NUTR notes weeks 4 & 5; chapters 5-7
NUTR notes weeks 4 & 5; chapters 5-7 Nutr 2360
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Date Created: 02/29/16
NUTR Weeks 4 & 5: Chs’ 5,6,7 Carbohydrates ● Contain carbon and are considered organic ● AMRD intake 4565% ● Composed of Monosaccharides, Disaccharides ● containing Glucose, Fructose, Galactose ● Monosaccharides ○ organic ○ Found in sugar alcohols ○ make up DNA structures in Pentose(Ribose and Deoxyribose) ○ Glucose: the basic unit in life (common in blood sugar) ○ Fructose: C6H12O6 found in fruit (natural sugars) ■ become glucose ○ Galactose: synthesised by the body, and not naturally found in food ■ converted in the liver ● Condensation: removing H2O using chemical compounds ● Disaccharides ○ Sucrose: a combo of Fructose and Glucose ■ found in table sugars, honey, agave… ■ our main source of added sugar, large amounts in american diet ■ absorbed in the digestive system ○ Maltose: a combo of Glucose and Glucose ■ apart of starch breakdown ■ breakdown occurs with Maltase, and converted to Glucose ■ found in beer ○ Lactose: a combo of Glucose and Galactose ■ found in dairy ■ the lack of the enzyme, Lactase results in ‘lactose intolerance’ ● Complex Carbs ○ Oligosaccharides ■ are nondigestible and create gas in the GI tract ■ contain all 3 monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) ■ found in legumes ○ Polysaccharides ■ contain starch(plant based), glycogen (animal based), and cellulose (insoluble plant fiber) ■ are digestible with alpha bonds and glucose ■ Starch containing amylose and amylopectin ● existing in bread, rice and potatoes ■ Glycogen is the primary storage source for animals ● applies to muscles and lowering blood sugar ○ Branching: storing glucose in ‘funky’ chains, thus giving more area for enzyme bonds ● Digestible Carbs ○ Provides Energy ■ to CNS and making RBC ○ Spares Proteins ■ decreasing the occurrence of glycogenesis ○ Prevents Ketosis ■ too much fatty acids build ketones in the body ■ THIS IS NOT GOOD ● Indigestible Polysaccharides (FIBER) ○ Soluble Fiber ■ mixes with water forms a jam like substance aiding in digestion ■ decreases chance of heart disease ■ good for maintaining blood sugar levels ■ comes from fruits, beans,and oats ○ Insoluble Fiber ■ floats and will not mix with water ■ comes from the skin of vegetables, seeds, and whole grains ■ aids in good bowel movements ■ decreases chance for obesity ■ promotes feeling full ● Diverticula ○ These are hernias along the small intestine; very common and unavoidable ○ Higher intake of insoluble fiber can lessen the number of hernias ○ Diverticulitis: this is when food is trapped in a hernia (diverticula) and causes infection ■ this results in surgery ● Grains & Rice ○ Main source of carbs in the USA by 70% ○ Whole Grains ■ the whole kernel (with the bran, endosperm, and germ) ■ has the highest amount of fiber and nutrients ■ short shelf life ■ ex: brown rice ○ Refined Grains ■ processed ( removing the bran and germ) ■ contains starch and little nutrients ■ long shelf life ■ common for white rice ● RDA and AMDR values ○ 130 g of carbs/day (RDA) ○ 4565% of total intake (AMDR) ○ Fiber ■ Males: <50 years old need 25g/day ■ Woman: <50 years old need 38g/day ● Sugar ○ Dietary Guidelines: <10% of total intake ○ Nutritive Sugar (contain nutrients) ■ brown sugar ■ agave ■ turbinata ■ corn syrup ■ table sugar ■ honey ○ Alternative Sugar ■ no calories ■ little to no nutrients ■ are Saccharides ie: aspartame, sucralose, stevia ** Remember: PKU patients cannot digest aspartame** ● Carb Digestion ○ Mouth ■ via salivary amylase (begins breakdown) ■ no digestion occurs in the stomach ○ Small Intestine ■ Sucrase digests ■ Lactose becomes Glucose and Galactose ■ Maltose becomes ○ Large Intestine ■ digestion aids with the microflora (gut bacteria) ■ gas is built up along with fatty acids ● Carb Absorption ○ monosaccharides enter the enterocytes ■ glucose becomes fatty acids ■ enters the tissues ○ Glucose and fructose converted to galactose ■ enter the liver and become glucose ● Blood Sugar ○ PostPrandial: high sugar after eating ■ this releases insulin and is used ■ result of high glucose levels ○ Fasting: low sugar before eating ■ low energy ■ glucose is made and remains constant ● Diabetes (hyperglycemia) ○ Type 1: diagnosed as a child ■ Autoimmune destruction of beta cells ■ No insulin is being made ○ Type 2: gained over time ■ peripheral cells become resistant to insulin ■ 80% of diagnoses are ties to obesity ■ can be genetic related ■ goal is to keep glucose levels low ○ Gestational: pregnancy ■ high levels of glucose are made ■ commonly treated with insulin, but also with strict diet ■ untreated: can cause birth defects dueratogen ■ Mother are then at high risk for T2 diabetes ○ Common Symptoms: ■ Polydipsia (thirst) ■ Polyuria (frequent urination) ■ Weight loss ■ Loss of sensation & circulation ■ Vision loss ■ Amputations ■ Gangrene ○ Glucose Testing ■ Fasting: ● 99 and below = Normal ● 100125 = PreDiabetic ● Above 126 = Diabetic ■ Oral Tolerance Testing (phase two of diagnosis) ● from drinking a provided sugary liquid ● 139 and below = Normal ● 140199 = PreDiabetic ● 200 and above = Diabetic Proteins ○ Structrue ■ containing C, H, O, N, Sulfur ■ Basic Units: nitrogen group (amino); acid group (carboxyl group); Hydrogen; and a side chain ® ○ Amino Acids ■ Nonessential: made in the body and are dispensable ■ Essential: must come from food, are indispensable ■ Conditionally Essential: needed in infancy and illness ■ List of Essential Amino Acids: ● Tryptophan ● Valine ● Isoleucine ● Threonine ● Methionine ● Histidine ● Lysine ● Phenylalanine ● Leucine ● REMEMBER “There Very Important, Terrific Molecules Have a Long Preserved Life” ○ Phenylketonuria (PKU) ■ genetic mutation tested at birth ■ body lacks phenylalanine converting enzymes ■ Cannot make tyrosine(an essential amino acid) ■ protein intake is restricted; challenging and expensive ■ ex. Aspartame is very bad for PKU patients; building toxins in the brain ○ Complete vs. Incomplete ■ Complete: have ALL essential amino acids (AAs) ● found in animal protein ■ Incomplete: have 1 or more AA, lacking! ● found in plant protein and gelatine ■ Complementary Proteins: combining incomplete proteins together to get ALL AAs ● Major part of vegetarian diets ● Legumes + Grains (rice and beans) ○ Vegetarian Diet ■ Vegan: no animal products whatsoever ■ Lactovegetarians: Milk protein but NO flesh or eggs ■ OvoLactovegetarian: Milk and Eggs but NO flesh ■ Nutrient Concerns: limitation on the intakes and synthesis of B12, calcium, iron, vitamin D, omega3, etc. . . ● Higher concern for infants and children ■ Pros and Cons: ● Pros ○ Lower risk of: obesity, cancer, Cardiovascular disease, and HTN ○ Higher intakes of: fiber, K+, antioxidants, and magnesium ○ Less intake of: sodium and cholesterol ● Cons ○ time consuming; requires preparation and planning ○ lack of certain essential amino acids ○ Sources of Protein ■ Dietary Protein ● 70% from animal products in the US ● 35% from animals worldwide ■ Body proteins ● it is never stored; always used ■ Amino acid pool ● Turnover: constant breakdown, rebuilding and repair of cellular proteins (AAs become proteins...are broken down...and changed/used) ● this helps cells respond to environmental changes ○ Synthesis & Breakdown of Amino Acids ■ Transamination: turning one amino group to a carbon group ● makes a carbon skeleton ● makes nonessential AAs ■ Deamination: absorbing and recycling an amino group ● AAs loses amino group; travels to liver ● body excretes is via urea ● carbon skeletons become energy ○ Protein Synthesis ■ linked together with: ● peptide bonds ● condensation reaction ● 2 linked amino acids ■ dipeptides become tripeptides ■ synthesis is determined by gene expression ● DNA> RNA>Protein ■ Transcription: ● DNA becomes available to enzymes ● codes are copied and mRNA is made ● mRNA leave the nucleus ■ Translation: ● mRNA is read by ribosomes ● codes are translated from nucleic acid to amino acid ● amino acids join peptide bonds ■ Protein Organization ● Primary: simple chains, 3D shape is made ● Secondary: nearby amino acids bond; making pleated sheets ● Tertiary: SS bonds occur to form functions; forming shape and function ● Quaternary: unit bonds link together ■ Genetic Mutation: ● changes in DNA sequence > change in amino acid > change in protein shape and function ○ ie. Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell, and PKU ■ Denaturation ● change in 3D shape ● breaks multichain bonds ● occurring with acid, heat, and alkaline ● happens during cooking & digestion ● ** we cannot absorb proteins whole proteins** ○ Protein Absorption ■ occurs along the microvilli of small intestine ■ Peptides are broken down to amino acids ■ amino acids enter the bloodstream and enter the liver ○ Protein Functions ■ produce vital body structures; collagen and actin ■ provide 4 kcal/g of energy ■ helps balance acidity ■ makes hormones and neurotransmitters; insulin and amylase ■ contributes to: immunity, nutrient transport, glucose, and fluid balance ■ **high intake of proteins with exercise, build muscle** ■ ** high intake of protein without exercise, makes energy** ○ high blood pressure counteracting with proteins leads to edema ○ Protein Needs ■ AMDR: 1035 g/kg ■ Adult RDA: 0.8 g/kg ■ Recovery state: 0.82 g/kg ■ Athletes: 0.81.7 g/kg ■ CALCULATIONS ● Divide weight(lbs) by 2.2 lbs/g ● Multiply weight (lbs/kg) by protein need (ie 0.8 g.kg) ex: 175lb man with standard adult activity 175 lbs / 2.2= 80 lbs/kg * 0.8g/kg = [ 63.6 g] ○ Protein for Energy ■ NOt the prefered energy source: rarely >10% of energy used ■ Usually used during prolonged exercise ● glycogen declines and AA breakdown increases ■ Glycogenic Amino Acids ● become pyruvates; enter gluconeogenesis or TCA ● All amino acids are glucogenic ● Fat becomes glucose ■ AA catabolism ● convert energy to urea ● urea exits in urine ○ Nitrogen Balance ■ Positive: input >output ● more nitrogen is used than needed (ex pregnancy) ● high intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen ■ Negative: input < output ● there isn’t enough nitrogen left inside; a lot is excreted ● tissues breakdown ● low dietary intake ■ nitrogen intake/outtake can be determine by 24 hr urinalysis ● protein in urine can mean kidney issues ○ Proteinenergy Malnutrition (PEM) ■ these are long term protein and calorie deficiencies ■ loss of fat and muscles, decreased immunity ■ Kwashiorkor: is pure protein deficiency belly bloating ■ Marasmus: overall energy deficient visible extreme weight loss ○ High Protein Diets ■ affects the kidneys and liver ■ low intake of plant food and high intake of animal foods ● risk for heart disease ● a lot of red meat is linked to colon cancer ■ recommended intake of a maximum of 2x the 1.6 g/kg of protein a day Lipids/Fats ● Facts: ○ organic and contain carbon ○ molecular lipids are better than dietary lipids ● Triglycerides ○ the major storage form of lipids ○ most common storage ○ forming an Ester bond with; 3 bonds and 3 fatty acids ○ Deesterification: removal of fatty acids ○ Triglycerides = a diglycerol and 2 fatty acids or 1 monoglyceride and 1 fatty acid ● Fatty Acids ○ Determined by chain length, saturation, and Hydrogen position ○ Chain Length: how many carbons? ■ Long chains 12+ carbons ■ Medium chains 610 carbons ■ Short chains 6 carbons ■ This affects the function and storage or lipids ○ Saturation: how many carbons without double bonds? ■ these are solid at room temperature and have long shelf life ■ polysaturated: 2+ double bonds are present ■ unsaturated: one double bond ● these are liquid at room temperature ● are less stable(less bonds) and have short shelf lives (oils) ■ PolyUNsaturated: 2+ double (kinky) bonds ● these are very unstable ● liquid at room temperature ● found in corn and fish ● CIS vs. TRANS Hydrogen Position ○ CIS: hydrogens are parallel in relation to carbon double bonds (c=c) ○ TRANS: hydrogens are catty corner to c=c ● Hydrogenation ○ adding hydrogen to liquid oils, gaining carbon ○ Saturation and creation of TRANS fats are VERY bad; give high cholesterol ○ this provided a longer shelf life and keeps things solid (oils become shortening) ○ Partially vs Fully Hydrogenated ■ Partially: high in HDL and Cholesterol; leads to heart issues; are unsaturated fats ■ Fully: better because they have less c=c, they are saturated fats ● Essential Fatty Acids (diet based) ○ Omega6 = “bad” ■ too much blocks gain of omega 3s ■ high levels in the US ■ this is highly inflammatory ○ Omega3 = “good” ■ from animals like fish ■ decreases and prevents inflammation ○ Builds cell membrane flexibility and fluidity ○ Aids in retina development ○ makes up glia cells and neurons ○ Sources (accumulative): ■ Plants and Plankton ■ animal synthesis ■ concentration builds within food chain ■ Omega 3 recommendations (alphalinoleic acids) ● Men: 1.6 g/day ● Women: 1.1 g/day ■ Omega 6 recommendations (linoleic acids) ● Men: 1417 g/day ● Women: 1112 g/day ● Phospholipids ○ Amphipathic: both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ○ make up cell membranes and emulsifies fats ○ found in egg yolks, soy, wheat germ, and peanuts ○ this separated water from fat soluble lipids ● Sterols ○ ring structured, very important lipid ○ synthesis cholesterol, vitamin D, and hormones ○ make bile, hormones, and cell membranes ○ these are found in animal protein but ARE made by the body ● Lipid Digestion ○ Mouth: via lingual lipase (a small part of digestion) ○ Stomach: via gastric lipase (little to no digestion) ○ Small Intestine: via CCK, bile, emulsifiers; lipid becomes lipase (the major point of digestion) ● Lipase ○ a triglyceride from monoglycerides and 3 fatty acids ○ Phospholipids from a fatty acid, glycerol, and phosphoric acid ○ Cholesterol esters: from cholesterol and fatty acid ○ Bile: emulsifies fat and create micelles ● Lipid Absorption ○ use micelles ■ forming droplets of bile fatty acid and sterol combos ■ these are absorbed by enterocytes ● Lipid Transport ○ Lipoproteins: water soluble transport of fats and cholesterol ■ the cells contain proteins and cholesterol ■ Use LDL in large size; ldl is not dense ■ HDL in small size; are very dense ○ Chylomicrons (enterocyte based) ■ transport fats and vitamins in long chains ■ move from the small intestine to tissues(muscles and adipose tissue) ● go to the liver ○ Enterocytes (travel via lymph) ■ hold medium and short chains going directly to the liver ■ long chains become chromatids in the cardiovascular system ● VLDL ○ made by the liver to move triglycerides ○ contain cholesterol ○ removes fats with VLDLs that become LDLs ● LDL ○ transport fats and cholesterol to the liver and body ○ smaller in size compared to VLDLs ○ these contribute to plaque forming in arteries ● HDL ○ are considered good for you ○ these are made by the liver; but take up cholesterol then excrete and recycle it ○ these reduce risk of cardiovascular disease ○ the reversed process of LDLs ○ starting in the blood and going from the liver to the tissues ● Cardiovascular Disease ○ from a buildup of LDL ○ can cause atherosclerosiand eventually lead to heart attacks & stroke ■ from plaque buildup ○ can be genetic, age, gender and race related but are inevitable ○ Prevention: ideally we want similar levels of HDL & LDL ○ Contributors: ■ high omega 6 intake = inflammation ■ high levels of LDL cholesterol ■ hypertension ● Atherosclerosis ○ narrowing of blood vessels ○ building of plaque in arteries ■ this can contribute to moving blood clots ■ can lead to tissues dying from lack of circulation ● Ideal blood lipoprotein Levels ○ Cholesterol: 200 mg/dl or less ○ LDL: 100 mg/dl or less ○ HDL: 250 mg/dl or higher ○ Triglycerides: 100 mg/dl or less
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