Notes for the first 2 weeks of class
Notes for the first 2 weeks of class PHIL 2610
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Paganism to Christianity PHILCLAS 2610 University of Colorado Boulder Fall 2015 Notes Religion not myth but related to it quotFinding one39s place in the cosmos and what one canneeds to do about itquot From the Latin word religio sense of reverence respect awe obligation especially for something sacred andor supernatural Cicero39s etymology re legere to read again re ligare quotto bind fastquot ongann Paganism short hand for quotnot Christianquot Etymoogy Paganus villager country folk Religions of Greece and Rome before Christianity not all are native Civicstate cults Mysteries lmperia cults Historv of Studv and Religion Greeks were rst Divided into 2 branches Historical what they did Philosophical why they did it Historiography isn39t very helpful gtPoitics wars constitutions gtCf archailogia and antiquitates Poetry gods are historical Homer39s llliad and the Odyssey Hesiod39s Theogeny Works and Days Criticism is common eg Xenophanes c 500 BC quotIf horses could paint their gods would be horsesquot humans depict their deities and higher power beings such as they are themselves in the human form Philosonhies PreSocratics highly various PostSocratics Aristotle is nearly mum Epicurus responsible for Epicurean philosophy and early theorizing of atoms Mycenean Bronze Age 1600 BC1100 BC Greek Dark Ages 1100 BC 800 BC Archaic Period 800480 BC HellenicClassical Period 480 BC 323 BC sometimes called the Hellenic Period some say it began in 510 BC Hellenistic Period after 323 BC Alexander the Great39s death in 21 BC Hellas Greek for Greece Graeca Latin for Greece Euhemerus theorized rationally about a Zeuslike gure euhemerizing verb Roman Thought Religion intimately tied to conception of Roman past and success as a state Late 2nCI and 1St century BC fascination with Greek philosophy complicated matters Antiquatians Varro Cicero39s philosophical criticism works about the gods A New Historiographv Biographies of Holv Men Christians Apollonios of Tyana by Philostratus Lucian The Passing of Peregrinus Alexander the False Prophet Life ofSt Antony Athanasius Life ofSt Martin Supicius Severus The Gospels ChristianPagan Polemics as Sources Christians writing to deplore Paganism had to explain its exixtence Augustine39s City of God Arnobius Lactantius Pagan apologists aren39t concerned with historical causes Greek Pantheon Hesiod39s Theogeny Zeus king of the Olympians son of Kronos and Rhea Both oldest and youngest of his siblings Addressed as patereven by those who are not his children Symbolized by an eagle patron of the city Olympia Roman Jupiter Depicted as always beardedGreek symbol of Patriarchal authority quotFather of gods and menquot quotcloudgathererquot quotaegisbearerquot Produces Dionysus with Semele Perseus with Danae Heracles with Alemene Epaphus with lo Sarpedon Rhadamanthus Minos with Europa Hellen and Pollux with Leda Hera wife and sister of Zeus queen of the gods depicted crowned and enthroned Rules over marriage and women39s social roles in general Patroness of Argos Hesiod Boeotian Greek Mt Helicon ate 8th century BC bridge between oral and written poetry Shepherd Poet Rival of Homer Charlatan Wrote didactic poetry the kind of poetry that teaches you things Poseidon brother of Zeus and Hera god of the sea and water Depictes with trident and bearded less impressively than Zeus Roman Neptune Voatie unpredictable dangerous like the sea Married to Amphitrite daughter of Nereus Lusty associated with horses and bullsstrength and virility Competed with Athena for patronage of Athens Persecuted Odysseus after Trojan war Hestia sister of Zeus Hera Poseidon Goddess of the hearth architecture domestic aspects Sometimes the rst born 1St eaten Roman Vesta Occasionally left out of the 12 Olympians Hades Brother of the others mentioned above God of the underworld and the dead Roman Pluto Loathed but respected The Underworld Erebus and Tartarus quotLocated inquot the Fields of Punishment Asphodel Meadows Elysian Fields 5 rivers Styx Acheron Cocytus Phlegethon Lethe Persephone Hades39 wife Minos Judge of the Dead Rhadamanthus Ruler of Elysium Furies Alecto Megaera Tisiphonedaughters of the night Charon ferryman of the dead Cerberus Demeter Sister of the others above Goddess of agriculture grain crops harvest fertility quotEarth motherquot often depicted with stalks basket of produce Persephone39s mother Roman Ceres Archetypica loving mother kind beautiful regal aloof lmportant for Eleusis14 mi West of Athens where she was worshiped by a secretive cult that drank barley water and engaged in bathetic behaviors Bathos bathetic low dirty Epic Poetrv from Greek word quotto sayquot Characterized by length medlong and meter dactylic hexameter Lots of epithets titles Earliest 39gods39 were physical or primal forces followed by Titans and abstracts Fertility the ability to create congruent with power loss of genitals defeat for SkyHeavenOuranos lnterventionprevention of creation evil Forces and feelings are supernatural in nature Proper use of power political themeimportant SkyHeaven vs Kronos vs Zeus Supernatural forces act out human concerns Triumphant gods understood to be just The world is a scary dif cult place Pandora a Punishment foxy gal crafted by Ambidexter Origin of the female sex lndicative of root misogyny in Greek culture quotA wicked heart and a bitch39s mindquot Hesiod39s Theogenv Natura entities have human qualities such as Creation reproduction fertility power Gaia is angry with Kronos because he has impregnated her and won t get off Woes and evils are divine in origin Al negative things are born of night Mortalitv and the gods are intertwined Gods are quotabove mortalityquot Zeus embodies both male and female powers when he reproduced with Metis39 child after swallowing Metis Hesiod39s Works and Days Epic didactic dactylic hexameter Attitude of gods towards humans Maicious Gods have all the power Greek sexism aetioogy explains the cause of something Greek Sexism Women couldn39t leave the house most of the day House separated by gender Homosexuality only acceptable for men where it is preferred to be the older one in the relationship than one39s partner Myth of the Ages Golden Age people had everything didn39t have to work were indifferent and content Led long and happy lives died peacefully in sleep Silver Age people didn39t honor gods Zeus destroyed them for that Lived long childhood followed by a short and wretched old age where they died Bronze Age people made of ash trees because of how hard the wood is Everything they had was bronze killed themselves off Ash wood used to make weapons Demigods Most live on Islands of the Blessed some die some are punished Iron Age Current time must work life is hard Price Introduction to Chapter II Hetero or homogeneity there is one Greek religion Religious traditions across Greece In conceptions of the gods and mythsdiffers for different groups of people true and valid for each variation Panhellenism is real Homer and Hesiod prescriptive or descriptive Prescriptive preaching Descriptive what it is Most sources from Athens and Attica Secularism not a thing in Ancient Greece everything is intertwined with religion Aphrodite formed from Ouranos39 genitals oating in the sea with foam or daughter of Zeus and Dione a la Apollodorus Goddess of love sexual desire seduction fertility Patroness of smooth sailing Roman Venus Married to Hephaestus but still promiscuous Often called Cytherea after where she washed upCyprus Apollo Son of Zeus and Leto young studly beardless long hair God of light sun quotPhoebusquot shiny sometimes con ated with Helios quotCynthian Apolloquot Patron of OctavianAugustus Reason selfknowledge selfdiscipline associated with Delphi as Pythian Apollo Music prophecy medicine associated with Delos as Delian Apollo Archery quotfarstrikerquot quotfardarterquot associated with laurelbay tree Fas for nymph Daphne daughter of Peneus river god because Apollo was giving Eros grief for playing with his bow Eros shoots Apollo gold tipped arrow love for Daphne and shoots Daphne with leadtipped arrow disgust Apollo chases her and out of desperation and panic she asks her father to turn her into a laurel tree Ovid s Metamorphoses Hermes son of Zeus and Maia god of travel thievery herdsmen wit trade Herald of the gods quotArgeiphontes slayer of Argusquot Psychopomp leader of souls to the underworld Depicted with traveler39s hat petasus sometimes winged Winged sandals youthful usually beardless quotCyllenosquot place of birth Father of Pan and Hermaphroditus Roman Mercury Artemis Goddess of hunt wild animals wild childbirth virginity disease in women archery the moon Cf with Hecate and Selene as Artemis Trivia Depicted as tall beautiful unapproachable hair up belted armed short dress Roman Diana Daughter of Zeus and Leto Apollo39s twin born rst helped with Apollo39s birth Symbols deer hunting dog bear moon cypress tree bow and arrow One of her cults worshipped her at Brauron in Attica Temple in Ephesus Western coast of Asia Minor one of seven wonders of the ancient world Peculiar statue with unexplained depiction probably Cybele and Neor Eastern fertility goddess Astantelshtar than with ArtemisDiana Athena Goddess of wisdom cunning thought craft namely weaving useful arts navigation math Greek civilization eternally chaste Also in charge of war warfare strategy courage Daughter of Zeus and Metis Patroness of Perseus Diomedes Odysseus city of Athens Roman Minerva Depicted as fully clothed with armor and weapons aegis Sometimes with Nikewinged goddess of victory More masculine than Aphrodite and Hera modern versions sexualize her Symbols owl aegis Epithets Pallas Athena Glackopis greyeyed or owleyed Tritogeneia Parthenos the virgin Promachos ghting on the front line Ares God of war slaughter fear brutality cruelty son of Zeus and Hera Contrast with Athena less signi cant for Greeks Roman Mars Athena39s equivalent didn39t originally have her warlike aspects for the Romans Depicted youthfully unbearded good shape Youthfu vigor and strength rather than political power Armed with spear and shield with armor and helmet Had many kids with Aphrodite Phobos Deimos Harmonia Eros Also fathered Amazons with Harmonia Hephaestus son of only Hera or Hera and Zeus God of re the forge technology metallurgy Accompanied by robots bronze humans of own creation Armor maker for heroes forge on Mt Lemnos or Mt Etna Depicted as strong bearded strongfaced with tools Roman Vulcan Dour bitter disappointed frustrated straight man butt ofjokes AKA Amphigueis Klutotechnis Polumetis Thrown off Olympus landed on Lemnos and helped by Sintians Dionysus gave him drink to bring him back Asclepius Not an Olympian son of Apollo and Arsinoe or Coronis Apolo took him to Cheiron the centaur who taught Hercules Jason Achilles Strange means of raising the dead Zeus bolted him to prevent humans from getting out of hand Apollo killed him some cyclopses got punished Asclepius was apotheosized Dionysus god of wine drunkenness ecstasy abundance fertility male sexuality Associated with orgies in Greek culture a natural impulse of anger wrath frenzy Depicted as younger sensuous effeminate with thyrsus fennel stalk topped with pine cone or other drinking paraphernalia often on a leopard Accompanied by procession of animals and mernads crazed female revelers Son of Zeus and Semele The Prooemion Zeus as a just god oppressing the strong raising the meek powerful with good judgment Two kinds of strife Strife of personal con ict and strife of envy motivating labor set into quotearth39s rootsquot by Zeus Greek Religion Festivals and Places Pe ods Mycenaean Bronze Age 16001100 BC Dark Ages 1100800 BC Archaic Period 800480 BC Classical Period 480 323 BC sometimes called Hellenic some say it began in 510 BC Hellenistic Period 323 31 BC Corinth falls in 146 BC Civic Festivals Panathanaia and many others at public expense taxing richer citizens leitourgia renting out land owned by the god in whose honor the festival is celebrated Procession involving different people in different roles Sacri cia animals are part of the procession For the Panathanaia 100 oxen killed known as hetacomb Other sacri cial animalssheep goats pig Meat distributed among participating individuals and public mportant part of civic life Another example of nonsecularity diet Arrhephoroi young girls who live away from their families and weave Prayer common feature of any religious occasion From llliad l Smintheus bargains for bounty do ut res quotkarmaquot Athletic Competitions most famous largest at Panhellenic festivals Oympia Delphi Nemea lsthmia Later in Panathanaia Gods were thought to appreciate effort put forth by the athletes Victories celebrated in odes often invoking mythological and religious traditions Bacchhyides and Pindar 2 ode writers very famous Dramatic Competitions tragedies and comedies Performed at Athens Dionysia Lenaia Both interacted with gods and religion Musical Competitions Rhapsodi and kitharodoi would compete for prizes Some hymns sung here in competition some around procession or sacri ce Homeric hymns to Demeter Apllo Hermes Religious Places Sanctuaries located in sites of divine intervention according to tradition impressive scenery Urban or rural Centraity is symbolicOlympian vs marginal Dionysus39 temple on the outskirts since he is of alternate state Poitica signi cance Homogeneity or heterogeneity Pan vs Athena Parthenos Pan39s temples were in caves since he is god of the wild Athena s in the acropolis Paestum famous archeological site colonized by the Greeks 3 large temples Temple of Hera 550 BC Another temple of Hera 450 BC Temple of Athena 500 BC Necropolis city of the dead a cemetery Tombs have elaborate paintings on the inside Swastikas commonly used in the ancient worldhope good luck different in every culture Greek Sanctuaries Tempe most obvious and prestigious Altar insideoutside Temenosprecinct Most sanctuaries faced east or a few degrees southeast Stereobate bottom layer of the temple s foundational pedestal Stylobate 2nCI layer of temple s foundational pedestal Peristvlecolonnade columns arranged around temple s perimeter Pronauszporch Front porch of temple Nauszcella Largest room of templeassembly area Rear porchadvton back part where only the 39more holy39 could gopriests government of cials other people in charge Images of Gods Agalma sometimes wellcrafted and expensive Statue of Athena Polia by Pheidias 30 ft tall made of gold and ivory Cost was yearly income of several thousand skilled laborers Cult statues not typically involved in rituals Votive offering Temples and sanctuaries could house thanking offerings or valued objects Religion exercised not only at festivals with whole town but individually or in families Offeringsdedications could be housed in treasuries Korai or Kouros Finances sanctuaries and cults funded by public and private nances Some gods also quotownedquot land Aristotle suggests that a quarter of state revenue should go to religious expenses 1 talent 60 minas 1 mina 100 drachma 1 drachma a day s wage for a skilled laborer So approximately 100 conservatively 12 billion Money belonged to the gods but sometimes borrowed for secular purposes with interest Theft from treasury death PowerI Priests and People Authority and Control Image of Polytheism as Supremely tolerant Not the most accurate Among Greeks convenient that they mostly recognize the same gods No of cial state policy of tolerance Image of polvtheism assupremelv egalitarian Not most accurate Criteria for Priesthood Gender male and female Male for male deities female for female deities Exception Pythia of Apollo Some priesthoods limited to certain families and tribes Athens selected by familial lineage Term Length some for life some not Behavioral Restrictions dependent on speci c priesthood No sh for Poseidon s priests No cheese from Attica Only men could engage in intercourse Function of Priesthoods mostly ritual in function Masters in ceremonies in festivals Presence required for event to be effectual Not necessary for all religious functions Exegetai Interpreters of sacred law Athens 4 BC forward Rough equivalent of Supreme court of religious practice Diviners and Oraclesdiviners private individuals known as manteis interpreted events of sacri ces dreams omens Latter of which could be birds Even sneezes Oracles like eternal diviners in xed places often with temples Dephi oracle of Apollo priestess is the Pythia Spoke in riddling phrases after inducing something odd Hesiod39s meter Mechanism consulted with people and states sequence of sacri ces outside and inside Oracle of Dodona ln Epirus Northwestern Greece borders Albania Oracle of Zeus Possibly the oldest oracle in Greece Mechanism Consulted for private matters more often than public lnquirer scratches on lead tablet Will of Zeus divined from rustling of leaves in oak tree Gong and spring water were later additions Use of Oracle over time consulted less in Classical period and thereafter by city states for political reasons lncreasing development of political bodies to address public issues Some were still used until 3rd century AD Admission of foreign cults ln Athens assembly petitioned by metics Oracular sanctioning may be sought Examples CyprioPhoenician merchants and AstarteAphrodite Thracians and Bendis Some could be for other gods Profaning religion profaning state Ex destroying herms 415 BC Divuging secrets of Eleusinian Mysteries Socrates threat to the state for not honoring city s gods accused of corrupting the youth Undermining religion undermining politics and social norms Religious activities for girls Arrephoroi at Athens 711 years old Cult of Artemis at Brauron Southeast of Athens in Attica Girs approaching marriage age would make a pilgrimage there spend time in service at arktoi Woud consecrate objects from childhood by throwing them into the spring Religious activities for bovs lnduction into their phratry a large clan with extended family males Found in many Greek states In Athens at least 9 possibly 30 Unit beyond family for legalsocial support Males inducted at birth in the meion ceremony As adolescents at the koureion ceremony Later became an ephebe age 1820 Tour sanctuaries take oaths lntroduction to public religious life is an important part of socialization Marriage services Variety of rituals for variety of gods Bride39s father pledges her for 39plowing of legitimate children39 Dowry arranged Bathing before marriage Feast held for groom s phratry For women Participation in Oschophoria Transvestism Dionysus and Ariadne Thesmophoria just for women Appropriating masculine political language formulae roles lnvolved Demeter and Persephone Death Lay out corpse Women lament it39s their role Procession Cremationburial Annua sacri ces and Iibations thereafter Tombstones and monuments are common Periodicaly banned for being too extravagant Afterife not perceived as appealing Achilles Curses Tabets with written curses imploring for help from chthonic forces Gaia Persephone Furies Acate Hermes Used for just about anything Dos may be attached Formuaic language quotI bind the name of quot Magic and religion PhHosophy Pvthagoreanism religion or philosophy Born mid 6th century BC on Samos Moved to Croton c 530 BC Founded sectsociety there Connected 2 traditions religious and scienti c Religious cult with initiations secret teachings passwords diets burial sites doctrine of reincarnation Scientific everything explained with numbers Pythagorean theorem Music represented by this same theorem Open to women to practice Philogonhv vs religion Distinguishable from religion but can be intertwined No 39orthodoxy to oppose Practice gt belief Atheism only used to denounce others not describe self Theoogy of Homer and Hesiod rejected Earlv philosonhers of religion Xenophanes found it absurd that gods behave as poorly as humans Posited a supreme god not monotheistic but harmony under one Problems with philosophy Greek culture is a package Rejecting part rejecting a
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