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CSD 258 Chapter 4,5,6

by: Aubrey

CSD 258 Chapter 4,5,6 CSD 258

GPA 2.9

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These notes will cover the notes for chapters 4,5,6 that are on the second exam.
Language Disorders in Children
Stacey Hall
Language Disorders
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Aubrey on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CSD 258 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Stacey Hall in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Language Disorders in Children in Language at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
 Language & Children with Learning Disabilities Chapter 4  History  Emerged as a diagnostic category in1960s by the education profession  First appeared in federal legislation in 1968  Education for All Handicapped Children Act, aka Public Law 94-142, (1975) provided the official definition and FAPE  Regular Education Initiative and IDEA in the ‘80s led to mainstreaming and LRE  Definition  NJCLD: …Significant difficulty in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical abilities…. Page 134  IDEA: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written that results in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculation…. Pg  Both definitions: the disorder is not a direct result of motor or sensory disabilities, mental retardation, severe emotional disturbance, environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage  Definition continued  NJCLD: recognizes that co-occurring conditions can exist  IDEA: includes perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia  Other subgroups  Subgroups  Dyslexia: (specific reading disability)  80% of children with language disorders have difficulty reading  Difficulty in reading abilities in children & adults who otherwise possess the intelligence, motivation, & schooling considered appropriate to be fluent in reading Language vs. Visual deficit debate  Subgroups continued  Slow Learners  Low achievement vs. under acheivement  Allow for identification of this group but not based on age gap  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  2 categories: ◦ Inattention ◦ Hyperactivity-Impulsivity ◦ 3.7% of US children are daignosed with ADHD ◦ 20-50% of cases have ADHD & LD  Subgroups continued  Phonological Processing Disorder  2 different applications of the same term  Fronting and stopping difficulty  Difficulty decoding and encoding sounds of secondary language ◦ TEST QUESTION  Subgroups continued  Developmental Apraxia of Speech  Lack of coordination of speech mechanisms  Respiration, phonation, and articulation  Symptoms include: ◦ Unintelligible speech, inconsistent & unpredictable errors, concomitant apraxias, exceptional difficulty with production of multi-syllabic words, unusual stress & intonation, poor response to conventional therapy.  Often misdiagnosed/over-diagnosed  Subgroups continued  Central Auditory Processing, CAPD  Often has difficulty attending and processing auditory information, normal hearing acuity  Diagnosed through audiological battery  Minimal Brain Dysfunction, MBD  Displays disturbances (soft signs) in perception  May present with thinking and emotional behaviors without a previous history of an injury  Identification  Each State sets criteria for eligibility  Common criteria is a discrepancy between ability and achievement  New guidelines have REDUCED identification  Prevalence  2001- Nearly ___3_ million children received special education, % changes reflect changes in the laws and criteria  Boys are diagnosed 50% more than girls  Risk factors: ADHD, hearing loss due to otitis media and heredity (nature vs. nurture?)  Related Linguistic Issues  Metalinguistics expectations  School age children (SAC) are expected: recognize and use printed word, use and apply language learning, define, understand opposites and understand figurative and literal meanings, learn rules, manipulate structures to understand reading passages, represent language in writing, know appropriate social behavior, adjust accordingly to follow scripts  Related Issues continued  Spoken and Written Language Differences  Written language is not a direct translation of the spoken word  Written comprehension & expression require a more sophisticated lexicon  Construction and comprehension are difficult for a child with LD  Related Issues continued  Home vs. school language  Difference in expectations for developmental language knowledge and use  Scripts govern the behavior but also set ground rules for communication  Important for teachers and SLP’s to have good communication skills especially in regards to rate, lexicon, proximity, and volume  Expectations ndange  1st- 2 grade revolves around reading and writing  4 -12 grade reading to learn and writing to demonstrate learning  Communication Problems  Semantics  Word Meanings ◦ Poor lexical knowledge of multiple meaning words, difficulty with figurative language, abstract nouns, recognizing & using categories  Word Retrieval ◦ Locutions, substitutions, perseverations, vagueness to responses, delays, fillers, disfluencies, difficulty naming based on description  Generalized Semantic Deficit ◦ Communication Problems continued  Grammar  Syntax & Morphology issues persist ◦ Slow rate of growth, tense inflictions, difficulty using irregular forms  Careful to assume all will have deficits ◦ Some clients with high IQ’s may indicate no deficits in their language forms  Communication Problems continued  Narratives  Shorter and fewer episode of the ability to use narratives. Choppy words  Shallow character descriptions, lack emotional states  Difficulty judging importance, not good understanding of punctuation  Difficulty considering audience, egocentric narration  Generally less informative  Greater rate of breakdown  Really poor inferential skills  Communication Problems continued  Pragmatics: poor peer relationships  Topic Management ◦ Maintenance is impaired ◦ Less likely to lead in conversation ◦ Difficulty staying on task ◦ Difficult to persuade to maintain a topic  Conversational repair ◦ Ineffective at repairs in both reformulation and difficulty requesting clarification  Communication Problems continued  Reading & Writing  Poor secondary skills overall ◦ Vocabulary  Reduced ability to imitate productions ◦ Fluency  Lack phonological awareness  Slow rate ◦ Unable to read with speed, and inflections and accuracy  Poor spelling & handwriting ◦ Technology doesn't help quality or quantity  Intervention  Collaborative  Team approach: shared responsibility for all aspects including assessment, planning, and intervention  Traditional: pull out model, client is pulled out of the classroom and SLP teaches strategies. Curriculum driven goals, reduce differences in teaching as much as possible, use classroom supports  Strategies:  Reduce impulsivity- encourage thinking time and problem solving  Graphic organizers- things such as semantic feature organizers and story maps, teach mnemonic strategies, use things like expanding expressions tools  Language & Children with Intellectual Disabilities Chapter 6  Definition  Terminology  A disability characterized by significant limitations both in their intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, & practical adaptive skills.  Originates before age 18  Identified by testing of IQ and age  Causes  Organic ◦ Genetic: chromosomal syndromes  Down syndrome, Fragile X, Prader Willis ◦ Prenatal: injury to the fetus prior to birth, drug abuse, alcohol  FAS, Rubella, ◦ Perinatal: at the time of birth or shortly after, premature, birth trauma, annoxia, hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice)  Familial: parents have had I.D., inherited but not necessarily associated with a particular syndrome, can be due to environmental deprivation  Associated Problems  Hearing Loss ◦ Sensorineural losses are often a result of the original cause of impairment ◦ Conductive losses are often due to cranial facial abnormalities found in some syndromes such as Treacher Collins or Pierre Robin ◦ Cleft Palate ◦ Epilepsy ◦ Cognition – Language Link  Delay vs. Difference Controversy  Inactive verbal systems cause deficits  Rigid behavior  Weak short term/working memory  Lack of Experience  Language Characteristics  Inconsistent findings in research because its difficult to test using norms and the differences between groups are greater than the similarities  Characteristics continued  Pragmatics ◦ Speech acts ◦ Referential Communication ◦ Conversational repair ◦ Turn Taking ◦ Topic management ◦ Generalization  Example of Pragmatics  Give a child a blue & red crayon with a coloring page. Then ask them to color the leaf on the page green. They don’t have a green crayon and must request it. ◦ Theory of Mind ◦ Developing Age ◦ Language Age ◦ Conversational Repair  Answer: Conversational Repair  Characteristics cont.  Comprehension-information processing, can be affected by linguistic competence, also can be due to contextual understanding  Semantics- has to do with concreteness  Syntax- delay vs. difference depends on severity of the problem  Speech Production- often will see a lot of associative factors and final consonant devoicing  Down Syndrome  Most common  Pre-language deficits  Comprehension is poor but can tend to have vocab strengths compared to syntactical abilities  Semantics-poor, but are considered delayed rather than disordered  Syntax- speech & language impairment and also difficulty formulating narratives  Down Syndrome continued  Speech Production-similar patterns of development with intervention, motor development delays and hypotenacity, phonological impairment more so than phonetic  Phonological Awareness & Literacy-limited phonological skills, sight word readers  Rate-utterances consist of inconsistent spurts and plateaus  Also have a ceiling in regards to questions  Down Syndrome continued  Imitation-tend to mimic which can be a result of early intervention, echoailic  SLI explanations-evidence indicates that imitation isn’t crucial or specific to down syndrome ◦ With regards to speech and language impairments there needs to be further research and often times they lack motivation and good models as well as neurological acoustic processing, maturation plateau, hearing loss and physical differences. ◦ Basically a diagnosis of exclusion  Intervention  Social & Legislative Influences ◦ Many times early on the educational opportunity ended in institutionalizing them now we promote increased social interaction and basically shoot to have them become productive functioning adults  Intelligibility ◦ Reinforcement hinges on their intelligibility, focuses on childs phonetic repertoire as well as phonological profile and cognitive level ◦ Need to create functional tasks  Facilitating vs. Compensatory ◦ May depend on age and or performance expectations  Intervention continued  Developmental vs. Remedial Logic ◦ May depend on severity of clients condition often times during intervention the clinician deals with a variety of things which includes behavior modification, cognitive learning strategies and using naturalistic ecological model  Language-Cognition ◦ Have to consider the mental age and the language age gap, cognition is the pre-requisite to language acquisition, must do a lot of cognitive strategy training when working with these clients. ◦ Intervention cont.  Pragmatics & Pragmatic Relevance ◦ Basic goal: To produce a functioning, effective communicator ◦ Communicative behavior must meet 3 criteria to be used and maintained  Fluent & Timely  Used adequately  Occur in natural conditions ◦ Teach strategies and problem solving with minimal prompting  Cueing-visual, verbal, tactile  Prompting- “Is the ball red or green?” , looking at lips to get sound  Intervention cont.  Goal Attack Strategy ◦ How many and in what sequence? ◦ Ex) Working on pronouns, which one are you going to work on first? He & She or We & They? Start with basics and work up  Caretaker Interaction ◦ Establish relationship during early intervention. Evidence to suggest that this causes differences in the types of interactions you have. Also helps parents to modify their behavior that will facilitate development in their child.  Materials Selection ◦ Select attention getting materials, need to consider sensory and motor development. ◦ Make sure materials are realistic and concrete, use to address goals  Intervention cont.  Comprehension ◦ Monitor their hearing, sometimes there can be undiagnosed hearing loss ◦ can involve operant conditioning-instant reinforcement ◦ make sure that the child is oriented to your intervention-always have a schedule and verbally tell them what you're going to do in a session and thoroughly explain each task ◦ After sessions always talk with parents to implement strategies that you are using  Lexicon ◦ Need to extend vocabulary beyond nominal, and need to include idioms, categories, and common and abstract information  Intervention cont.  Syntax ◦ Hybrid – Involves models and incidental teaching ◦ Trainer-oriented – Involves operant procedures ◦ Focused Stimulation- Revolves around modeling techniques and they do a lot in ELIP (Environmental Language Intervention Program) and ILDT (Interactive Language Development Teaching) programs, structured  Speech Production ◦ Can be similar to non disabled, need to take in to consideration oral and facial differences, make sure oral motor stimulation and exercises for control and awareness  Conclusion  Treat as individuals  Each person is unique and complex  Be resourceful  Extend the capacity for communication and social participation  Raise realistic expectations


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