tech firms and retailers. - cities and regions made greater commitments than national governments. • Financial and Technical support to developing countries - ecological debts on the developing countries form the global north. They will pay for the side effects while they hardly had any emissions. - in 2020 $100 billion a year in financial aid toward the global south. But this is really too small, at least 600 billion to 2.2 trillion is really needed. • Forests and soils - INDCs involve protecting forests and soil enhancement to remove and store carbon from the atmosphere. Many carbon offset provision lack verification and real accountable systems to measure. • Country commitments - voluntary commitments. - adopted by different countries with baselines from 1990 to 2005. - some emissions are compared to a “business as usual” scenario. - some pledge to reduce the carbons intensity (co2 emissions per unit of GDP) 20 Tuesday, January 26, 2016 • If your GDP is increasing then it is coupled with your carbon emissions and it will rise as well. • reductions need to be decoupled so that growth can happen while carbon is reduced. unfortunately this issue in the developing world is used as an excuse by china • and india to not reduce co2 • EX: China growth is very low like 2-3% a year because the GDP is already high where as subsaharan Africa’s might be really high like 17% because it was really low before. This rise is coupled with emissions rising. If they slow emissions, they will have to slow GDP. They do not want that. • China has decided they will peak emissions by 2030. - I all NDCs are fully implemented, temperatures would still rise by 3.5 degrees C. • Commitments of major emitters - US: reduce by 28% below 2005 level in 2025 - Clean Power Plan, AUG 2015 is put on hold bu the Supreme Court. • China - major emitters. - seek to lower Co2 emissions per unit GDP - Increase renewables by 20% - increase forestry • EU - reduce GHGs by 40% by 2030 and 90-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 Limitations of Paris agreement. - agriculture needs to be addressed as well as deforestation - ratcheting up mechanisms needs to be focused on to reduce in the future. - public involvement in necessary 21


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Refund Policy


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