Full Notes for Exam 2
Full Notes for Exam 2 BIOL 243 001
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Date Created: 03/01/16
CHAPTER 3 I. Translation 1. Ribosomal RNA forms part of ribosome 2. Messenger RNA- mRNA; contains info for the particular protein; copied from DNA; decoded with help of: a. 3 nucleotide code (ex: UUU codes for phe; CUU codes for leu; AGU codes for ser) b. codon- 3 nucleotides that specify for one amino acid (codon UUU translates for phe amino acid) c. 64 possible codons, but only 20 amino acids d. the code is degenerate- more than one codon can code for the same amino acid e. 61 codons code for amino acids, 3 are stop signals f. UAA can be a stop codon (does not code for any AA) no corresponding tRNA g. Capital letter of sentence is like the start codon AUG to begin translation; UAA, UAG or UGA act as the periods to a sentence that ends translation 3. Transfer RNA (tRNA); looks like a T or clover a. Anticodon is at bottom of tRNA and is complimentary (in terms of base) to the codon; if a codon is an A, the complimentary anticodon is a U b. Amino acid attached to top, opposite of anticodon c. There is a different tRNA for different codons d. Codon is CUU, tRNA anticodon is GAA, with Amino Acid leu at the top e. Ribosome just makes a peptide bond connecting all of the amino acids at the tops of the tRNA’s All done sequentially tRNA with attached, growing polypeptide is bound to the ribosome next tRNA-AA- will bind to adjacent site peptide bond is formed ribosome moves down the mRNA CHAPTER 4 I. Types of Tissues 1. Nervous tissue 2. Muscle tissue 3. Epithelial tissue 4. Connective tissue II. Epithelial Tissue A. Locations Free surfaces Glands B. Functions Protection Secretion Absorption C. Characteristics Free surface Basement membrane (BM)/Basal surface o Extracellular; made of proteins and carbohydrates o Acts as the barrier that separates epithelial tissue and what lies beneath o Epithelial cells secrete substances that create the basement membrane o Epithelial cells lie on the free surface side of the BM Little intercellular space No blood vessels associated with them (no capillaries, etc.) Can have specializations on surface of epithelial tissues like desmosomes, tight junctions, cilia, etc. D. Classification Based on # of Cells or Shape Based on # of cell layers 1. Simple: 1 layer of cells 2. Stratified: multiple layers of cells 3. Pseudostratified: some do not reach the surface but all contact the BM Based on shape at the free surface 1. Squamous: flat, frying egg 2. Cuboidal: cubes, square 3. Columnar: columns, rectangle E. Types of Epithelial Tissues 0. Simple Squamous Function: o very thin to allow diffusion & filtration Location: o Alveoli of lung: gas exchange o Capillaries: very small blood vessels; nutrients diffuse out of bloodstream & wastes diffuse into the bloodstream 1. Stratified Squamous Many layers; after cell surface, cells are flat Function: o Thick, protection, friction Location: o Skin o Mouth o Vagina o Anus 2. Simple Columnar 1 layer thick, tall cells, lots of cytoplasm Function: o Secretion, absorption Location: o Digestive tract 3. Simple Cuboidal Function: o Secretion, absorption Location: o Salivary glands o Sweat glands o Ovaries o Some parts of kidneys 4. Pseudostratified Ciliated Function: o Secretion of mucus, propulsion of mucus by cilia Location: o Ciliated: Respiratory tract o Nonciliated: sperm carrying ducts 5. Transitional Function: o Cells change shape allowing the tissue to stretch Location: o Bladder o Ureter II. Classification Based on Function or Location 4. Endothelium: lining of blood vessels o Simple squamous 5. Mucus membrane: secrete mucin o Goblet cells secrete mucin 6. Cutaneous membrane: skin 7. Serous membranes: combination of CT and epithelial tissue o Like a water balloon, 2 membranes containing serous fluid o Allow the organs to move around II. Classification Based on Secretion: Glandular Epithelium 4. Endocrine: not connected to free surface Secretions are absorbed into the blood Affect the entire body 5. Exocrine: directly connected to a free surface Act locally i.e. sweat glands, salivary glands . Merocrine: secretions pass through membrane (exocytosis) o Sweat glands, salivary glands, pancreas a. Holocrine: accumulate secretion, then die & release the substance o Sebaceous glands: secrete sebum (oil) b. Apocrine: part of the cell will bud off o Mammary glands III. Classification Based on Duct or Secretory Structure 0. Duct structure Simple- duct does not branch Compound- duct branches 1. Secretory structure Tubular Simple, simple branched, compound Alveolar Simple, simple branched, compound, compound tubuloalveolar IV. Connective Tissue 0. Loose CT 1. Dense CT 2. Cartilage CT 3. Bone 4. Blood 2-11-2016 I. Connective tissue Location: o fat, tendons, fills body spaces, attaches skin Functions: o protection, support, binds things together, storage Very abundant Cells are NOT close together Has a good blood supply, blood vessels run through CT, not really any blood vessels in epithelial--> there are capillaries below basement membrane where nutrients diffuse across Contains cells Extracellular matrix (not cells) o Ground substance- watery or hard; skin vs. salts in bone o Fibers- 3 types: collagenous (made of collagen protein)- large, strong, often white reticular- relatively short and branched, not nearly as strong as collagen elastic- can stretch and go back like rubber bands a. connective tissue proper- fibroblast cells (makes the extracellular matrix using proteins to make the fibers) a. loose connective tissue- the few fibers are very spaced out i. areolar- watery ground substance, relatively few fibers (most will be collagenous), bind skin to underlying tissues, surround blood vessels, fill body spaces ii. adipose- fat, watery ground substance, the cell is filled up of fat molecules iii. reticular- high concentration of reticular fibers, in bone marrow and spleen b. dense connective tissue- fibers are denser & closer together i. regular- collagen fibers, parallel, very strong CT, found in tendons (bone to muscle), ligaments (bone to bone), does not heal very well (b/c not a great blood supply) ii. irregular- collagenous fibers, fibers are interwoven, pretty strong, but not as strong as regular, will heal faster than regular, found in dermis of skin, various fibrous capsule (fibrous joint capsule) iii. elastic- large amount of elastic fibers, found in vocal cords, surrounding large arteries like aorta c. cartilage- chondroblast (--blast- more immature cells; --cytes- more mature), extracellular matrix’s ground substance is made of chondrin which is firm and pliable, fibers i. hyaline- closely packed collagenous fibers, glassy, found in costal cartilage (ribs to sternum), articular cartilage (ends of bones), trachea (tube that carries O2 to our lungs, holds trachea open) ii. fibrocartilage- more elastic fibers than hyaline cartilage, compressible (mattress like), material found in our intervertebral discs iii. elastic- super high concentration of elastic fibers, found in external ear, epiglottis (flap that keeps us from swallowing food into our trachea) , auditory tube (in throat that equalizes our air pressure) CHAPTER 5 Location: o Skin, hair, nails, glands, nerve Functions: o separates us from the rest of the world and allows us to sample the world o protection from bacteria o make us waterproof o protects from UV radiation o regulates body temp (sweating, blood goes to surface of body (pale skinned people get very red and flushed)) o excretion (NaCl and urea in sweat) o involved in sensation I. Epidermis- epithelial, stratified squamous, keratinocytes are the cells mostly making up the epidermis Come (Lets) Get Some Beer (superficial to deep) Corneum (Lucidum) Granulosum Spinosum Basale c. Most deep, stratified squamous BM (basement membrane) made by dermis, separates epidermis and dermis d. stratum basale (contains dividing cells)- most deep layer e. stratum spinosum- dividing maybe a little bit, filling up with keratin, intermediate filaments f. stratum granulosum- filling up with various lipids, cells are a little alive, where cells come to die g. stratum corneum- most superficial layer, dead cells, keratin inside cells and various lipids and glycolipids outside/between cells that make the skin hydrophobic skin is continually being sloughed off and renewed b/c basale is always dividing I. Dermis II. Hypodermis Thin skin Thick skin- palms of hands and soles of feet; thick skin has extra layer, stratum lucidum, just deep of the corneum and just superficial of stratum granulosum Papillae- on top of dermis in between dermis and epidermis I. Cells of the Epidermis Keratinocytes- non keratinized is skin, keratinized is hair Melanocytes- produce melanin (dark pigment) Protect from UV light Dendritic cells (Langerhaans)- phagocytosis (ingest various debris) Tactile cells (Merkel)- light touch II. Layers of Dermis (Public Relations) Papillary layer- upper 1/5 layer (areolar) Reticular layer- lower majority (dense irregular tissue) Hypodermis (superficial fascia)- lays deep to dermis, not considered part of the skin (areolar & adipose tissue) III. Glands Sweat glands (sudoriferous) i. Eccrine- H20, NaCl, urea; empty onto skin o Functions: cooling, excretion o Not Located On: nipples, hips, parts of external genitalia o Location: many on hands and feet, forehead o Cold sweat: clammy hands from nervousness (regulated as emotional response) o Mode of Secretion: merocrine (passes through membrane, exocytosis) ii. Apocrine- large, fatty substance secreted into hair follicle o Location: anus, armpits, around genitalia o Mode of Secretion: merocrine iii. Ceruminous- secretes cerumen (earwax) o Mode of Secretion- apocrine o Location: ear o Function: keep out insects Sebaceous glands- secrete sebum (oily substance) into hair follicle o Functions: keeps skin from drying out, toxic to bacteria, become much more active during puberty resulting in acne when bacteria infects the sebaceous glands o Mode of Secretion: holocrine, sebum fills the duct, then it bursts, releasing the substance IV. Hair Hair follicle- Hair shaft- part that sticks up out of the skin Hair root- deeper, in skin Hair bulb- deepest portion of hair follicle Hair matrix- contains dividing cells V. Nails Nail bed Nail matrix- dividing cells, push the nail out Nail root VI. Skin Burns a. First degree burn- skin is reddened, only epidermis is affected i.e. mild sunburn; skin regenerates b. Second degree burn- reddened skin, blisters present, epidermis and dermis is affected i.e. touching hot stove, etc.; skin regenerates c. Third degree burn- epidermis and entire dermis are destroyed, can only regenerate from the edges; gray-white, cherry red, or black; no initial edem or pain b/c nerve endings are destroyed VII. Carcinomas . Basal cell carcinoma- arise from basal layer Central ulcer, sometimes will invade the dermis Successful to cure through surgery and drugs a. Squamous cell carcinoma- rise from stratum spinosum Raised, reddened elevation, sometimes has pigment associated with them, can metastasize (can move to and infect other parts of the body; divide and spread) b. Malignant melanoma- arise from melanocytes (A) Asymmetric, (B) Border has indentations, (C ) Color can be black, brown, tan, red or blue, (D) Diameter larger then 6 mm (size of pencil eraser) Too much sun is bad for the skin CHAPTER 6 206 bones o Bones are a CT o Cells Osteoblasts/cytes- synthesize bone Osteoclasts- break down bone o Extracellular matrix Ground substance- salts (precipitated calcium phosphate) Hard, resist compression Fibers Collagenous fibers provide tensile strength (bend not break) I. Classification of Bones- Structure a. Long bones- arm, forearm, leg, thigh b. Flat bones- skull, ribs, sternum c. Short bones- carpals (small bones in hands), tarsals (small bones in feet) d. Irregular bones- vertebrae Exoskeleton- cockroaches Endoskeleton- humans 2/18/16 I. Long Bone a. Structure Epiphysis (heads) o Proximal (closest to point of origin) o Distal (farther from point of origin) Diaphysis o Shaft o Hollow o Yellow bone marrow- fat Articular cartilage- on the surface of the epiphyses (joints), made of hyaline cartilage Periosteum- outer layer Inner layer is richly supplied with blood vessels and has minerals stored inside Endosteum- also lined b. Location Thigh Leg Arm Forearm II. Types of Bone Structure a. Compact bone- on the surface of ALL bone Few air spaces very dense, strong b. Spongy bone- located on the inside of bones except the diaphysis (which has nothing in terms of bone) Has all sorts of air spaces not near as strong as compact bone Contains red bone marrow Involved in hemiparesis- red blood cell formation c. Yellow bone marrow- fat, located on the inside of the diaphysis III. How is compact bone supplied with nutrients? Compact bone has a very organized structure, which allows blood vessels to pass through compact bone and supply the cells with nutrients osteon (Haversian System)- holes repeated over and over and over in compact bone o Central canal (Haversian canal) Blood vessels Nerves o Holes called lacunae located in circles around Haversian canal (tree ring shape) lacunae hold the osteocytes o Little cracks in spaces between central canal and lacunae are called canaliculi- act as passageways o Lamellae- layers of bone, determined by osteocytes Collagen fibers run in different directions in each lamellae layer, which resists breaking o Perforating (Volkmann's) canal- perpendicular blood vessels IV. Spongy Bone No osteons (only in compact bone) Lacunae V. Bone Development (Ossification) . Endochondral Ossification- embryonic skeleton (made of hyaline cartilage) is converted to bone Occurs for nearly all bones of the body except some skull bones and facial bones Occurs from the outside to the inside 0. Hyaline cartilage will degenerate (die) 1. Perichondrium (membrane surrounding cartilage)- converted to periosteum 2. Bony collar formed on outside of cartilage, then the inside develops a. Intramembranous Ossification- doesn't start with hyaline cartilage, starts with matrix of fibers Occurs from the inside to the outside 0. Starts with a matrix of (mostly collagenous) fibers 1. Osteoblasts invade matrix and convert to spongy bone 2. Remodeled and compact bone is formed Don't worry about memorizing slide 12, figure 6.9 VI. Increase in the Length of Long Bones Before birth, the diaphysis is ossified (converted to bone) After birth, the epiphyses are ossified This leaves hyaline cartilage in between epiphysis and diaphysis (epiphyseal plate) Epiphyseal line- when the hyaline cartilage is completely gone, all of it has been converted to bone, so the bone will no longer grow in length Increase in length due to growth of the epiphyseal plate Growth hormone- secreted by pituitary gland; determines growth of bone Pituitary giant- continued release of GH Pituitary dwarf- GH stopped being released at early age, results in very short long bones, (just turned to osteocytes rather than bone) Don't worry about memorizing slide 14, figure 6.10 VII. Remodeling Bones are continually being remodeled a. Remodeling packets Contain osteoclasts- cells that break down bone, by creating an acidic environment (dissolves the calcium, breaks down collagen) Contain osteoblasts- cells that synthesize bone b. Bone deposition First part: organic part of bone is laid down (glycoproteins, collagen, some elastic fibers) Second part: mineralization- various calcium precipitates are laid down VIII. Control of Remodeling Always a balance between bone erosion and new bone deposition a. Hormonal mechanisms o Keep calcium levels in our blood in between a narrow range o If calcium levels decrease, the parathyroid hormone is released by parathyroid gland--> stimulates the osteoclasts, enhancing the break down of bone, become more active, more acidic environment, more cell division, Ca precipitates break down (negative feedback loop) o If calcium levels increase, hormone calcitonin is released by thyroid--> inhibits osteoclasts, will not be so active b. Response to Stress o Exercise and stress strengthen bone o Weight lifters who do not use steroids, are growing their muscles and bones IX. What can go wrong with bone? . Rickets A vitamin D deficiency (Vitamin D is necessary for intake of calcium and phosphorus) Bones can bend, bowed bones a. Osteoporosis Most common in post menopausal females, estrogen, increased calcium over life time, not staying active Bones become brittle, break easy Loss of bone mass Something gone wrong with the balance of bone erosion and deposition b. Fractures . Simple Bones are broken into 2 pieces, nothing complicated, can relatively heal very well and be just as strong as it was before i. Compound One or more of the bones can protrude through the skin ii. Comminuted Splintering of bones/shattered iii. Depressed Bones are pushed inward i.e. skull caves in after being hit c. Healing Fractures 0. Hematoma- blood rushes to site, blood clot 1. Fibroblasts & chondroblasts- invade and generate fibrocartilaginous callus, various fibers and cartilage mixed in with blood clot 2. Osteoblasts- invade and form a bony callous and form spongy bone 3. Bone remodeling takes place, layer of compact bone formed on outside Notes 2/25/2016-3/1/2016 I. Articulation a. Factor: movement Structure Ligament Muscle tension II. Classification of Joints a. By Movement Synarthroses- no movement Amphiarthroses- slight amount of movement Diarthroses- a lot of movement b. By Structure Fibrous: ligament- dense regular; no joint cavity Cartilaginous: cartilage; no joint cavity Synovial: has a joint cavity, synovial membrane, synovial fluid III. Fibrous Joints a. Sutures- skull bones Fontanelle- soft spot present in skull bones of babies because their skull bones are not fully fused Synostosis- sutures are totally fused in adults b. Syndesmosis- held together by dense regular tissue Tibia & fibula- synarthroses Radius & ulna- amphiarthroses IV. Cartilaginous Joints a. Synchondroses- hyaline cartilage Temporary between epiphysis and diaphysis Costal cartilage b. Symphyses- fibrocartilage In between vertebrae (vertebral discs) Amphiarthroses Pelvic girdle V. Synovial Joints- all different types of movement allowed by synovial joints 1. Movements a. Flexion- decreases the angle between 2 bones (flex arm) i. Dorsiflexion- decrease angle between foot & leg ii. Plantar flexion- increase angle between foot & leg b. Extension- increases the angle between 2 bones (extend arm) i. Hyperextension- head can do it and be fine; hyperextending knee and elbow is bad c. Abduction- move away from midline (lift arm up) d. Adduction- move toward midline (put arm down) e. Circumduction- cone like movement (arm circles) f. Rotation- movement around an axis (twisting a doorknob) g. Elevation- elevation of mandible (close mouth) h. Depression- depression of mandible (open mouth) i. Supination- outward rotation (wrist up, radius & ulna are parallel) j. Pronation- inward rotation (wrist down, radius rotates over ulna) 2. Structure Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage Articular capsule o Fibrous capsule- faces the outside o Synovial membrane- faces the inside, secretes synovial fluid Articular disc- made of fibrocartilage, in knees, acts as cushion Bursae- fluid filled sacs, located between skin & bone, tendon & bone, or ligament & bone; acts to reduce friction o Bursitis- bursae become inflamed, very painful, simple movements become very problematic Tendon sheaths- very similar structures to bursae, wrap around tendons o Tendonitis- inflammation of tendon VI. Types of Joints 0. Non-axial . Plane joint- between carpals, between tarsals, between metacarpals & carpals o Ligaments hold these bones together, determining the movement of plane joints 1. Uniaxial- movement in 1 plane . Hinge joint- elbow, knee, phalanges Extension & flexion a. Pivot joint- between 1st and 2nd vertebrae, proximal joint between radius & ulna Rotation around an axis 2. Biaxial- movement in 2 planes . Condyloid joint- radius & carpals, metacarpals & phalange Flexion & extension, abduction and adduction, circumduction (possible when you add F&E with A&A) a. Saddle joint- between carpal & metacarpal on thumb (only place in body 3. Multiaxial Many movements Found in shoulders & hips Also called ball and socket joint VII. Problems with Joints Arthritis- inflammation of a joint Osteoarthritis- the wear & tear arthritis, occurs as people just age and articular cartilage breaks down/degenerates, bone spurs can form, causing swelling of joint and pain Rheumatoid arthritis- thought to be an autoimmune disease, ones own body/antibodies will attack the synovial membrane, resulting in pannas formation in joint cavity If pannas substance calcifies, disfiguring fingers, no use for fingers Gouty arthritis- uric acid crystals are deposited in joints Usually uric acid is excreted in urine, but some people's diets affect uric acid concentration (lots of meat, or dysfunctional kidneys), very painful, can deposit in other parts of the body other than fingers, genetic Chapter 9 I. Muscle Functions Motion- movement, facial expressions Posture- standing erect, there is balanced contraction on both sides of the body Generation of head- energy conversion from kinetic energy to mechanical energy is never 100% efficient, so excess is released as heat Muscle has excellent blood supply- numerous capillaries and blood vessels through out muscles II. Functional Characteristics of Muscle Excitability- nerves stimulate excitement most of the time, chemicals are released by nerve to contract the muscle Contractility- when muscles are stimulated, they get shorter and fatter (contract) Extensibility- can stretch it, hold together, relax Elasticity- flexible, can go back to original shape III. Types of Muscle a. Skeletal muscle- moves the bones, contraction, extension i. Location Attached to bones Some are attached to the skin in our face, creating facial expression ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Voluntary- we control it, however, not necessarily always consciously controlling every muscle (standing and swaying) Regulated my somatic nervous system iii. Structure Striated- dark regions separated by light regions--> contents must be highly organized Cells are long and multinucleated (more than one nucleus inside the same plasma membrane) Nuclei are near the edge and jammed up against the membrane b. Cardiac muscle- allows the heart to beat i. Location In the heart ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Involuntary- we cannot consciously control the speed of our heart beat Regulated by autonomic nervous system iii. Structure Striated Mono/uni-nucleated (1 nucleus contained in 1 plasma membrane), sometimes di/bi- nucleated (2 nuclei contained in 1 plasma membrane) Nuclei are centrally located Cube like cells c. Smooth/Visceral muscle- move materials throughout body i. Location Surrounds hollow tubes i.e. intestines, blood vessels, etc. Arrector pili muscle (goose bumps) ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Involuntary- we cannot consciously control its movement Regulated by autonomic nervous system iii. Structure Smooth, not striated Mono/uni-nucleated Cells taper to point Often in sheaths- multiple smooth muscle cells are joined together IV. Gross Anatomy . Skeletal Muscle Whole muscle (largest) o Epimysium surrounds whole muscle Fascicles/Fasciculi (middle)- groups of cells, pomegranate seed located on Slide 3, Figure 9.1 o Perimysium surrounds fascicles Muscle fibers (smallest)- individual muscle cells, pomegranate sections located on Slide 3, Figure 9.1 o Endomysium surrounds muscle fibers Connective Tissue Membrane- surrounds various parts Tendon- connects muscle to bone, outer surface is composed of dense CT a. Sarco's of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles 0. Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm 1. Sarcolemma- plasma membrane 2. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum- endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells o Blue on slide 8, Blue stuff on Slide 20 o Terminal cisterna (blue bands surrounding white band) o Store and release calcium, when muscles contract calcium is taken back up Transverse tubules- T tubules (white band) Continuous with sarcolemma Caves going from outside of mountain to inside (terminal cisterna) Direct communication via t tubule Triad o T tubule + 2 terminal cisternae b. Muscle Fibers of Skeletal Muscle . Myofibrils- rod like structures, filling up the cell o Anywhere from 10-100+ per muscle fiber 1. Thin filament Comprised of actin (similar to actin from cytoskeleton)- has myosin binding sites Has regulatory proteins Tropomyosin- block interaction of myosin head with actin in resting muscle; wrap around muscle Troponin- has 3 subunits/ chains of amino acids that are joined together to make a functional protein Tni- binds to actin TnT- binds to tropomyosin TnC- binds to calcium; calcium regulates contraction of muscle 2. Thick filament Comprised of protein known as myosin (rod like structures with heads and tails) Heads have crossbridges, can change shape, ATPase- can cleave ATP--> ADP+P energy Slide 5- purple structures are nuclei Striations- due to organization of various filaments in skeletal muscle o Dark- A band o Light- I band (eye not ell) o Slide 6 V. Basic Mechanism of Contraction Filaments DO NOT shorten Sliding filament model (Slide 2) Contract- z discs become closer together During muscle contraction, regulated by calcium, calcium is released, myosin bind and relax, pull z lines together, binding and tugging of thin filaments Chapter 9 VI. Muscle Functions Motion- movement, facial expressions Posture- standing erect, there is balanced contraction on both sides of the body Generation of head- energy conversion from kinetic energy to mechanical energy is never 100% efficient, so excess is released as heat Muscle has excellent blood supply- numerous capillaries and blood vessels through out muscles VII. Functional Characteristics of Muscle Excitability- nerves stimulate excitement most of the time, chemicals are released by nerve to contract the muscle Contractility- when muscles are stimulated, they get shorter and fatter (contract) Extensibility- can stretch it, hold together, relax Elasticity- flexible, can go back to original shape VIII. Types of Muscle a. Skeletal muscle- moves the bones, contraction, extension i. Location Attached to bones Some are attached to the skin in our face, creating facial expression ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Voluntary- we control it, however, not necessarily always consciously controlling every muscle (standing and swaying) Regulated my somatic nervous system iii. Structure Striated- dark regions separated by light regions--> contents must be highly organized Cells are long and multinucleated (more than one nucleus inside the same plasma membrane) Nuclei are near the edge and jammed up against the membrane b. Cardiac muscle- allows the heart to beat i. Location In the heart ii. Type of Nervous Stimulation Involuntary- we cannot consciously control the speed of our heart beat Regulated by autonomic nervous system iii. Structure Striated Mono/uni-nucleated (1 nucleus contained in 1 plasma membrane), sometimes di/bi- nucleated (2 nuclei contained in 1 plasma membrane) Nuclei are centrally located Cube like cells c. Smooth/Visceral muscle- move materials throughout body i. Location Surrounds hollow tubes i.e. intestines, blood vessels, etc. Arrector pili muscle (goose bumps)
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