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World Hist II Weeks 5, 6, 7 notes

by: RachelB

World Hist II Weeks 5, 6, 7 notes Hist 1004

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Weeks 5, 6 and 7 notes
World History II- HIST1004
Dr. John McNay
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This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
World Hist II Buckel Professor McNay Week 6 Slavery Origins  Many native peoples who were enslaved didn’t think of themselves as one big group, but rather divided themselves by groups/tribes  Slavery became a business, and many people in charge of operations didn’t pay any mind to morality Europeans Arrive  The Slave Trade wouldn’t have happened if Europeans didn’t discover the new world and have conflict with the natives o The gold in the land of the New World encouraged the Europeans to stay o The natives, since they weren’t a united resistance (divided by tribes), were defeated by the unified European forces o Natives also didn’t have the technology to fight the Europeans  Silver mines were discovered in what is modern day Bolivia- this doubles European wealth, but they wanted steady income from the new world as well o Crops were grown in the New World, as well as silver mining o Big labor forces were needed to manage the crops and business, but people were dying at a large rate  This drives the slave trade Expansion of Slave Trade  Plantation economies were established- cash crops were grown o The work was labor-intensive  they needed more people to do the hard work  expansion of the slave trade  The Europeans were making great profits from the slave trade, which then became a big business  Partnerships were made between the traders, expanding and strengthening the whole system The Trade  Slaves were taken from many parts and coasts of Africa, and shipped to both Europe and the New World o Over 12.5 million slaves were taken to the New World  The Middle Passage was the main trade route o Slaves were packed tightly in the ships, causing disease, hunger, injury, etc. o Many slaves died while travelling to the New World  Seasoning- being punished and trained into being obedient Life in the New World  North America is behind on the whole Slave Trade  The American South was established differently than South America o Plantations had Africans doing a variety of work (not just farms and mines)  There were servants in homes (domestic work), not just in the fields  Some become blacksmiths and other skilled workers  Not all slaves were worked literally “to death” as they were in S. America  The population was regenerating since not as many were dying  There were more women taken into N. America, making the mass reproduction of slaves possible  There wasn’t much difference (initially) between indentured servants and slaves o Both were not permanent positions for a long time o Slavery eventually became something that couldn’t be left- no debt could be payed-off for freedom Abolition Movement  William Wilberforce- British abolitionist  William Lloyd Garrison- abolitionist o Ran a newspaper- “the Liberator”  Frederick Douglas- former slave-African American abolitionist- prominent figure in the movement o Spoke on the 4 of July about his political views on slavery  The British, who were running the slave trade, turned against slavery and stopped trading in 1808  Most African Americans in the US now have a longer ancestry in the US than many whites Resistance  Nat Turner (1831) o Minister o Eventually becomes radicalized and believed “god was speaking to him” o He and his followers arm themselves and attack and kill several plantation families in the hopes that rebellions would break out all over Virginia o Many of his followers were killed and many were eventually executed  Haiti (1791) o Slaves rebel and defeat the French occupiers- they declare themselves independent o Many Americans were horrified by the violence of the Haitian Revolution, rather than accepting of a newly freed people  Stono Rebellion (1739)- South Carolina o Started with a small group of people who were hoping to gain followers and become a large group eventually (Stono = plantation and river name) o They arm themselves and organize themselves- they plan to go to Florida (Spanish control at the time) o They travelled south, but they moved very slowly and destroyed things as they went, drawing attention to themselves and causing a battle to ensue o Many of them are hanged after the rebellion is defeated  Gabriel Prosser (1800)- Virginia o Same concept- small group wanted to rise and create a movement  Many slaves didn’t want to resort to violence  Slaves would fake being sick to resist their tasks and slow things down on the plantation Success  Britain outlaws the Slave Trade in 1807 o Navy was used to eliminate slave trade- used cannons against trade ships, etc  Slavery was eliminated in South and Central America (1838-88) o Largely a male population, a lot of interracial marriage, etc takes place (didn’t happen as often in the North due to larger female population already regenerating society)  US Civil War ends slavery o It was the bloodiest war of the 19 century- the root of the war was the existence of slavery in the south o The south wasn’t interested in being industrial, and were opposed to tariffs due to slave-based economy o Republican party had its beginnings as an anti-slavery party o The Democratic party, until the Civil War Era, was the more popular party  President Jackson fueled the party o Many people were unhappy as they were tied to the Abolition Movement, etc.  They wanted to form a new party- they agreed that slavery should be abolished- they elect Abraham Lincoln o As soon as Lincoln was elected, the south began resisting and thinking about succeeding from the union o Lincoln didn’t want to stop slavery where it existed, but didn’t let it expand westward with the new US territory  Southerners didn’t want to be a minority vote against states who didn’t support slavery o The death toll skyrockets due to more precise shooting with spiraled gun barrels o Ulysses Grant is appointed Union Army leader, and the war ends a year later o The South Couldn’t keep up with the death tolls and were barely able to clothe their soldiers  Emancipation Proclamation o Lincoln announced this after the Battle at Gettysburg o It freed the slaves in the south o Lincoln shifted the goal of the war from keeping the Union to abolishing slavery  13 Amendment o Eliminated slavery officially in the Constitution  1877 Compromise ends Reconstruction o African Americans were now voting citizens, and many were elected to office  Swinging votes into one direction for another- payment for that is the removal of troops from the south o Southern whites used terrorism against African Americans  KKK and similar groups form  They try to scare Af. Americans from going to the polls and getting elected World Hist II Buckel Professor McNay Week 5 Peter the Great Childhood:  Born 1672, youngest son and not expected to be tsar o 1676- Tsar Alexis, peter’s father, dies o 1682- Theodore suddenly dies. He leaves no heir  Peter named co-tsar with heir- brother Ivan o 1696- Ivan dies and Peter is left as sole learder Reign:  Traits: o Energetic, unbending will, determination, violent temper, frequent cruelty  Toured Europe twice to learn, 1697-98 and in 1717  Began sending students to Europe, particularly for shipbuilding and navigation  Reforms: o Immediately upon his return in 1698, he demanded that beards be shaved, that officials wear foreign dress, and that years were now to be counted from Christ’s birth and not the beginning of the world o Began to establish schools that taught mathematics, science, and technology o Creates modem army and navy  Baffled both aristocrats  14 ranks from 14 to 1  Attaining the 8 rank Catherine the Great (1729-1796) About  Princess of a minor German kingdom who married the future tsar o Was Russian and married into German royalty at age 15 o Allied herself with the nobles to take power (1762) o Saw herself as an enlightened despot- an autocratic ruler who reforms society from the top down  Writes/exchanges letters with Enlightenment figures, wanted to boost and improve science Pugachev’s Rebellion (1773-74)  Cossacks, peasants, and serfs (people tied to the land) rebel, killing thousands of nobles, officials, and priests  The Rebellion was bloody and violent, and was stopped violently o Crushed by the army- Pugachev’s body was cut into pieces and displayed around Moscow End of Reform  Pugachev’s Rebellion and the French Revolution (1789) soured Catherine on reform  Western influence limited after this time (China, Japan, Islamic empires) Industrialization Transition  The old way of life (governed by sunrise/sunset, seasons, slow-paced world) to a new way of life where mechanics take over ability to work Power  Horses, water, and muscle power were how people worked o People and animals get tired, setting limits to what can be done o Slower work pace, etc.  Artificial sources of power are being developed and discovered  Steam engines are developed o They need a heat source to heat the water and drive the pistons o Wood is used readily and in abundance for the fires  The Wealth of Nations- Adam Smith- Capitalism replaces mercantilism  Coal and iron are abundant in England- steel can be made Britain  Luck of geography- they had many resources  Other countries (France) quickly follow England’s example o Germany has lots of coal as well and starts to industrialize United States  Isn’t separated by class/aristocracy-based ideas  US has lots of resources- expanding across the west/southwest revealed many more resources  San Francisco and San Diego are acquired o In 1849, lots of gold is discovered in San Francisco/west coast o Gold Rush increased wealth and sparked railroads, etc. to develop  Slavery o Cotton was the biggest export in the 1800s o As the US gained wealth, slaves were helping make production and growth of the economy possible without profiting Transformation  Social relations such as class change drastically o Wealthy and famous people gain power from “artificial” sources (biological = born into social class)  Rise of corporations- “rags to riches” with the Putting-out System o Before big business, people had trade skills (shoe-making, etc) that became unskilled work because of larger production  The work is worth less money since it takes less effort to make products o Railroads are biggest corporations to initially rise  Time zones are created  Faster communication is needed to keep up with faster travel  Telegraph  Business management becomes a profession with the rise of the railroads since it was a complicated process to operate railroads  New credit mechanisms come up for people to fund railroads  Monopolies rise o Andrew Carnegie acquired control of almost all of the steel mills available  Vertical Integration- having complete control of one level of production (steel mills)  He wanted more control of the making of the product and the cost, so he bought mines, and means of getting the steel to the consumer  Horizontal Integration- acquiring control of every step of the production process o Oil, steel, and railroads were large industries that became monopolized Rise of Labor  Knights of Labor (1869)- claimed labor was the only creator of value and capital and identified themselves as part of the workers class o Gamblers, lawyers, bankers, stock brokers, and liquor dealers couldn’t be part of their group o Founder: Terence Powderly  By 1886, there were around 50,000 women in the Knights of Labor, and about 60,000 African Americans o Mary Harris Jones (“mother Jones”)- born in Ireland and moved to Chicago with her family- dressmaker and school teacher  Husband was iron worker and union activist  1867- yellow fever epidemic struck Chicago and killed her husband and all 4 of her children  She opened a dress shop in Chicago and was successful  Chicago fire destroyed the whole neighborhood and her shop  Got involved in Knights of Labor  1882- took part in coal miner strike (labeled her the “miners angel”)  Was accused of being the most dangerous woman in the country  “March of Mill Children”- display of children who worked in mills who were missing limbs past Teddy Roosevelt’s house o American Federation of Labor- focused on uniting skilled workers  Samuel Gompers- founder  Gained power in cigar-making industry o IWW (International Workers of the World)- active in mining camps  Modern day- active in Australia but not much of an effective union anymore  Frank Little- IWW organizer who went to Montana to try to organize copper miners  The big company didn’t like what he was doing and he was taken in the night, dragged outside of town, and was hanged o Gravestone: “murdered by the Copper Trust”  The Great Strike of 1877- railroads were making lots and lots of money but didn’t share with workers o A small incident on a Maryland railroad- workers didn’t want to work an extra 4 hours in addition to their already 10-hr day- they are fired  Other workers walk off in protest in support of those workers o Big protest shut down a lot of railroads  Cincinnati- railroads hire people to break up the strike, fire dept. comes in with hoses- strikers cut hoses  National guard comes in and breaks it all up  Haymarket Riot- in Chicago- workers march in the streets for an 8hr workday o Big meeting in Haymarket square- police try to break up meeting o Someone throws bomb into police group- 8 killed along with an unknown number or demonstrators o 8 people stood trial for starting the bombings- they were convicted, hanged, and one commit suicide  Pullman Strike- Pullman cars were fancy train cars made for sleeping travelers o Workers went on strike for better wages o All workers in Chicago (1890s) go on riot support them o RR owners called in help of federal and state gov’t o ARU- American Railroad Union was largest in country  Homestead Strike (1893)- in big steel mill, workers go on strike against Andrew Carnegie o Henry Clay Frick- managing workers- wanted to reduce their pay, causing workers to go on strike o Pinkertons- armed “thugs” who had to break strike (this thill exists today)  They show up (25-30 of them) in a boat and are attacked when they arrive  Gunfire exchange o State gov’t arrives and breaks strike  All strikes show pattern of gov’t supporting businesses when strikes break out, and not supporting the workers World Hist II Buckel Professor McNay Week 7 (Thursday) South Africa Ancient Inhabitants  San- hunter-gatherers  Khoikhoi- pastoralists  Bantu Migration (12 century) o Nguni peoples- Xhosa (clicking language), Zulu, Swazi, Pondo, Thembu  Traveled to the south from the west  They come to believe (after a few hundred years) that they had always been there European Arrival  The Dutch in the early 1600s were very prominent trading power  The problem with sailing around the coast of Africa to get to the east is sailors run out of fresh water, fruit (vitamin C deficiency ensues), and vegetables  The Dutch set up a colony on the south coast of Africa o Jan Van Riebeeck and the Dutch East India Company (1652) o Cape Town- Dutch ships stop and restock their ships in this new port o Sailors and settlers were told not to get involved with the natives- they run into the San and Khoikhoi first- the tribes weren’t well protected with weapons, etc. so the tribe just moves away from the Dutch, allowing the Dutch colony to grow o The population in Cape Town begins to spread across Africa and the Dutch EAC gives up on isolating the colony- more immigrants arrive o The new colony creates their own identity over time and don’t think of themselves as Dutch anymore- they think of themselves as Afrikaners and Afrikaans  They had their own language mixed of Dutch, French, English, Spanish, and some languages of the native peoples  Colonists become farmers (boer in Dutch) o The gradual expansion caused Afrikaans to make contact with the native African tribes and they fight  Because of Napoleonic Wars, Cape Town comes into British hands The Great Trek  Piet Retief (1834)- leads the colonists on the big move across Africa o He believed he had a deal with the Zulu chief so the colonists could cross through their territory but when they moved through he was killed  Group of Afrikaans are attacked by Zulu armies (impe armies- foot armies with thousands of fighters- ran from one place to another)  Battle of Blood River (1838)- Impe attacks wagon trains but are fought off by Afrikaans they think winning this means God has given them the right to cross the country o Their belief of the “divine intervention” shapes their culture for the future  Two Boer Republics are formed o Transvaal- lies on/across the Vaal river o Orange Free State- another independent state created by Boers The British  Before the Great Trek, British have had much difficulty being able to call it a “British” colony- there wasn’t enough British presence  The 1820 Settlers- Britain sent lots of people over to populate with British presence  Xhosa are unable to resist the British fire power (British technology was more advanced)  Xhosa holy man’s vision said British would leave if they kill all their cattle o Similar situation happened in N. America with the Sioux- they believed settlers would go away if they kept dancing a sacred dance  Battle of Isandhlwana (1879) o About 1500 British soldiers are in the Zulu region looking for Zulu to fight o At this point, no large bodies of British troops have been defeated by Africans o Zulu had a special battle strategy where they would surround the enemy(“horns of the bull”) and they defeated the British, leaving only a few survivors


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