New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 3 Lecture Notes

by: Aubrey Isaacman

Week 3 Lecture Notes Art 80H

Aubrey Isaacman
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover a recap of history from week 2 and new material on computers.
History of Digital Games
Henry Lowood
75 ?




Popular in History of Digital Games

Popular in Art

This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Aubrey Isaacman on Monday February 29, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Art 80H at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Henry Lowood in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see History of Digital Games in Art at University of California - Santa Cruz.


Reviews for Week 3 Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/29/16
LECTURE 4 – Wednesday January 13, 2016 No Lecture M, no section M or W I. TV!  Newton Mirow  Marshall McLuhan o TV is cool o Global village > virtual community o Hot or cool? Digging Understanding Media  Hot = high definition; authorship does work for you  HiDef, focus on single sense, low participation, excludes o Book o Radio o Factory o Movies o PowerPoint presentation  Cool = participatory  LowDef, multiple sense, high participation, includes o TV o Phone o Speech o PowerPoint presentation o Historical Reversal: the past mechanical time was hot, and we of the TV age are cool o Electrical Age > Global Village TRIBAL - PRE-LITERATE/ORAL Cool participatory Integral local INDUSTRIAL/PRINT Hot Linear Mechanical Intense POV specialist Wasteland (content) or cool, participatory, electri II. Alternatives to TV  Ultimate Display – 1965 essay about virtual reality (vr)  McLuhan meditates on TV, not computer o Alan Kay: computer scientist; came up with idea for tablet  Use VR to simulate other cultures (POV simulation)  3. VR won’t die  2. Good for you (… or not?)  1. It’s the ultimate medium  EXPERIENCE! o VR = computer generated virtual simulation (OED)  Virtual = something that doesn’t physically exist  3 IMs: imaginary, immersive, impractical o Ivan Sutherland  Timeline:  1963: sketchpad – graphics as basis of communication between humans and machines; elements of the imagination: o Extension: the light-pen as input device o Conversation: the human dialogue with the machine o Correspondence: user, screen, memory  1965: “The Ultimate Display” – the vision thing  1968: Completion of eD, HMD system – VR linked to the specialized hardware, work on kinesthetic systems (kinesthetic = tactile, responsive, force-feedback (interact with muscular system))  The computer as space o Sutherland at Harvard 1967-1968 o Program focused on computer graphics o Leads to program at U of Utah (Bushnell and others went there) o The Sword of Damocles – a sword that could fall on you at any moment  people were afraid to try VR because there were a lot of pounds of equipment on top of them if they wore the gear  Natural interface? o Data-Glove  Hand gesture interface; Thomas G Zimmerman  Touch Gadget – Scientific American  VR Day (7 June 1989) – Texpo, San Francisco  The VR Hype Business, 1989-mid 1990s: VR will become an ADDITIONAL reality  Arcades; location-based VR  Virtual worlds o Lucasfilm’s Habitat o Linen Lab’s Second Life (1999)  Immersion or Augmentation? o VR vs mobile (augmentation) 1989-2008  Worth another shot????  Oculus Rift III. Home Console  Ralph Baer (1922-2014), Odyssey, and Atari o 1966: Baer writes down notes on how to use an ordinary TV set for playing games while at a bus stop terminal in NYC  “The purpose of this invention it so provide a large variety of low-cost data entry devices which can be used by an operator to communicate with a monochrome or color tv set …”  The Game Unit #6  #7, aka “The Brown Box” o “A home TV Game product might be the natural province of television set manufactures” –Ralph Baer, Video Games in the Beginning, p 56  Magnavox TV 1967  Magnavox Odyssey (1972) IV. Arcade subculture  Coin-operated machines (1970s) o 1981, Pier 39 o “… a new species of public space…” –David Sudnow, “Memory,” Pilgrim in the Microworld  Instructions were minimalist understatements: “Enough to make sure you know to put in money. Some business this coin-op irony.” –Sudnow  Rewards: Extrinsic v Intrinsic: “at least some of the reinforcement is no doubt extrinsic, taking the form of praise and admiration from peers and other onlookers” – Loftus and Loftus, “Why Videogames Are Fun” o Contrast of arcade and home console? o Flexibility of the medium; play a game at home or in an arcade, by yourself or with others, COMPUTERS!  Santa Cruz Boardwalk, 1981  “[Arcades] are places where social contact is made in a friendly atmosphere and where friendships are formed.” –Loftus & Loftus, “The Arcade Subculture”  Are Arcades a fad? o “People won’t have a chance to get bored with video games… They may not remain in precisely their current form, but rather they are likely to evolve as new developments in the computer/electronics industries emerge.”  NOT a fad! LECTURE 5 – Games as Texts: Roleplay and Text Adventure Wednesday, January 20 th _______________ = important points _______________ = vocabulary Red Text = what professor marked as important in class Announcements: -student research opportunity: Seif El-Nasr, Magy – Katherine Isbister – -Assignment due in class on Monday!! Concepts: Games as texts Ludology vs narratology Characters: Agents/Avatars Worlds: From Adventure to MUD1 I. Games as Texts  Reading: A Core Skill? Russel Bermand, Stanford o What might this mean in a world of new media?  Reading > Text o World building o Reading still relevant in new media (i.e. text, emails, etc.)  But then, what is text???  Defining the text o Writing in games  narrative experience… who is the author? o Eliza lives in Second Life o Weizenbaum’s Eliza  First conversation/speech bot  Parser analyzes what user entered; another part constructs response  Cheating intelligence/cheating solution to AI = computer could act intelligent without actually being intelligent; you can still interact with it like you would a person  Weizenbaum caught people talking to Eliza about serious topics, i.e. their failing marriage o This disturbed him  In 1966 paper, Weizenbaum had second thoughts: said that to explain is to explain away… once a particular program is unmasked, once you understand how it works, its magic crumbles away  New type of reading/writing? (Coding?)  Reading Problems: Context Defining the text Interpretation  Context: o Joseph Weizenbaum (1923-2008)  1955: ERMA (Bank of America)  1963: MIT assistant professor  1964: Eliza  1976: Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation (paper about Eliza)  Text, version 1: publication (the paper)  Text, version 2: interaction  transcript of performance between user and machine o Breaking the parser – will happen accidentally because what she says won’t make sense o Eliza may cheat but Eliza paved the way for Siri, Cortana, etc.  Text, version 3: Source code o Text that produces the text of our conversation with Eliza o One text is producing another text, often in unpredictable ways  Can take advantage of this by making it, modding it, etc.  Code as Literature – can make better programs by considering programs to be works of literature  Eliza as a text:  article in which software is described  output of program (literally text in this case)  source code written by the author of the program o text as procedures? Output?  Procedural writing is how people typically talk about Eliza II. Ludology vs Narratology (maybe games aren’t texts?)  (Game v Narrative)  Ludology = games are games  Narratology = games are about story telling  Game essentialism = “games should be interpreted only as members of their own class, and only in terms of their defining abstract formal qualities” (Janet Murray, The Last Word on Ludology v Narratology in Game Studies (2005)) o Includes story-telling quality o Another way to think about games o Games can be a story telling medium and still be considered their own medium III. Characters and Worlds  60s, 70s – working out what computers and games could do for characters and worlds  Characters (agents, avatars, and interactivity) o Playing with machines, not on them  “Of all the toys that are machines that work by themselves and can be enjoyed in solitude for endless periods of time, the apotheosis is undoubtedly today’s video game.”; an automaton (Sutton-Smith, 1986, pp 61-62)  Agents (machines as autonomous players) o Chess-Playing Machines  1920: Gonzalo Torres y Quevedo shows rook endgame  Machine to Norbert Wiener  1950 – Claude Shannon, “A Chess-Playing Machine”, Scientific American  The article focuses on AI rather than the fact that the machine could simply play chess  2004 – Von Kempelen’s “turk” Heinz-Nixdorf-Form  Ended up being a guy under the table with magnets to help the machine  Automaton  Back to Eliza! o Computational linguistics  Playing with machine  Human = ability to converse o 1 month after Eliza  Audrey Hepburn’s “My Fair Lady” (based on Pygmalion)  Behaves differently because of use of language o Pygmalion and Galatea  Artist (Pygmalion) falls in love with statue (Galatea); statue comes to life as a woman after he kisses it/falls in love with it o Weizenbaum: Eliza’s Misplaced Humanity  “No computer can be made to confront genuine human problems in human terms.” (Computer Power and Human Reason, p 223) o Conversing with computers  The Imitation Game – Alan Turing:  1936: On Computable Numbers  1937-1938: Princeton University  1939-1945: Bletchley Park  1945-1947: National Physical Lab  1948-1954: U of Manchester  Alan Turing  On Computable Numbers o “Machines are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer.” –Turing, p 444 o Universal (Turing) Machine – a machine that can do anything a human (computer) could do; might be capable of thought o Ultra broke Enigma – Turing Machine broken German codes during WWII o 1950 Computing Machinery and Intelligence  Can machines think?  Are there computers that can imitate people?  Are there imaginable computers that would do well in the imitation game?  What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?  Chatterbox competitions  Katherine Hayles – distinguishing between enacted body (present in the flesh on one side of the computer screen) and represented body (produced through the verbal and semiotic markers constituting it in an electronic environment)  produced through verbal markers; brought into conjunction through the technology that connects them  Turing Test “proves” that the overlay between the enacted and the represented bodies is no longer a natural inevitability but a contingent production, mediated by a technology that has become so entwined with the production of identity that it can no longer meaningfully be separated from the human subject.  Avatars (players inhabiting the machine) o Erving Goffman (1922-1982) – The Presentation of Slef in Everyday Life (1959)  May misunderstand the situation and come to conclusions that are warranted neither by the individual’s intent nor by the facts  Frames = different ways we present ourselves  Metaverse = a virtual online representation of reality  Coined by Neal Stephenson’s sci-fi novel Snow Crash (1992)  Stephenson’s vision of how a virtual reality-based Internet might evolve in the near future  Avatar = special kind of character; agents, virtual characters we act through (in games or virtual worlds)  1. Hindu Myth. The descent of a deity to the earth in an incarnate form  2. Manifestation in human form; incarnation  3. Manifestation or presentation to the world as a ruling power or object of worship  4. Loosely, Manifestation; display; phase  Avatarus Islandus: started using “avatar” as we know it  Avatar fashion  Lucasfilm’s Habitat: 2D world where people could interact via avatars o Avatars as Virtual Citizens:  “The most important of these is that managing a cyberspace world is not like managing the world inside a single-user application or even a conventional online service… it’s more like governing an actual nation.” (Morningstar and Farmer)  Second Life IV. Text-Based World-Building (from Adventure to Mud1)  Adventure (and other text adventures) o BBN – Building Arpanet  1969  Bolt, Beranek, and Newman receive contract from Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for Interface Message Processor (IMP)  developing the Internet (Arpanet at the time) o William (“Will”) Crowther, B. 1936  MIT caving group  Played RPGs (Dungeons and Dragons aka D&D)  Wanted to work on game with his daughters  Mammoth cave system  World very D&D-like o Developed the internet on the side  Wanted to make a computer game that would not be intimidating to non-computer people, and that was one of the reasons why I made it so that the player directs the game with natural language input  involved network of computers  Completed late 1975/early 1976 o Wood’s Adventure – Don Woods (2006)  Don Woods modded Adventure  Talked about Zork, Adventure, MUD1, etc in his email… that’s how Stanford found the original source code for Adventure  Went more towards D&D than the original game  Game would construct actual map based on conversation with computer o Spatial games: Hunt the Wumpus  Hunt the Wumpus was a maze game  Problem: constructing space with computer  SHRELU – Stanford game, spatial  1970s: what did it mean to talk about games with space?  Game world?!  How to get people to understand that space is specifically constructed?  This was very weird at the time! V. Genres? Action & Adventure Spacewar! Adventure Culture “Lensman” (Sci-Fi) Tolkien, D&D, spelunking Institutions MIT, Stanford MIT, Stanford, BBN Tech PDP-1, CRT, Controllers Computers, Arpanet IMP Business Coin-op, TV games, Adventure Intl, Infocom (home computer games computers) Genre Action Adventure Differences between Spacewar and Zork: Visual vs text Action vs Puzzle-solving Arena vs Room-based space Multiplayer vs Single player Console vs PC ??  Scott Adams – Adventure International o Adams was captivated by Colossal Cave Adventure and Adventure o Challenged himself; wanted to see if he could write an Adventure type game on the TRS80 o Adventureland  Version on Apple still text based but introduced graphics (still images) o A “roleplaying simulation”  Adventure is a RP simulation – Adams  simulate a world  not multiplayer but had certain setting, etc.  Disk or Tape version VI. Case Study: Infocom  Zork I = first game they developed  available on almost every platform o Games produced better o Database was so poor (even though they worked on it the most) it almost killed the company  Dave Lebling on D&D: old style of D&D = creative solutions to problems; creativity > story > obsessing about numbers  First “rockstar” company in computer game industry  Focus on text-based “interactive fiction” o Prided itself on its lack of graphics  Spinout from MIT-also developed application software (database)  Feelies = objects related to game story; game merchandise o Think of the fun stuff you get when you buy the special edition of a game  Interactive Fiction aka “Text Adventure” = o Narrative Thread  Story (most puzzle-solving)  “Many things that Adventure players enjoyed – logic and resource-management puzzles and the exploration of a complex virtual topography within the context of a framing story – remain staples in adventure, role-playing, and multiplayer game genres” (Dennis Jerz, Somewhere Nerby is Colossal Cave”)  Tell a story  represent a setting/world/environment  solve puzzles, game elements (text adventure)  “Get inside a story” o World Model  Spatial Structure  Programmers would draw map, program it, gamers would draw map while they played o Text  Interaction  Text seen as code or as transcript  Both relate  Parser interaction = code that reads input and responds appropriately; also relies on database (thesaurus)  Robert Pinsky - Mindware (1984), Myst (1993)  (Myst constructed around a book)  Intrigued by games  Verb table = what verbs will you assign to objects? o Pinsky helped game designers by using this  Adventure largely about quest story, much like great literature (i.e. Gilgimesh)  What does he think this is pointing to? o People tend to think there is more freedom in games than there is in novels… Pinsky thinks the opposite is true:  End result is determined by the game makers; someone knows how your story ends  Books: you use your own imagination, can turn the pages at your own free will VII. MUD (The beginning of online roleplaying and virtual worlds)  MUD – Stanford – Essex > MUD o “A couple of students from Essex University used the facility to log onto the computer in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of MIT in America, and sent a message out on the Zork mailing list… Message read ‘You haven’t lived ‘til you’ve died in MUD’.” o For those who don’t know, MUD stands for Multi-User Dungeon. It’s the world’s first adventure game which allows more than one person to wander around in its environment at the same time. (Roy Bartle, MUD, MUD, Glorious MUD, Micro Adventurer (Sept 1984): 22-25) o Source code available at SUL o Follows Adventure’s text-based mode of interaction but not scripted in the same way o Habitat might be considered a graphical version of MUD, followed by 3D MMOs in mid-1990s RECAPPING WEEKS 1-3: By the 1970s:  Interface = Screen + Control  Immersion = Navigable spaces  Narrative & World-Building  Game Types: Adventure/Action


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.