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Psychology exam 2 notes chapter 6 7 8 9

by: Becca McSweeney

Psychology exam 2 notes chapter 6 7 8 9 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Becca McSweeney

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chapter 6-9
Intro to psychology
J. Dean Elmore
Psychology 101, Psychology, Intro to Psychology
75 ?




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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Becca McSweeney on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by J. Dean Elmore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Chapter  7  Psychology.     •   Cognitive  Psychology:  The  brain  represents  information  while  thinking  is  the  mental   manipulation  of  these  representations.  Cognition  is  the  thinking  and  understandings   from  that  thinking.   •   Our  thoughts  are  the  mental  representations  of  things  that  we  come  in  contact  with   in  our  daily  lives.     •   An  analogical  representation  is  a  mental  representation  that  resembles  some  of  the   physical  characteristics  of  something     •   A  symbolic  representation  is  an  abstract  mental  representation  that  doesn’t   resemble  the  physical  features  at  all.   •   A  concept  is  the  most  used  symbolic  representation  it  is  a  mental  representation   that  categorizes  objects,  events  or  common  themes.     •   Categorization  is  an  efficient  way  of  thinking  because  it  reduces  the  amount  of   knowledge  needed  to  remember  more  things.     •   Category:  putting  something  into  a  group  due  to  features  that  are  similar  to  the   others.  Ex:  an  athletic  person  is  categorized  as  muscular  and  fast     •   Prototypes:  within  a  category,  members  who  are  came  across  more.  This  allows  for   more  flexibility  but  some  prototypes  can  be  used  for  different  reasons.     •   Schemas:  way  to  organize  information,  it’s  a  network  of  associations,  beliefs,   expectations,  and  knowledge.  They’re  adaptive  and  make  judgments  very  quick   without  trying.    Ex:  a  business  owner  is  a  hard  worker,  they  make  good  money,  they   have  a  family,  they’re  smart,  they  come  to  work  naked  this  is  incorrect  information   which  shows  the  schema  doing  its  part.  They  put  the  average  object  apart  from  the   subject  they  are  describing.  Such  as  they  do  not  put  that  a  busin ess  owner  has  2  eyes   because  the  average  human  has  2  eyes!  Kinda  like  stereotyping.     Fast Sports   Expensive Shiny car Small     •   A  Script  is  a  schema  that  is  appropriate  behavior.  Kinda  like  a  social  norm     Ways  of  thinking:     •   Automatic  thinking:  as  it  sounds,  it  is  effortless  and  involuntary,  it   just  happens   •   Controlled  thinking:  controlled  by  the  individual,  very  aware  of  what  is  happening ,   takes  lots  of  effort.       •   Subconscious  process:  a  mental  process  that  happens  without  having  to  think  but   can  pay  attention  when  needed     •   Non-­‐conscious  process:  Not  being  able  to  concentrate  on  what  it  happening  when   thinking  cannot  be  recovered.   •   Implicit  learning:  when  you  learn  something  but  don’t  remember  how  you  did.  Ex   riding  a  bike  or  walking   •   Algorithm:  well  defined  problems  can  be  solved  using  this     •   Heuristics:  a  fuzzier  problem,  very  adaptive  and  less  effort  NEED  BENEFITS   •   Framing  effect:  makes  someone’s  choice  change  determined  on  how  it  it   presented.  Ex:  someone  is  more  cautious  when  a  choice  is  framed  in  terms  of  a   loss  than  a  gain   2   •   Restructuring:  looking  at  a  problem  in  a  different  way  to  get  to  the  solution.     •   Mental  set:  a  problem  solving  strategy  that  has  been  used  and  was  successful  in   the  past   •   Functional  fixedness:  can  cause  difficulties  in  problem  solving .  It  is  a  mental   representation  about  typical  functions  of  certain  objects.   •   Intelligence:    The  ability  to  use  your  knowledge  to  make  good  decisions  and  take   care  of  yourself  in  challenging  situations.  Intelligence  can  be  tested  using   psychometric  tests,  which  assess  achievement  and  aptitude.   Alfred  Binet  was  the   one  who  created  the  biggest  intelligence  test,  it  was  made  for  the  French   government.  He  believed  that  intelligence  is  a  high  level  mental  process  and  that   was  the  best  way  that  it  was  understood.  He  also  introduced  the  concept  of   mental  age,  a  test  that  was  determined  by  comparing  their  test  score  with   children  of  the  same  age.  An  IQ  is  determined  by  dividing  the  mental  age  by  the   child’s  actual  age  then  multiplying  it  by  100.  (10[mental  age]/7[actual  age]  X  100  =   142.  To  measure  an  adults  IQ  this  same  test  is  used  just  compared  with  adults  the   same  age.  The  average  IQ  is  100.   •   Marilyn  vos  Savant  had  an  IQ  between  170 -­‐228.  How  was  this  possible?  She   believed  that  intelligence  contains  so  many  factors  that  it  is  impossible  to   accurately  measure.     •   IQ  scores  typically  only  predict  about  25%  of  the  variation  in  performance  at   school  or  work.  AKA  IQ  IS  NOT  EVERYTHING!  Culture  can  be  a  big  factor  into  doing   well  on  the  IQ  test.  It  is  a  typically  western  cultural  test  so  if  you  live  in  the  west   you  will  probably  do  better.   •   Factors  to  success  are:  background,  self  control,  motivation  and  the  will  to  work   •   Size  of  head  has  small  correlation  with  how  well  one  does  on  an  IQ  test.  Different   kinds  of  intelligence  have  more  relevance  to  the  different  sizes  of  brai n  regions.   Also,  an  increased  cortex  size  has  correlation  with  IQ.     •   Sex  differences  in  IQ:  most  tests  are  made  to  not  have  to  deal  with  sex   differences,  but  on  those  who  don’t  make  sure  there  are  no  differences,  there  are   between  male  and  female.     •   Environmental  factors  DO  make  a  difference  in  intelligence.     3   •   Stereotype  threat:  someone  confirming  a  stereotype  can  make  someone  preform   poorly.     •   Factor  analysis:  Analysis  that  shows  that  the  most  intelligence  test  items  tend  to   cluster  together     •   General  intelligence  (g):  a  factor  that  basically  means  the  one  thing  that  underlies   intelligence,  it  influences  important  life  outcomes,  performance  in  school  and   work  and  if  you  have  a  low  (g)  you  have  a  higher  chance  of  early  death.     •   Multiple  intelligences:  an  idea  that  there  are  other  intelligences  that  are   independent  of  each  other.     o   Musical,  bodily-­‐kinesthetic,  linguistic,  mathematical;/logical,  spatial,   intrapersonal,  and  interpersonal  intelligence   o   Polyglot,  multi-­‐instrumentalists.     Some  say  there  are  3  types  of  intelligence:   1.  Analytical  intelligence:  similar  to  psychometric  tested  intelligence,  be  good  at   problem  solving  and  other  academic  challenges.   2.  Creative  intelligence:  gain  insight  and  solve  novel  problems,  be  able  to  think  in   weird  ways   3.  Practical  intelligence:  refers  to  dealing  with  everyday  tasks,  common  sense   Emotional  intelligence:  an  important  form  of  nonintellectual  intelligence.  It  gives  the   ability  to  manage,  recognize  and  understand  emotions  and  use  them  to  make  an   appropriate  response.  Being  able  to  regulate  mood  and  resist  temptations  is  a   component  of  emotional  intelligence.  It  is  very  closely  correlated  with  the  quality  of   social  relationships.  Intelligence  is  associated  with  faster  mental  processing  people   who  score  higher  on  intelligence  tests  respond  quicker  on  reaction  time  and   inspection  times  than  people  who  scored  lower.  AKA  your  brain  works  faster   •   Savants:  a  savant  has  a  minimum  intellectual  capacity  but  they  seem  very  smart  at   a  young  age.  Their  ability  may  be  related  to  math,  music  or  art.  The  combination   of  unusual  memory  and  inability  to  learn  basic  tasks  is  a  big  mystery.  This  just   leads  to  more  questions  on  the  understanding  of  intelligence.       Need  attriubtes,   4   Chapter  9  psychology     •   Learning:  change  in  behavior  which  results  from  practice   •   Conditioning:  a  process  that  environmental  stimuli  and  behavioral  responses  connect  to   develop  associations.     •   Classical  conditioning:  2  types  of  events  happen  together  resulting  in  learning.  When  a   response  is  already  learned.  (Pavlovian:  Ivan  Pavlov)     o   Neutral  stimulus:  something  that  the  animal  can  see  or  hear  but  it  cannot  be   linked  with  the  response  being  tested  (the  clicker  for  training  a  dog)   o   Unconditioned  stimulus:  stimulus  that  produces  a  reaction  without  any  teaching   (a  dog  coming  to  a  treat)   o   Critical  trials:  Neutral  stimulus  is  tested  while  the  result  is  measured.   o   Operant  conditioning:  Learning  that  a  behavior  leads  to  a  particular  outcome.   (instrumental)   •   Learning  theory  started  (early  20  century)  because  of  Freudian  and  introspective   approaches   •   John  B.  Watson:  he  thought  that  only  visible  behavior  was  an  acceptable  gauge  of   psychological  activity  and  that  the  environment  and  its  outcomes  were  factors  of   learning   •   Tabula  rasa:  Latin  for  blank  slate.  It  means  that  humans  are  born  with  an  open  mind.   Believers  of  this  belief  are  normally  more  nurtures  regarding  human  development   (nature-­‐nurture)   •   Unconditioned  response:  a  reflex  (doesn’t  need  to  be  taught)   •   Conditioned  stimulus:  A  stimulus  that  produces  a  response  after  being  taught.   •   Conditioned  response:  the  response  to  a  conditioned  stimulus  (an  answer  to  something   that  was  taught)   •   Ivan  Pavlov:  he  thought  that  training  was  the  root  of  adaptive  behaviors,  he  believed   that  if  you  can  predict  if  something  will  bring  pain  or  bliss  it  will  make  survival  easier.  He   and  his  followers  believed  that  the  responses  strength  was  influenced  by  the  force  of   the  CS  and  US.     •   Acquisition:  the  development  between  conditioned  stimulus  and  unconditioned   stimulus.  (US  doesn’t  need  to  be  taught  while  CS  needs  to  be  taught)  Time  and  practice   is  the  vital  key  to  acquisition.  A  conditioned  response  (being  taught)  is  better  when  time   is  placed  between  the  conditioned  stimulus  (the  clicker)  and  the  unconditioned  stimulus   (the  treat)     •   The  CR  (response  after  being  taught)  will  go  away  if  the  CS  (clicker)  is  repeated  without   the  US  (treat).  The  CR  is  then  terminated  when  the  CS  doesn’t  underline  the  US   •   Spontaneous  recovery:  The  reaction  that  was  forgotten  comes  back  with  the  CS  (clicker)   this  will  then  go  away  if  the  CS  is  put  with  the  US  again.     An  example  of  this  would  be  using  a  clicker  for  a  dog  to  come.  At  first  you  would  use  the  US  (a   treat)  to  make  the  dog  run  to  you.  Then  you  would  use  the  US  and  a  CS  (a  clicker)  so  the   dog  would  put  two  and  two  together  and  start  giving  a  treat  less  and  using  the  clicker   every  time.  Eventually  you  wont  need  to  use  the  US  (treat)  and  only  use  the  CS  (clicker)     •   Stimulus  generalization:  answering  to  stimuli  that  is  as  close  as  possible  to  the  CS  to   produce  the  result  wanted  (CR)     •   Stimulus  discrimination:  a  diversity  between  2  comparable  stimuli  but  only  one  of  them   is  connected  with  the  US  (a  treat  and  saying  good  boy!)   •   Second  order  conditioning:  when  w  CS  becomes  connected  with  other  stimuli   connected  with  the  US.  This  helps  justify  the  learned  connections   In  the  video  shown  in  class,  experiments  were  shown  with  using  a  noise  and  a  person   connecting  the  noise  with  a  result.  As  the  person  got  so  used  to  the  noise  and  the  result,   whenever  the  noise  went  off  it  was  expected  and  when  the  result  did  not  happen  they   were  confused.     •   Phobias:  a  fear  that  is  drawn  way  out  of  proportion  than  what  the  hazard  really  is.  Ex:   arachnophobia,  Sciurophobia  (fear  of  squirrels  aka  me  I  am  dead  terrified  of  the  quad   squirrels)     Classical  conditioning  can  cure  or  create  phobias   •   It  can  be  used  to  cure  them  by  counterconditioning:  exposing  the  human  to  what  if   feared  little  by  little  while  they  are  not  focused  on  it.     •   System  desensitization:  a  remedy  centered  around  counterconditioning.     Psychologists  think  that  being  introduced  to  the  feared  stimulus  is  the  most  important   part  of  this  remedy  rather  than  the  relaxation  side  of  it.   2   •   Conditioned  food  aversion:  connecting  eating  a  certain  food  and  getting  sick  from  it.   Regardless  of  if  it  was  caused  by  a  virus  but  normally  when  the  food  is  not  regularly   eaten  and  happens  in  one  test.   •   Biological  preparedness:  an  argument  that  animals  are  automatically  scared  of  certain   things  genetically.     •   Reinforcement  increases  probability  (+  or  –  increases  likelihood  of  behavior)     •   Punishment  decreases  probability     •   Positive  reinforcement:  Getting  a  bonus  at  work  (reward)     •   Negative  reinforcement:  getting  a  rat  to  turn  off  a  buzzer  in  a  test  (removal  of  stimulus   to  increase  probability)     •   Positive  punishment:  getting  a  ticket  for  speeding   •   Negative  punishment:  putting  a  kid  in  timeout   •   Positive  reinforcement  or  punishment:  you  GET  something   •   Negative  reinforcement  or  punishment:  something  gets  TAKEN  or  turned  off   •   Operant  (instrumental)  Conditioning:  a  learning  method  that  the  consequence  of  the   action  governs  if  it  will  happen  again.  (B.F.  Skinner  used  the  word  operant  to  state  the   idea  that  animals  operate  on  the  environment  to  make  an  outcome.   •   Law  of  Effect:  Any  behavior  that  leads  to  a  positive  outcome  is  likely  to  happen  again,  if   it  leads  to  aggravation,  it  probably  wont  happen  again.     Example:  putting  a  lever  in  a  pet’s  cage,  the  lever  opens  the  door  to  let  the  animal  out,  the   animal  will  learn  that  “if  I  press  on  this  lever  I  can  get  out”  which  will  lead  them  to  do  it   again  because  positive  result  and  will  do  it  quicker  and  quicker.  Another  example  is  the   Skinner  Box  it  was  a  chamber  that  allowed  a  lot  of  trials  without  needing  interaction  from   the  one  being  tested,  it  had  a  lever  that  led  to  food  and  another  that  led  to  water,  the   animal  will  then  learn  what  is  behind  the  door  with  the  lever  and  will  continue  to  do  it.   •   Reinforcer:  a  stimulus  that  happens  after  a  response  and  will  increase  the  chance  of  it   happening  again   •   Primary  Reinforcer:  stimuli  that  is  naturally  reinforcing.  Ex  hunger  and  thirst   •   Secondary  Reinforcer:  Objects  that  happen  through  classical  conditioning  that  don’t   satisfy  biological  needs  but  are  still  a  reinforcer.    Ex:  money,  compliments,  cigs   •   Premack  principle:  using  a  prized  activity  will  reinforce  the  performance  of  a   insignificant  activity     3   •   Primary  Punisher:  strongly  punishing.  Ex  pain   •   Secondary  punisher:  something  that  is  established  from  classical  conditioning  that  is  a   punisher  but  is  not  as  strong.  Ex:  scolding,  grades   •   Continuous  reinforcements:  a  type  of  reinforcement  that  is  used  each  time  it  happens.   Highly  effective  but  if  the  reinforcement  stops,  the  desired  behavior   will  terminate.   More  persistent  than  continuous  reinforcement.     •   Partial  reinforcement:  a  type  of  reinforcement  that  is  only  used  sporadically.  It  can  be   directed  according  to  the  number  of  behavioral  responses  or  the  passage  of  time.   the  effect  depends  on  how  often  the  reinforcement  occurs.   •   Ratio  schedule:  reinforcement  is  based  on  the  number  of  times  the  behavior  happens.   Typically  leads  to  a  better  response  than  interval  schedule   •   Interval  schedule:  reinforcement  if  provided  after  a  specific  unit  of  time.     •   Fixed  schedule:  Reinforcement  occurs  after  a  specific  number  of  times  or  a  specific   amount  of  time   •   Variable  schedule:  reinforcement  is  provided  sporadically.  Only  sometimes  works     •   Shaping:  An  operant  conditioning  technique  that  consists  of  reinforcing  behaviors  that   are  similar  to  the  anticipated  behavior.   •   Successive  approximations:  any  behavior  that  is  even  close  to  the  anticipated  behavior     •   Behavior  modification:  The  use  of  operant-­‐conditioning  practices  to  abolish  bad   behavior  and  replace  them  with  good  ones.  An  example  of  this  is  a  Token  economy,   where  a  token  is  given  when  a  task  is  done  and  taken  when  bad  behavior  happens,   tokens  can  then  be  traded  for  objects  or  privileges.     •   Observational  learning:  the  changing  of  a  behavior  after  exposure  to  the  desired   behavior   •   MEME:  a  unit  of  knowledge  spread  through  a  culture,  equivalent  to  genes,  it’s  a   communication  of  learning  at  a  cultural  level.  They  can  be  conditioned  through   connection  or  reinforcement  but  are  normally  learned  by  watching  someone  else.  Many   behaviors  are  passed  on  through  social  learning.   •   Fear  is  learned  and  taught,  seeing  another  person’s  fear  response  can  lead  to  a   development  of  a  fear   4   •   Modeling:  the  reproduction  of  behavior  through  observational  learning.  Its  effective   only  when  the  bystander  can  actually  reproduce  the  behavior.  Humans  are  more  likely   to  replicate  attractive,  or  similar  models.  Normally  happens  indirectly.     •   Imitation  is  much  less  common  to  happen  to  nonhuman  animals  rather  than  humans.   •   Vicarious  reinforcement  is  difficult  because  its  secondhand  which  leads  it  to  be   confusing.     •   Vicarious  learning:  learning  by  watching  another  person  be  rewarded  or  punished  for   preforming  the  action.   •   A  key  difference  in  learning  is  between  the  achievement  of  a  behavior  and  its   performance.  Aka  learning  the  behavior  doesn’t  really  mean  they’ll  actually  do  the   behavior.     •   In  imitation  learning,  Mirror  neurons:   o   No  one  is  certain  of  their  particular  function   o   May  serve  as  the  center  of  imitation  learning     o   May  be  used  as  an  example  to  show  to  other  people   o   May  be  the  neural  source  for  understanding   o   May  play  a  role  in  human’s  skill  to  speak  through  language   o   Mirror  neurons  DO  track  the  behaviors  of  targets  as   those  behaviors  unfold  over   time.   Banduras  Studies:  hint  that  showing  children  violence  that  it  may  make  the  children  act   aggressive.  Ex:  video  games,  parents,  movies.     -­‐These  lead  to  desensitization  and  viewing  it  at  age  8  can  lead  to  criminal  behavior  at   age  30.     -­‐competition  is  the  true  trigger  of  violence   -­‐cooperative  gameplay  decreases  aggressive  cognitions  and  less  bodily  arousal   -­‐gamers  scored  better  on  some  measures  of  adjustment  and  risk  taking  than  those  who   do  not  play  games     5   Chapter  6  Psychology     •   Sensation  vs  Perception   “Sensation  produces  awareness  that  forms  consciousness  and  without  it,  we   would  be  out  of  touch  with  reality.”   •   Sensation  is  also  the  revealing  of  physical  energy  released  or  imitated  by   physical  objects   •   Sense  receptors:  nerve  impulses  to  the  brain  that  is  spread  by  the  cells  that   change  physical  energy  into  electrical  energy.   Perception:  method  that  the  brain  arranges  and  reads  sensory  information.     Transduction:  the  way  sensory  receptors  create  the  neural  impulses  when  they   obtain  physical  or  chemical  stimulation     Sense   Stimuli   Receptors   Pathways  to  the  brain   Taste   Starts  by  molecules   The  cells  in  taste   Portions  of  facial,   dissolving  on  the  tongue     buds  on  the  tongue     glossopharyngeal,  and   vagus  nerves   Smell   Molecules  dissolved  in   Sensitive  ends  of   Olfactory  nerve   fluid  on  mucous   Olfactory  neurons   membranes  in  nose   in  the  mucous   membranes     Touch   Pressure  on  the  skin   Sensitive  ends  of   Cranial  nerves  for  touch     touch  neurons  in   above  the  neck,  spinal     skin   nerves  for  touch   everywhere   Hearing   Sound  waves   Pressure  Sensitive   Auditory  nerve   hair  cells  in  cochlea   of  inner  ear   Vision   Light  waves   Light  sensitive  rods   Optic  nerve     and  cones  in  retina   of  eye       Measuring  the  senses:   •   Psychophysics:  The  study  of  how  the  physical  properties  of  a  stimulus  are   connected  to  our  psychological  involvement  of  that  stimulus.   •   Sensory  Thresholds:   •   Absolute  threshold:  the  smallest  amount  of  stimulation  that  must  happen   before  you  feel  a  sensation     •   Difference  threshold:  smallest  amount  of  change  necessary  for  someone  to   notice  a  change   •   Weber’s  Law:  The  barely  noticeable  alteration  between  2  stimuli  is  based   on  a  proportion  of  the  original  stimulus  rather  than  set  on  the  difference     •   Signal  detection  theory:  To  distinguish  a  stimulus,  you  must  make  a   decision  about  its  presence  or  absence.  It  splits  detection  of  a  sensory   signal  into  a  sensory  process  and  a  decision  process.     •   Sensory  adaptation:  The  loss  of  sensory  responsiveness  when  stimulation  is   tedious.     •   Sensory  Deprivation:  The  loss  of  standard  levels  of  sensory  stimulation.   -­‐   can  be  soothing  and  unwinding     •   Selective  attention:  Attention  directing  on  certain  properties  and  blocking   out  others.  Ex:  talking  to  someone  in  a  loud  room   •   Complexities  of  sight   -­‐   Hue:  Visual  experience  identified  by  color  names  and  linked  to  the   wavelength  of  light   -­‐   Brightness:  Visual  experience  linked  to  the  amount  of  light  released   from  or  mirrored  by  an  object.     -­‐   Saturation:  Visual  experience  linked  to  the  difficulty  of  light  waves.   richness  or  purity  of  color.           2   Parts  of  the  eye   •   Cornea:  shields  eye  and  twists  light   towards  the  lens   •   Lens:  concentrates  on  objects  by  shifting   shape   •   Iris:  regulates  the  amount  of  light  that   passes  into  the  eye   •   Pupil:  hole  which  light  extends  to  the   retina   •   Rods:  answers  to  dim  light   -­‐   120-­‐125  Million,  most  concentrated  in   edge  of  retina,  not  susceptible  to  color   but  very  sensitive.   •   Cones:  Involve  in  color  perception:     -­‐   7-­‐8  million,  most  concentrated  in  the  center  of  the  retina,  not  very   susceptible  but  very  sensitive  to  color.       •   Feature  detector  cells  are  cells  in  the  visual  cortex  that  are  sensitive  to   specific  features  of  the  environment.     •   A  lot  of  visual  processing  is  done  in  the  brain;  some  cortical  cells  answer  to   different  things  like  lines  or  shapes.     Theories  of  seeing  color:     1.   Trichromatic  theory:  eyes  have  3  different  cones  that  detect  3  colors  (red,   blue,  green).  This  theory  explains  different  forms  of  colorblindness.     2.   Opponent  process  theory:  the  visual  system  treats  pairs  of  colors  as   opposing  or  antagonistic.  (A  red-­‐green  pair,  Blue-­‐yellow  pair,  Black-­‐white   pair)   -­‐   Opponent  process  cells  are  inhibited  by  a  color,  they  have  a  burst  of   activity  when  opponent  colors  are  removed,  this  explains  negative  after   images.     3   •   Object  Perception   requires   construction.   •   The  German  word   Gestalt  means   “shape”  or  “form”,  as   used  in  psychology   Gestaly  means   “organized  whole.”     Figure  and  Ground   •   The  most  basic  organizing  principle  is  distinguishing  between  figure  and   ground;  this  is  the  brain  distinguishing  what  is  the  main  object  and  what  is   the  background!     Bottom  up  vs  top  down  processing:     •   Bottom  up  processing:  data  set  in  the  mind  from  lower  to  higher  levels  of   processing   •   Top-­‐down  processing:  Information  at  higher  levels  of  mental  processing   can  influence  the  lower  levels  of  processing.     Depth  Perception:   •    Binocular  depth  cues:  uses  both  eyes  and  contributes  to  bottom  up   processing.   •   Monocular  depth  cues:  available  from  each  eye  alone,  provides   organization  for  top-­‐down  processing.     •   Convergence:  When  eye  muscles  turn  eyes  inward  to  look  at  something   closer  up.  The  brain  knows  how  much  the  eyes  are  moving  and  uses  this   information  to  perceive  distance.       Size  Perception   •   Influenced  by  depth  cues,  the  size  of  an  object’s  retinal  image  depends  on   that  objects  distance  from  the  observer.  To  know  the  size,  the  visual  system   needs  to  know  the  distance.     4     Perceptual  Constancies:  The  brain  correctly  perceives  objects  as  constant  despite   sensory  date  that  could  lead  it  to  think  otherwise:     1.   Size  constancy   2.   Shape  constancy   3.   Location  constancy   4.   Brightness  constancy   5.   Color  constancy     -­‐   The  brain  computes  a  ratio  based  on  relative  magnitude  rather  than  on   sensations’  absolute  magnitude.     -­‐   Perceptual  systems  are  altered  to  detect  changes  from  baseline   conditions,  not  just  to  answer  to  sensory  inputs.     The  Senses:     1.   Taste:   a.   Gustation:  the  sense  of  taste:   b.   Taste  buds:  sensory  organs  (mainly  on  the  tongue,  tiny  mushroom   shape  structures   c.   Every  taste  is  made  up  of  a  mixture  of  5  basic  qualities:  Sweet,  sour,   salty,  bitter,  Umami   2.   Smell:     a.   Olfaction:  the  sense  of  smell:   b.   Basic  process:  Ordants  go  through  the  nose  and  naval  cavity,  then   contact  a  thin  layer  of  tissue  embedded  with  smell  receptors  which   are  called  olfactory  epithelium,  they  are  then  sent  to  the  olfactory   bulb  which  is  the  brain  center  for  smell   c.   This  sense  has  the  shortest  route  to  the  brain.     d.   Smell’s  intensity  is  processed  in  brain  areas  also  entangled  in   emotion  and  memory.  Touch:   a.   Haptic  Sense:  Sense  of  touch   5   b.   Senses  express  sensations  of  temperature,  pressure  and  pain,  and   where  our  limbs  are  in  space.     c.   The  integration  of  various  signals  and  higher  level  conceptual   processes  makes  haptic  experiences.   d.   There  are  two  types  of  pain:  Fast  fibers  for  sharp  immediate  pain:   activated  by  strong  physical  pressure  and  temperature  extremes   Slow  fibers  for  chronic,  dull,  steady  pain:  Activated  by  chemical   changes  in  tissue  when  skin  is  damaged.     3.   Hearing:     a.   Audition:  The  sense  of  sound   b.   Movements  and  vibrations  of  objects  cause  the   shift  of  air  molecules,   which  makes  a  sound  wave.     c.   Characteristics  of  sounds:    The  loudness,  which  is  determined  by  a   sound  waves  amplitude.  The  Pitch,  which  is  determined  b  the   frequency.  The  Timbre,  which  is  the  quality  of  the  sound  or  its   complexity.     d.   The  ears  concert  sound  waves  to  brain  activity,  which  makes  the   sensation  of  sound.     4.   Kinesthetic  sense:  Awareness  of  the  body’s  position  in  space  and   movements  of  our  bodies  and  our  limbs  (some  include  this  with  the  sense   of  touch)   5.   Equilibrium:  awareness  of  balance;  uses  information  from  receptors  in  the   semicircular  canals  of  the  inner  ear   Influences  on  perception:       1.   Beliefs   2.   Emotional  state     3.   Expectations     6   Chapter  8  psychology     Memory   •   Identity  is  made  up  of  memories  which  is  what  you’ve  experienced  and  learned.   •   Memories  are  sometimes  inaccurate  and  predisposed     •   Memory  is  selective,  if  it  wasn’t,  you  would  remember  the  most  random  and  useless   information.   Sir  Frederic  Bartlett:  A  British  psychologist  who  was  one  of  the  first  to  make  the  point  that   memory  was  selective.  He  believed  that  memory  is  a  reconstructive  process,  simple   information  is  easy  to  remember  but  when  given  complex  information,  you’re  influenced   by  previous  knowledge  and  beliefs.    Different  memory  systems:     1.   Explicit  memory:  you  are  aware  you  are  learning  it;  you  are  doing  it  on  purpose  with  the   goal  to  memorize  it   a)   Recall:  like  an  essay  question,  you  are  required  to  pull  more  information  out   rather  than  see  it  and  know  it   b)  Recognition:  multiple  choice  questions,  you  see  it  any  know  it   2.   Implicit  memory:  you  don’t  mean  to  remember  it,  you  just  do.  Example:  relearning   something  for  the  second  time,  you  will  learn  it  quicker  the  second  time  around.     3  phases  of  memory:  (like  a  computer)     1)   Encoding:  processing  the  information  so  it  can  be  stored  (input  on  keyboard)   2)   Storage:  holding  the  stored  information  over  time  (storing  on  hard  drive)     3)   Retrieval:  recovering  stored  information  (information  showing  on  screen)   3  memory  systems:     1)   Sensory  register:  has  a  lot  of  room,  but  a  lot  of  information  is  forgotten  if  effort  is   not  put  in  to  remember  it.  Holds  sensory  information  and  brief  photographic   memory.   2)   Short  term  memory  (STM):  not  as  much  room,  brief  storage  of  memory,  conscious   memory   3)   Long  term  memory  (LTM):  unlimited  room,  sometimes  permanent,  very   organized.     Memory  systems  into  detail:     •   Sensory  memory:  stores  information  for  short  periods  of  time  without  changing  it  from   it’s  sensory  form.  Researchers  say  it  stays  for  about  1/3  of  a  second  then  fades.  Sensory   memory  makes  us  see  the  world  as  a  fluid  stream  rather  than  c hoppy  like  a  movie   projector  plays  still  images.     •   Short  term  memory:  its  either  forgotten  or  turns  into  LTM.  It  is  believed  to  be  working   memory,  it’s  a  system  that  keeps  information  that  can  be  used  for  a  short  period  of   time.  STM  only  stays  for  about  20-­‐30  seconds  unless  you  work  to  not  forget  it.   •   Memory  span:  7  +/-­‐  items,  it  develops  as  you  grow  up,  research  says  that  you  can   increase  your  memory  span   •   Chunking:  organizing  information  to  make  it  easier  to  remember.       Example:    UAUTPSPHDCRNLMFAOFSUUCLA  if  you  split  it  up             UA  UT  PS  PHD  CRN  LMFAO  FSU  UCLA  it  may  be  easier   •   Long  term  memory:  Unlimited  amount  of  space,  can  be  permanent.  This  makes  us  able   to  remember  things  from  childhood  and  those  words  you  never  use.  To  make   information  go  from  STM  to  LTM  it  needs  to  be  repeated  and  practiced,  needed  for   survival,  or  deeply  thought  about.  The  evolutionary  theory  explains  how  we  decide  what   information  is  needed  to  be  remembered.   o   Procedural  memories:  Knowing  how  to  do  something  these  are  your  motor   skills,  daily  habits,  the  steps  to  do  something  or  achieve  something,  and  following   rules.  If  you  think  about  these  actions,  it  makes  them  harder.   o  Declarative  memories:  remembering  facts.  This  is  the  know  that  kind  of  memory.   Hint:  declar-­‐ative     th o   Episodic  memory:  past  experience  (time  and  place)  ex:  on  may  29  2015  I   was  doing….   o   Semantic  memory:  fact  memory  that  doesn’t  relate  to  you.  Ex:  on   September  11  2001  the  twin  towers  were  hit.   •   Serial  position  effect:  the  way  the  brain  remembers  things  from  a  list  depending  on   when  it  was  presented.   o   Primacy  effect:  remembering  things  better  from  the  beginning  of  the  list.  (LTM)   o   Recency  effect:  remembering  things  at  the  end  of  the  list  better.  (STM)   2     •   H.M.  was  a  man  who  suffered  from  daily  seizures,  so  they  took  part  of  his  temporal  lobe   out  which  made  him  forget  things  very  quickly.  He  was  able  to   learn  many  things   without  him  even  remembering  them.   •   Source  misattribution/source  confusion:  when  memory  gets  confusing  and  you  cant  tell   if  you  actually  remember  something  or  if  its  information  you  were  told.   •   Flashbulb  memories:  vivid  memories  of  an  emotional  or  important  event.  Though  very   vivid,  some  flashbulb  memories  aren’t  100%  accurate.  You  normally  remember  the  gist   of  what  happened  but  over  time  that  memory  gets  fuzzy.   •   Consolidation:  the  way  your  immediate  memories  become  long  term  memories.   •   Medial  (middle)  temporal  lobes:  coordinates  and  strengthens  connections  between   neurons  when  you  learn  something.  It  plays  a  big  role  in  making  new  memories.   •   When  information  is  being  learned,  it  is  being  organized  in  specific  regions  of  the  brain.   •   When  your  memory  starts  working,  it  reactivates  cortical  circuits  that  were  involved  the   first  time  you  saw  or  heard  it.   •   Once  the  connections  have  become  more  strong,  the  medial  temporal  lobes  become   less  important  for  memory.       3     Temporal  lobe   •   Temporal  lobe   •   Declarative  memory   •   Amygdala   •   Where  fears  and  emotions  are  stored   •   Prefrontal  cortex   •   Working  memory  (STM)   •   Hippocampus   •   Spatial  memory  (LTM)   •   Cerebellum   •   Motor  memory   4  


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