Psychology exam 2 notes chapter 6 7 8 9
Psychology exam 2 notes chapter 6 7 8 9 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca McSweeney on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by J. Dean Elmore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter 7 Psychology. • Cognitive Psychology: The brain represents information while thinking is the mental manipulation of these representations. Cognition is the thinking and understandings from that thinking. • Our thoughts are the mental representations of things that we come in contact with in our daily lives. • An analogical representation is a mental representation that resembles some of the physical characteristics of something • A symbolic representation is an abstract mental representation that doesn’t resemble the physical features at all. • A concept is the most used symbolic representation it is a mental representation that categorizes objects, events or common themes. • Categorization is an efficient way of thinking because it reduces the amount of knowledge needed to remember more things. • Category: putting something into a group due to features that are similar to the others. Ex: an athletic person is categorized as muscular and fast • Prototypes: within a category, members who are came across more. This allows for more flexibility but some prototypes can be used for different reasons. • Schemas: way to organize information, it’s a network of associations, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge. They’re adaptive and make judgments very quick without trying. Ex: a business owner is a hard worker, they make good money, they have a family, they’re smart, they come to work naked this is incorrect information which shows the schema doing its part. They put the average object apart from the subject they are describing. Such as they do not put that a busin ess owner has 2 eyes because the average human has 2 eyes! Kinda like stereotyping. Fast Sports Expensive Shiny car Small • A Script is a schema that is appropriate behavior. Kinda like a social norm Ways of thinking: • Automatic thinking: as it sounds, it is effortless and involuntary, it just happens • Controlled thinking: controlled by the individual, very aware of what is happening , takes lots of effort. • Subconscious process: a mental process that happens without having to think but can pay attention when needed • Non-‐conscious process: Not being able to concentrate on what it happening when thinking cannot be recovered. • Implicit learning: when you learn something but don’t remember how you did. Ex riding a bike or walking • Algorithm: well defined problems can be solved using this • Heuristics: a fuzzier problem, very adaptive and less effort NEED BENEFITS • Framing effect: makes someone’s choice change determined on how it it presented. Ex: someone is more cautious when a choice is framed in terms of a loss than a gain 2 • Restructuring: looking at a problem in a different way to get to the solution. • Mental set: a problem solving strategy that has been used and was successful in the past • Functional fixedness: can cause difficulties in problem solving . It is a mental representation about typical functions of certain objects. • Intelligence: The ability to use your knowledge to make good decisions and take care of yourself in challenging situations. Intelligence can be tested using psychometric tests, which assess achievement and aptitude. Alfred Binet was the one who created the biggest intelligence test, it was made for the French government. He believed that intelligence is a high level mental process and that was the best way that it was understood. He also introduced the concept of mental age, a test that was determined by comparing their test score with children of the same age. An IQ is determined by dividing the mental age by the child’s actual age then multiplying it by 100. (10[mental age]/7[actual age] X 100 = 142. To measure an adults IQ this same test is used just compared with adults the same age. The average IQ is 100. • Marilyn vos Savant had an IQ between 170 -‐228. How was this possible? She believed that intelligence contains so many factors that it is impossible to accurately measure. • IQ scores typically only predict about 25% of the variation in performance at school or work. AKA IQ IS NOT EVERYTHING! Culture can be a big factor into doing well on the IQ test. It is a typically western cultural test so if you live in the west you will probably do better. • Factors to success are: background, self control, motivation and the will to work • Size of head has small correlation with how well one does on an IQ test. Different kinds of intelligence have more relevance to the different sizes of brai n regions. Also, an increased cortex size has correlation with IQ. • Sex differences in IQ: most tests are made to not have to deal with sex differences, but on those who don’t make sure there are no differences, there are between male and female. • Environmental factors DO make a difference in intelligence. 3 • Stereotype threat: someone confirming a stereotype can make someone preform poorly. • Factor analysis: Analysis that shows that the most intelligence test items tend to cluster together • General intelligence (g): a factor that basically means the one thing that underlies intelligence, it influences important life outcomes, performance in school and work and if you have a low (g) you have a higher chance of early death. • Multiple intelligences: an idea that there are other intelligences that are independent of each other. o Musical, bodily-‐kinesthetic, linguistic, mathematical;/logical, spatial, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligence o Polyglot, multi-‐instrumentalists. Some say there are 3 types of intelligence: 1. Analytical intelligence: similar to psychometric tested intelligence, be good at problem solving and other academic challenges. 2. Creative intelligence: gain insight and solve novel problems, be able to think in weird ways 3. Practical intelligence: refers to dealing with everyday tasks, common sense Emotional intelligence: an important form of nonintellectual intelligence. It gives the ability to manage, recognize and understand emotions and use them to make an appropriate response. Being able to regulate mood and resist temptations is a component of emotional intelligence. It is very closely correlated with the quality of social relationships. Intelligence is associated with faster mental processing people who score higher on intelligence tests respond quicker on reaction time and inspection times than people who scored lower. AKA your brain works faster • Savants: a savant has a minimum intellectual capacity but they seem very smart at a young age. Their ability may be related to math, music or art. The combination of unusual memory and inability to learn basic tasks is a big mystery. This just leads to more questions on the understanding of intelligence. Need attriubtes, 4 Chapter 9 psychology • Learning: change in behavior which results from practice • Conditioning: a process that environmental stimuli and behavioral responses connect to develop associations. • Classical conditioning: 2 types of events happen together resulting in learning. When a response is already learned. (Pavlovian: Ivan Pavlov) o Neutral stimulus: something that the animal can see or hear but it cannot be linked with the response being tested (the clicker for training a dog) o Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that produces a reaction without any teaching (a dog coming to a treat) o Critical trials: Neutral stimulus is tested while the result is measured. o Operant conditioning: Learning that a behavior leads to a particular outcome. (instrumental) • Learning theory started (early 20 century) because of Freudian and introspective approaches • John B. Watson: he thought that only visible behavior was an acceptable gauge of psychological activity and that the environment and its outcomes were factors of learning • Tabula rasa: Latin for blank slate. It means that humans are born with an open mind. Believers of this belief are normally more nurtures regarding human development (nature-‐nurture) • Unconditioned response: a reflex (doesn’t need to be taught) • Conditioned stimulus: A stimulus that produces a response after being taught. • Conditioned response: the response to a conditioned stimulus (an answer to something that was taught) • Ivan Pavlov: he thought that training was the root of adaptive behaviors, he believed that if you can predict if something will bring pain or bliss it will make survival easier. He and his followers believed that the responses strength was influenced by the force of the CS and US. • Acquisition: the development between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus. (US doesn’t need to be taught while CS needs to be taught) Time and practice is the vital key to acquisition. A conditioned response (being taught) is better when time is placed between the conditioned stimulus (the clicker) and the unconditioned stimulus (the treat) • The CR (response after being taught) will go away if the CS (clicker) is repeated without the US (treat). The CR is then terminated when the CS doesn’t underline the US • Spontaneous recovery: The reaction that was forgotten comes back with the CS (clicker) this will then go away if the CS is put with the US again. An example of this would be using a clicker for a dog to come. At first you would use the US (a treat) to make the dog run to you. Then you would use the US and a CS (a clicker) so the dog would put two and two together and start giving a treat less and using the clicker every time. Eventually you wont need to use the US (treat) and only use the CS (clicker) • Stimulus generalization: answering to stimuli that is as close as possible to the CS to produce the result wanted (CR) • Stimulus discrimination: a diversity between 2 comparable stimuli but only one of them is connected with the US (a treat and saying good boy!) • Second order conditioning: when w CS becomes connected with other stimuli connected with the US. This helps justify the learned connections In the video shown in class, experiments were shown with using a noise and a person connecting the noise with a result. As the person got so used to the noise and the result, whenever the noise went off it was expected and when the result did not happen they were confused. • Phobias: a fear that is drawn way out of proportion than what the hazard really is. Ex: arachnophobia, Sciurophobia (fear of squirrels aka me I am dead terrified of the quad squirrels) Classical conditioning can cure or create phobias • It can be used to cure them by counterconditioning: exposing the human to what if feared little by little while they are not focused on it. • System desensitization: a remedy centered around counterconditioning. Psychologists think that being introduced to the feared stimulus is the most important part of this remedy rather than the relaxation side of it. 2 • Conditioned food aversion: connecting eating a certain food and getting sick from it. Regardless of if it was caused by a virus but normally when the food is not regularly eaten and happens in one test. • Biological preparedness: an argument that animals are automatically scared of certain things genetically. • Reinforcement increases probability (+ or – increases likelihood of behavior) • Punishment decreases probability • Positive reinforcement: Getting a bonus at work (reward) • Negative reinforcement: getting a rat to turn off a buzzer in a test (removal of stimulus to increase probability) • Positive punishment: getting a ticket for speeding • Negative punishment: putting a kid in timeout • Positive reinforcement or punishment: you GET something • Negative reinforcement or punishment: something gets TAKEN or turned off • Operant (instrumental) Conditioning: a learning method that the consequence of the action governs if it will happen again. (B.F. Skinner used the word operant to state the idea that animals operate on the environment to make an outcome. • Law of Effect: Any behavior that leads to a positive outcome is likely to happen again, if it leads to aggravation, it probably wont happen again. Example: putting a lever in a pet’s cage, the lever opens the door to let the animal out, the animal will learn that “if I press on this lever I can get out” which will lead them to do it again because positive result and will do it quicker and quicker. Another example is the Skinner Box it was a chamber that allowed a lot of trials without needing interaction from the one being tested, it had a lever that led to food and another that led to water, the animal will then learn what is behind the door with the lever and will continue to do it. • Reinforcer: a stimulus that happens after a response and will increase the chance of it happening again • Primary Reinforcer: stimuli that is naturally reinforcing. Ex hunger and thirst • Secondary Reinforcer: Objects that happen through classical conditioning that don’t satisfy biological needs but are still a reinforcer. Ex: money, compliments, cigs • Premack principle: using a prized activity will reinforce the performance of a insignificant activity 3 • Primary Punisher: strongly punishing. Ex pain • Secondary punisher: something that is established from classical conditioning that is a punisher but is not as strong. Ex: scolding, grades • Continuous reinforcements: a type of reinforcement that is used each time it happens. Highly effective but if the reinforcement stops, the desired behavior will terminate. More persistent than continuous reinforcement. • Partial reinforcement: a type of reinforcement that is only used sporadically. It can be directed according to the number of behavioral responses or the passage of time. the effect depends on how often the reinforcement occurs. • Ratio schedule: reinforcement is based on the number of times the behavior happens. Typically leads to a better response than interval schedule • Interval schedule: reinforcement if provided after a specific unit of time. • Fixed schedule: Reinforcement occurs after a specific number of times or a specific amount of time • Variable schedule: reinforcement is provided sporadically. Only sometimes works • Shaping: An operant conditioning technique that consists of reinforcing behaviors that are similar to the anticipated behavior. • Successive approximations: any behavior that is even close to the anticipated behavior • Behavior modification: The use of operant-‐conditioning practices to abolish bad behavior and replace them with good ones. An example of this is a Token economy, where a token is given when a task is done and taken when bad behavior happens, tokens can then be traded for objects or privileges. • Observational learning: the changing of a behavior after exposure to the desired behavior • MEME: a unit of knowledge spread through a culture, equivalent to genes, it’s a communication of learning at a cultural level. They can be conditioned through connection or reinforcement but are normally learned by watching someone else. Many behaviors are passed on through social learning. • Fear is learned and taught, seeing another person’s fear response can lead to a development of a fear 4 • Modeling: the reproduction of behavior through observational learning. Its effective only when the bystander can actually reproduce the behavior. Humans are more likely to replicate attractive, or similar models. Normally happens indirectly. • Imitation is much less common to happen to nonhuman animals rather than humans. • Vicarious reinforcement is difficult because its secondhand which leads it to be confusing. • Vicarious learning: learning by watching another person be rewarded or punished for preforming the action. • A key difference in learning is between the achievement of a behavior and its performance. Aka learning the behavior doesn’t really mean they’ll actually do the behavior. • In imitation learning, Mirror neurons: o No one is certain of their particular function o May serve as the center of imitation learning o May be used as an example to show to other people o May be the neural source for understanding o May play a role in human’s skill to speak through language o Mirror neurons DO track the behaviors of targets as those behaviors unfold over time. Banduras Studies: hint that showing children violence that it may make the children act aggressive. Ex: video games, parents, movies. -‐These lead to desensitization and viewing it at age 8 can lead to criminal behavior at age 30. -‐competition is the true trigger of violence -‐cooperative gameplay decreases aggressive cognitions and less bodily arousal -‐gamers scored better on some measures of adjustment and risk taking than those who do not play games 5 Chapter 6 Psychology • Sensation vs Perception “Sensation produces awareness that forms consciousness and without it, we would be out of touch with reality.” • Sensation is also the revealing of physical energy released or imitated by physical objects • Sense receptors: nerve impulses to the brain that is spread by the cells that change physical energy into electrical energy. Perception: method that the brain arranges and reads sensory information. Transduction: the way sensory receptors create the neural impulses when they obtain physical or chemical stimulation Sense Stimuli Receptors Pathways to the brain Taste Starts by molecules The cells in taste Portions of facial, dissolving on the tongue buds on the tongue glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves Smell Molecules dissolved in Sensitive ends of Olfactory nerve fluid on mucous Olfactory neurons membranes in nose in the mucous membranes Touch Pressure on the skin Sensitive ends of Cranial nerves for touch touch neurons in above the neck, spinal skin nerves for touch everywhere Hearing Sound waves Pressure Sensitive Auditory nerve hair cells in cochlea of inner ear Vision Light waves Light sensitive rods Optic nerve and cones in retina of eye Measuring the senses: • Psychophysics: The study of how the physical properties of a stimulus are connected to our psychological involvement of that stimulus. • Sensory Thresholds: • Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of stimulation that must happen before you feel a sensation • Difference threshold: smallest amount of change necessary for someone to notice a change • Weber’s Law: The barely noticeable alteration between 2 stimuli is based on a proportion of the original stimulus rather than set on the difference • Signal detection theory: To distinguish a stimulus, you must make a decision about its presence or absence. It splits detection of a sensory signal into a sensory process and a decision process. • Sensory adaptation: The loss of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is tedious. • Sensory Deprivation: The loss of standard levels of sensory stimulation. -‐ can be soothing and unwinding • Selective attention: Attention directing on certain properties and blocking out others. Ex: talking to someone in a loud room • Complexities of sight -‐ Hue: Visual experience identified by color names and linked to the wavelength of light -‐ Brightness: Visual experience linked to the amount of light released from or mirrored by an object. -‐ Saturation: Visual experience linked to the difficulty of light waves. richness or purity of color. 2 Parts of the eye • Cornea: shields eye and twists light towards the lens • Lens: concentrates on objects by shifting shape • Iris: regulates the amount of light that passes into the eye • Pupil: hole which light extends to the retina • Rods: answers to dim light -‐ 120-‐125 Million, most concentrated in edge of retina, not susceptible to color but very sensitive. • Cones: Involve in color perception: -‐ 7-‐8 million, most concentrated in the center of the retina, not very susceptible but very sensitive to color. • Feature detector cells are cells in the visual cortex that are sensitive to specific features of the environment. • A lot of visual processing is done in the brain; some cortical cells answer to different things like lines or shapes. Theories of seeing color: 1. Trichromatic theory: eyes have 3 different cones that detect 3 colors (red, blue, green). This theory explains different forms of colorblindness. 2. Opponent process theory: the visual system treats pairs of colors as opposing or antagonistic. (A red-‐green pair, Blue-‐yellow pair, Black-‐white pair) -‐ Opponent process cells are inhibited by a color, they have a burst of activity when opponent colors are removed, this explains negative after images. 3 • Object Perception requires construction. • The German word Gestalt means “shape” or “form”, as used in psychology Gestaly means “organized whole.” Figure and Ground • The most basic organizing principle is distinguishing between figure and ground; this is the brain distinguishing what is the main object and what is the background! Bottom up vs top down processing: • Bottom up processing: data set in the mind from lower to higher levels of processing • Top-‐down processing: Information at higher levels of mental processing can influence the lower levels of processing. Depth Perception: • Binocular depth cues: uses both eyes and contributes to bottom up processing. • Monocular depth cues: available from each eye alone, provides organization for top-‐down processing. • Convergence: When eye muscles turn eyes inward to look at something closer up. The brain knows how much the eyes are moving and uses this information to perceive distance. Size Perception • Influenced by depth cues, the size of an object’s retinal image depends on that objects distance from the observer. To know the size, the visual system needs to know the distance. 4 Perceptual Constancies: The brain correctly perceives objects as constant despite sensory date that could lead it to think otherwise: 1. Size constancy 2. Shape constancy 3. Location constancy 4. Brightness constancy 5. Color constancy -‐ The brain computes a ratio based on relative magnitude rather than on sensations’ absolute magnitude. -‐ Perceptual systems are altered to detect changes from baseline conditions, not just to answer to sensory inputs. The Senses: 1. Taste: a. Gustation: the sense of taste: b. Taste buds: sensory organs (mainly on the tongue, tiny mushroom shape structures c. Every taste is made up of a mixture of 5 basic qualities: Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, Umami 2. Smell: a. Olfaction: the sense of smell: b. Basic process: Ordants go through the nose and naval cavity, then contact a thin layer of tissue embedded with smell receptors which are called olfactory epithelium, they are then sent to the olfactory bulb which is the brain center for smell c. This sense has the shortest route to the brain. d. Smell’s intensity is processed in brain areas also entangled in emotion and memory. Touch: a. Haptic Sense: Sense of touch 5 b. Senses express sensations of temperature, pressure and pain, and where our limbs are in space. c. The integration of various signals and higher level conceptual processes makes haptic experiences. d. There are two types of pain: Fast fibers for sharp immediate pain: activated by strong physical pressure and temperature extremes Slow fibers for chronic, dull, steady pain: Activated by chemical changes in tissue when skin is damaged. 3. Hearing: a. Audition: The sense of sound b. Movements and vibrations of objects cause the shift of air molecules, which makes a sound wave. c. Characteristics of sounds: The loudness, which is determined by a sound waves amplitude. The Pitch, which is determined b the frequency. The Timbre, which is the quality of the sound or its complexity. d. The ears concert sound waves to brain activity, which makes the sensation of sound. 4. Kinesthetic sense: Awareness of the body’s position in space and movements of our bodies and our limbs (some include this with the sense of touch) 5. Equilibrium: awareness of balance; uses information from receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner ear Influences on perception: 1. Beliefs 2. Emotional state 3. Expectations 6 Chapter 8 psychology Memory • Identity is made up of memories which is what you’ve experienced and learned. • Memories are sometimes inaccurate and predisposed • Memory is selective, if it wasn’t, you would remember the most random and useless information. Sir Frederic Bartlett: A British psychologist who was one of the first to make the point that memory was selective. He believed that memory is a reconstructive process, simple information is easy to remember but when given complex information, you’re influenced by previous knowledge and beliefs. Different memory systems: 1. Explicit memory: you are aware you are learning it; you are doing it on purpose with the goal to memorize it a) Recall: like an essay question, you are required to pull more information out rather than see it and know it b) Recognition: multiple choice questions, you see it any know it 2. Implicit memory: you don’t mean to remember it, you just do. Example: relearning something for the second time, you will learn it quicker the second time around. 3 phases of memory: (like a computer) 1) Encoding: processing the information so it can be stored (input on keyboard) 2) Storage: holding the stored information over time (storing on hard drive) 3) Retrieval: recovering stored information (information showing on screen) 3 memory systems: 1) Sensory register: has a lot of room, but a lot of information is forgotten if effort is not put in to remember it. Holds sensory information and brief photographic memory. 2) Short term memory (STM): not as much room, brief storage of memory, conscious memory 3) Long term memory (LTM): unlimited room, sometimes permanent, very organized. Memory systems into detail: • Sensory memory: stores information for short periods of time without changing it from it’s sensory form. Researchers say it stays for about 1/3 of a second then fades. Sensory memory makes us see the world as a fluid stream rather than c hoppy like a movie projector plays still images. • Short term memory: its either forgotten or turns into LTM. It is believed to be working memory, it’s a system that keeps information that can be used for a short period of time. STM only stays for about 20-‐30 seconds unless you work to not forget it. • Memory span: 7 +/-‐ items, it develops as you grow up, research says that you can increase your memory span • Chunking: organizing information to make it easier to remember. Example: UAUTPSPHDCRNLMFAOFSUUCLA if you split it up UA UT PS PHD CRN LMFAO FSU UCLA it may be easier • Long term memory: Unlimited amount of space, can be permanent. This makes us able to remember things from childhood and those words you never use. To make information go from STM to LTM it needs to be repeated and practiced, needed for survival, or deeply thought about. The evolutionary theory explains how we decide what information is needed to be remembered. o Procedural memories: Knowing how to do something these are your motor skills, daily habits, the steps to do something or achieve something, and following rules. If you think about these actions, it makes them harder. o Declarative memories: remembering facts. This is the know that kind of memory. Hint: declar-‐ative th o Episodic memory: past experience (time and place) ex: on may 29 2015 I was doing…. o Semantic memory: fact memory that doesn’t relate to you. Ex: on September 11 2001 the twin towers were hit. • Serial position effect: the way the brain remembers things from a list depending on when it was presented. o Primacy effect: remembering things better from the beginning of the list. (LTM) o Recency effect: remembering things at the end of the list better. (STM) 2 • H.M. was a man who suffered from daily seizures, so they took part of his temporal lobe out which made him forget things very quickly. He was able to learn many things without him even remembering them. • Source misattribution/source confusion: when memory gets confusing and you cant tell if you actually remember something or if its information you were told. • Flashbulb memories: vivid memories of an emotional or important event. Though very vivid, some flashbulb memories aren’t 100% accurate. You normally remember the gist of what happened but over time that memory gets fuzzy. • Consolidation: the way your immediate memories become long term memories. • Medial (middle) temporal lobes: coordinates and strengthens connections between neurons when you learn something. It plays a big role in making new memories. • When information is being learned, it is being organized in specific regions of the brain. • When your memory starts working, it reactivates cortical circuits that were involved the first time you saw or heard it. • Once the connections have become more strong, the medial temporal lobes become less important for memory. 3 Temporal lobe • Temporal lobe • Declarative memory • Amygdala • Where fears and emotions are stored • Prefrontal cortex • Working memory (STM) • Hippocampus • Spatial memory (LTM) • Cerebellum • Motor memory 4
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