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Lifespan Development

by: Emily Pack

Lifespan Development HESC1403 001

Emily Pack

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Every topic covered during the semester, separated by lecture day! These include everything you will need to study and be successful in this course.
Life Span Development
Benjamin Smith
lifespan development
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Lifespan Development: August 27, 2015  Human development: the way people grow and change over their lifespan  Culture: the pattern of a group’s customs, beliefs, arts, and technology  Why the dramatic increase in population? -Immunizations -Structured societies -how we take care of our young -access to hospitals/clinics -medicines/surgeries  Total fertility rate: the number of births per woman  Developed countries make up 18% of the world population and 50% of the people continue to a higher education (college)  Developing countries make up 82% of the world population and only 20% of the people continue to a higher education  A minority, the Latino population, are changing the demographic of our country because of their high fertility rate  Individualistic- cultural values like independence and self expression (United States)  Collectivistic- cultural values such as obedience and group harmony  Majority culture- sets norms and standards  Contexts- settings and circumstances (ex. Neighborhoods)  Darwin -natural selection -some are naturally better off than others  Evolutionary psychology- examines how patterns of human functioning and behavior have resulted from adaptations to evolutionary changes  (similarities) youth-preparation, adulthood-experience, old age- wisdom and peace  Freud -psychosexual -first stage theorist -id-pleasure principle -superego-basis of conscience -ego-basis of reality -focused on areas of sensation and fixation -looked at mostly white males with severe mental issues -mostly looked at older, white men st September 1  Erikson -psychosocial theory -focused on social and cultural environment -8 stages of development (crisis and resolution) -theory continues throughout the lifespan of a person, not just childhood -we base social expectations on our first interactions -will our needs be met? -trust vs. mistrust  Bronfenbrenner -ecological theory -multiple influences that shape behavior (context) -not a stage theory like the others  Cultural development -cultural communities (continuously interacting) -reciprocal socialization  Scientific method 1. Identify a question 2. Form a hypothesis 3. Choose a research method and design 4. Collect data 5. Draw conclusions rd September 3  Experiments help establish cause and effect  *independent variable- different for the experimental group than control group (iv-what you give to someone)  *dependent variable- outcome measured to calculate results  Reliability- consistency (is it reproducible?)  Validity- truthfulness/accuracy of a measurement  Cross-sectional studies: (easier to carry out) -gathers info from a wide age range at a single time  Longitudinal studies: (preferable) -gathers info from the same people multiple times -assesses/measures the same thing each time -focuses on how people change over time -expensive -some people tend to drop out of the study after a certain time (die, move away, etc.) so these studies are harder to carry out  Correlational studies: -positive/negative correlations -correlation does NOT determine causation  Natural experiment -gene-environment relation Chapter 2  DNA is found in alleles (dominant/recessive traits)  Segment of DNA= gene  *Genotype- totality of an individual’s genes  *Phenotype- actual characteristics (seen/observed)  Dominant gene- expressed characteristics  Recessive gene- not expressed but part of the genetic background  Incomplete dominance- influenced primarily but not exclusively by the dominant gene  Polygenic inheritance- interaction of multiple genes  *dominant- curly hair, recessive-straight hair (you will have curly hair) rd  23 pair of chromosomes determines your sex (male or female) -male: XY chromosomes -female: XX chromosomes  Behavior genetics- estimating influence of genes and environment on development -nature vs. nurture  Heritability- things you inherit from your parents  Epigenesis- continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment  Genetic activity responds constantly to environmental influences  *geneotypeenvironment effects -passive genotype- parents provide both genes and environment to children -evocative genotype- inherited characteristics evoke responses from others -active genotype- people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristics (review the slide on this for TEST) th September 8  Gametes- reproductive cells  Mitosis- cell duplication and division with 46 chromosomes  Blastocyst- ball of cells formed by 1 week after conception  Trophoblast- am-bionic fluid  *ectoderm- will become the skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system  *mesoderm- will become muscles, bones, reproductive system, and circulatory system  *endoderm- will become the digestive system and respiratory system rd  Neural tube- brain and spine (3 week after conception)  Eyes, nose, mouth and heartbeat- 4 week after conception  Buds that will be arms and legs- 5 week after conception th  Liver, digestive system, heart’s separate chambers- 8 week after conception  Fetal period- 9 weeks after conception to birth  Vernix- covers the baby to prevent chapping while in the womb  Lanugo- fuzzy hair that helps the vernix stick to the baby  Prenatal beliefs- things to stay away from when pregnant -ex. Witches, hot foods, etc.  Focuses in prenatal care now usually include diet, exercise, and teratogens  Exercise -physical activity in encouraged -stimulates circulatory and muscular systems  *teratogens- behaviors, environments, and bodily conditions that could be harmful to the developing organism (ex. Tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, malnutrition, secondhand smoke)  A healthy diet is recommended when pregnant  Folic acid, iron, and iodine are important to have when pregnant  Diseases -rubella -vaccinations -HIV/AIDS -C-sections are recommended  Alcohol -fetal alcohol syndrome affects the child for their entire life and makes simple tasks, like counting money, especially difficult  *embryonic period- most sensitive period where things can go wrong (teratogens can affect the baby the most negatively)  Chromosomal disorders -sex chromosome disorders (ex. XXX, XXY), having the extra X chromosome can lead to future problems during puberty as far as the development of the reproductive system is concerned -trisomy-21 or down syndrome occurs when there is an abnormality in the 23 pair of chromosomes September 10 th  Apgar scale -higher score=healthier baby  Low birth weight=lower chance of survival -bigger issue in developing countries -can be caused by malnourishment, smoking, etc -treatment- kangaroo care, infant massage  Attachment Theory  Neonatal reflexes -rooting reflex*  Sensorimotor Stage -Piaget (theorist) -primary (self-focused) circular (repeated) reactions (1-4 months) -infants are active agents in that they are constantly processing information -secondary circular reactions (4-8 months) -focused on outside world -repeated -ex. Banging on crib  BF Skinner -stimulus-response-reinforcer -skinner box (rat pushes lever for food) -conditioning a response in someone  John Watson -focused on behavior, not the mind -emotions are responses  Emotions -biological roots shaped by culture and relationships -expression of emotions varies around the world -external sources regulate emotions during infancy -shifted to self-initiated regulation with increasing age -during infancy, primary emotions are present -self-conscious emotions develop later on, for example, empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, etc.  Crying- the most important communication by a baby -basic cry -anger cry -pain cry  Smiling -reflexive smile- innate origins -social smile- response to external stimuli  Babbling creates a map for the baby of how their mouth works*  Konrad Lorenz -imprinting  Theory of Love  Babies show a preference to faces and voices such as in the Dr. Seuss experiment*  Loss of ability to learn a language over time (ability declines as you get older) th September 15  Neurons are cells in the brain that can be harmed by excessive drinking.  Neurons are connected by dendrites  Lots of brain development occurs during the early ages of life  Overproduction of neurons at birth allows synaptic pruning, which diminishes some neurons. (About half the neurons at birth diminish by age 2)  Exuberance- dendritic connections multiply  Brain -hindbrain -midbrain -forebrain  The hindbrain and midbrain mature early and preform basic biological functions  The forebrain contains the cerebral cortex and the limbic system  Limbic System -Hypothalamus- hunger, thirst, sex, hormones -Thalamus- receives/transfers sensory information -Hippocampus- memory -*cerebral cortex- speech, conceptual thought, problem solving (sets us most apart from animals)  Brain plasticity- things such as environment or physical injury influence the brain  Lobes -frontal -parietal -occipital -temporal  Gross motor movements- crawling, walking, big movements  Fine motor movements- smaller movements such as picking up a crayon and neatly drawing a circle  Maturation- driving force behind development (biological)  Schemes- cognitive structure for processing, organizing, and interpreting information  Assimilation- new information altered to fit an existing scheme  Accommodation- changing a scheme to adapt to the new information  Object permanence- objects continue to exist even when not aware of them or even when they are hidden  Habituation- gradual decrease in attention  Dishabituation- revival of attention with a new stimulus (ex. An impossible event) nd September 22  Friendships  Benefits -cooperation -happiness  How? -selection: propinquity or location -ex. You are more likely to become friends with someone who lives in your same town/city than someone who lives in another country  Interaction -“fundamental distance” or how often people’s paths cross -ex. More likely to become friends with someone who shares a class with you or rides the same bus in the morning as you than someone who doesn’t  Anticipation of Interaction -anticipatory liking -ex. You look forward to seeing a familiar face in your class  Mere-exposure effect -We like familiar people -ex. We are more likely to like familiar faces than unfamiliar faces. Similar to how babies prefer faces to non-faces  Maintenance of friendships is important  The more time you spend with someone the greater friendship you will have with that person  TEST: About half of our social time is spent with about 5 people  Friendships vs. Romantic Relationships -friendships are less emotionally intense -friendships are less exclusive (ex. You are okay with a friend having other friends but you may be less okay with your significant other having other guy friends) -in friendships, there is a lack of sexual intimacy -friendships require less sacrifice  Friends can… -help with relationship problems or break ups -improve our self esteem  TEST: enteral singlet- pain response  Social isolation is harmful to us psychologically -time passes slower when we are socially rejected -the room feels colder when we are socially rejected  Group behavior -a leader is often established and the others fall in line accordingly  TEST: super ordinate task- surpasses group differences, an obstacle that multiple types/groups of people must come together to solve/fix th September 29  Chapter 5- Toddlerhood  Autonomy vs. shame  Autonomy- ability to act independently (good for potty training)  Toddlers lose their baby fat and become leaner  Solid foods are introduced around 6 months of age  Synaptic pruning and synapse connections continue forming rapidly  *Kwashiorkor- protein deficiency (quality of food is poor)  *Marasmus- not enough food (quantity of food)  Micronutrient deficiency- lack of crucial vitamins and minerals  Synaptic density is most dense at the end of toddlerhood  *during 2-3 years of age, synaptic connections are mostly in the frontal cortex (frontal cortex has to do with the understanding our decisions and their potential consequences later on)  Toddlers have fairly generalized brains with some specialization  Toddlers fine and gross motor skills increase greatly between the ages of 2 and 3  Tertiary Circular Reactions- intentionally trying out different behaviors (manipulation of objects)  Mental Representations- thinking about possibilities and select actions (symbolic thought)  Terrible twos  *affordances- things we can use in the environment as tools to assist with development (ex. Counters and edges that toddlers can use to stand themselves up and take steps)  Zone of proximal development- what a baby can do by themselves vs. what a baby can do with someone else’s assistance  Superior-Wolfe Hypothesis -language development -our perceptions are our reality -we make sense of the world by the language we speak  *private speech- beginnings of thought (narration)  Later in life, private speech is still used when, for example, we take a math test. We talk ourselves through the problems st October 1  Vygotsky -zone of proximal development (child’s ability vs parent’s) -scaffolding- degree of assistance provided (support)  Language was developed for its social functionality  Infinite generativity- the ability to combine symbols (of language) in an infinite number of ways  Critical periods- if you pass through a critical period without completing a task, it is impossible to go back (ex. Mastering a new language in the same way that a native speaker of that language did)  Sensitive periods- these periods heighten your ability to complete a task. You can still go back to the task and complete it, it will just be more difficult  Chompsky -language acquisition device (LAD) -universal -LAD- your ability to learn new languages and grammar rules -pigeon language- rough, unsophisticated slang languages (different languages and dialects thrown together)  Humans are built for uniqueness in language -unique vocal apparatus -Broca’s area (speech production) and Wernicke’s area (speech comprehension) -genes  Language and ability for language is an evolutionary advantage  Synaptic pruning -maturity -self-termination -environment and physical influences  Language development rises sharply during development  12-18 months- slow expansion -holophrases -overextensions -under extensions -overgeneralization  Fast-mapping: learning and remembering a word for an object after just one time of being told what the object is  Telegraphic speech: two word phrases that strip away connected words  Emotional development -empathy -prosocial behavior- behavior intended to help/benefit others  Gender identification (18-30 months) -biological: male and female (what you’re born with) -gender: behaviors associated with sex (ex. What toys you are supposed to play with) -social norms (cultural and societal value) October 6 th  Sex- biological gender; what you are born with  Gender- masculine/ feminine  Gender identity- how you feel or identify yourself  Gender roles- expectations of society based on whether you are male or female (ex. Girls can cry in public but boys cannot)  Gender assignment- culture assigning a person’s gender (ex. Pink for girls and blue for boys)  Role conflict- frustrations/ uncertainties experienced when confronted with requirements of incompatible roles (ex. The oldest sibling is supposed to be the leader and have everything together)  Gender identity -biology- how we are born -socialization- family and cultural influences  Nature v. nurture  Nature- biology  Nurture- environment, other people, parents  2 to 3 year olds can name their gender  4-5 year olds understand gender constancy and gender stereotypes  7-8 year olds understand that gender roles are not rigid if they were brought up being exposed to non-stereotypical ideas  Socialization- the process of our society that conveys behavioral expectation to the individual  Socialization agents -parental expectations -peer influences -teachers and textbooks -television and gender based stereotypes -religious training  Parents -encouragement of appropriate play activities and household chores -model gender-type behavior  Television -males are generally active, intelligent, and adventurous -females are generally passive, less competent, and more domestic  Males are more similar to females than they are to other males  Egalitarian- people are treated equally (regardless of gender, race, age, etc.) October 8 th  Strange(r) situation: parenting styles influence how the child reacts to the stranger and what kind of relationship, if any, they build with the stranger. How comfortable they are with someone new is also affected by the parenting style  Fathers in traditional cultures… -serve as providers and disciplinarians -are sometimes warm with the child -play more with the child while the mother does more of the caring for the child  Parenting is learned, not innate  Child learn parenting skills from their parents  In traditional cultures, old siblings are often in charge of caring for the younger siblings  Older siblings can provide emotional comfort and security if the primary parent (usually the mother) isn’t around  Solitary play- when the child plays by themselves  Parallel play- doing the same activity but not really interacting with one another  Simple social play- talking, smiling, and sharing with the other person  Cooperative pretend play- dramatic play (ex. Playing house or kitchen)  Companionship, mutual affection and emotional closeness can develop in friendships during toddlerhood  Features for diagnosis of autism -lack of interest in social relations -abnormal language development -repetitive behaviors CHAPTER 6  Early childhood is generally categorized to include children age 3-6  During this stage, children typically grow 2-3 inches a year and gain about 5- 7 pounds  Their primary teeth will replace their baby teeth  Cerebellum and reticular formation are completely developed by age 5  As we get older our brain plasticity decreases but does not go away completely  The size of the brain increases gradually  We experience frontal lobe growth (later used for decision making and planning)  Less vulnerable to health threats than infants and toddlers  Infantile amnesia- the inability to remember anything that happened prior to age 2  Developing countries often face malnutrition and a quarter of children lack a sufficient amount of protein in their diet  Iron deficiency, or anemia, is experienced by the majority of children October 13 th  Early childhood -when children have the capacity for learning culturally specific skills -more time is spent apart from the family  Preschool teachers are usually not as qualified as grade school teachers  Size of preschool classes is important because you want a low ratio of children to teachers in order for the children to get the attention and interaction with the teachers that they need  Children in early childhood begin to learn how to count money and learn the symbolic meaning behind money  Language continues to develop rapidly and is the symbol of the culture  Preschool in developing countries pushes self-awareness, self-expression, and individualism  Developing countries and places such as Japan focus less on the academics in preschool and more on group involvement and social behaviors  Early intervention programs focus on cognitive development (especially for children from lower class families)  Reciprocal relationships- give and take (ex. Exchange of favors, paying and receiving food at a fast food place, parent and child relationships)  Maternal employment  Head Start Programs for kids who come from lower socioeconomic homes; designed to give these kids an advantage for when they enter grade school with children from higher socioeconomic homes  Language continues to develop rapidly in early childhood  Fast-mapping: instant connections between words and previous knowledge  Pragmatics- the social rules of language  Understanding of language begins through gestures  Emotional self-regulation is important for social relationships  Younger siblings generally develop theory of mind (other people’s perspectives) more quickly than their older siblings  Under control- can lead to externalizing problems  Over control can lead to internalizing problems  Effortful control- allows children to focus their attention on managing emotions  Demandingness- the degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior  Responsiveness- the degree to which parents are sensitive to their children’s needs and express warmth and love to their child October 15 th  Middle childhood  Physical development -growth is slow and steady -boys are slightly taller and more muscular than girls but the sex differences are slight -lowest BMI during this period of their lives -near sightedness or myopia usually rises around this time  Advances in balance, strength, coordination, agility, and reaction time are made  Involvement in team sports begins to increase  Fine motor skills increase and become more complex  Writing improves and becomes smaller and more neat  Gross motor skills are continuing to develop  Malnutrition is a world wide problem among children  Developed countries have more issues with obesity than developing countries typically do  Obesity can lead to social and physical consequences (exclusion by classmates) for children and can lead to health problems such as diabetes  Death rates are the lowest at this point of life  In developed countries there is a decrease of illness from infancy  Most deaths during this period of life are from unintentional accidents, which can include automobile and bicycle accidents  Increases in asthma -hygiene hypothesis- kept away from allergens which then causes the problem of asthma later on -increased pollution (you normally see asthma clusters in areas with high pollution levels)  Cognitive development  Concrete vs abstract  Concrete- you can experience it with your five senses  Abstract- can only think about it in your mind  Concrete operations- conservation, classification, and seriation -able to use mental operations to organize and manipulate information mentally  Decentering- less egocentric; can take on other people’s perspectives  Selective attention is exhibited  Selective attention takes intentional work  We begin to be able to exercise our ability to control our attention  ADHD begins to appear -kids with ADHD have trouble with selective attention  Being to have an understanding of how memory works  Metamemory- you play an active role in remembering things that are important to you -rehearsal -organization -elaboration  Rehearsal is the least effective memory tool October 27 th  Chapter 8: Adolescence  Physical Development  Puberty  Estrogen (females) and androgens (males) are produced rapidly during puberty  Hormonal changes  Primary sex characteristics- directly related to reproduction (reproductive organs)  Secondary sex characteristics- other bodily changing due to hormonal increases (ex. Voice cracking, facial hair, body odor)  Menarche- first period  Spermarche- first ejaculation  Some cultures have a right of passage into manhood/womanhood  Exuberance and synaptic pruning (frontal lobe heavy)  Myelination- efficiency in thought  Cerebellum continues to grow  Girls begin puberty about 2 years before males  There are cultural differences in puberty and when it begins worldwide  Technology in food production, medical care and obesity influence puberty  Age of menarche has decreased in Western countries  Early maturation -Girls: depressed mood, negative body image, eating disorders -Boys: favorable body image, higher popularity, earlier delinquency  Later maturation may be more negative for boys than girls  Puberty rituals mark a transition  Anorexia- eating disorder characterized by intentional self-starvation  Bulimia- binging and purging  Substance use is rare before adolescence and common by the end of adolescence  Teenage substance is lower now than it was in previous generations  Experimental substance use -one and done  Social substance use -in social settings  Medicinal substance use -seeking relief  Self-medication: use of substances to relieve unpleasant emotional states th October 29  Cognitive Development  Hypothetical-deductive reasoning (hypothetical: “I wonder… if…”)  Pendulum problem (attaching a weight to a string and estimating how long it will take the pendulum to swing based on the amount of weight)  Piaget’s Critiques -individual differences and cultural differences were not considered by Piaget  Adolescents improve on attention tasks -selective attention: focuses on relevant information -divided attention: giving attention to 2 things at once (doesn’t really work)  Memory improves -use of memory strategies -chunking (ex. Phone numbers) makes a collection of things/numbers/words easier to remember  Adolescent egocentrism -imaginary audience: always thinking people are watching you which can make you self-conscious -personal fable: feeling of invulnerability/invincibility to the consequences of taking risks. Car accidents are a popular way of fatalities during adolescence  Emotional and social development  Identity vs. role confusion in adolescence  We have a need to belong November 3 rd  Peers- individuals about the same age or maturity level  Peer groups (function) -provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside of the family -peer groups can have positive or negative influences  Girls who go through puberty early are more likely to hang out with older peers and are more likely to be involved in delinquent behavior  Parent influences on peer relations -choice of neighborhood, church, and school which influences who you are around -encourage children to be tolerant toward others and to resist peer pressure -give strategies for handling conflict and becoming less shy  Peer contexts -interaction influenced by context (situation, location, culture) -individual differences (shy, outgoing, easily angered etc.)  Social cognition -thoughts about social matters  Steps of processing information about the social world -decode social cues -interpret -search for response -select optimal response -enact (ability to follow these steps affects a person’s ability to get along with their peers)  Emotional regulation and peer relations (peer statuses) -popular: best friend, rarely disliked -average: average positive and negative ratings -neglected: rarely a best friend but not disliked -rejected: actively disliked, infrequently the best friend -controversial: frequently nominated as the best friend AND the disliked (Regina George)  Bullying -physical or verbal behavior with the intent to harm -significant number of people are victims of bullying (aggression, repetition (ongoing), power imbalance)  Bullying rises in middle childhood, peaks in adolescence, and declines into young adulthood  Peer pressure- peers play powerful rules  Cliques-small groups (usually 5 or 6 people) that are usually same sex/age (maybe they don’t have everything in common)  Crowd- larger and less personal than cliques (ex. Athletes, chess club members, motor cycle group members) -might not know everyone in the crowd but you all share similar interests and can make easy conversation using your shared interest)  Cliques and crowds rise in middle childhood, peak in adolescence, and decline into young adulthood th October 5  Functions of friendship -companionship -stimulation -physical support -ego support -social comparison -affection/intimacy (self-disclosure and sharing of private thoughts)  Friends generally are similar as far as age, sex, ethnicity, and other factors (“homophily”)  Peer popularity is a strong motivator  Sullivan: peers help shape development  Girls are usually more intimate with their friends than boys  More risk of delinquent behavior when a person’s friends are older than they are  Boys focus on power and excitement in friendships  Adolescence is thought to be a time of storm and stress (time of emotional volatility in the United States)  Depression -depressed mood -major depressive disorder  Adolescent self- conceptions become complex  Actual self: true self-conception  Possible self: what you could become  Ideal self: who you would like to be  Feared self: possible to become but a fear of becoming it (ex. Becoming like your parents)  False self- what is shown to others  Self-esteem tends to fluctuate during adolescence  Kohlberg- universal theory of molar development (structure of moral reasoning)  Pre-conventional: likelihood of rewards and punishments  Conventional (teens and adults)  Post-conventional: deciding what to do based on what is better for everyone (10-15% get to this stage after their mid-30s) th November 10  Emerging adulthood (18-24)  Legally an adult at age 18  Individualism -accepting responsibility for yourself -making independent decisions -financially independent  Psychosocial moratorium- the “find yourself” trip  5 features of emerging adulthood  The Age of Identity Exploration -finding out “who you are” -love: searching for a “soul mate” -work: searching for self-fulfillment; money is not enough, you want to enjoy what you’re doing  Arranged marriages tend to be more successful by the numbers than self- selection of a mate (could be due to the fact that divorce in some cultures is not an option) November 12 th  Age of Identity Exploration  Age of Instability  Self-focused Age  Age of feeling in-between  Age of possibilities  Age of Instability -average of 7 job changes from age 20-29 -financial and relationship instability (multiple partners) -residences (move out, move for college, move for work, move in with partner, move back in with parents (?))  Boomerang- you move out and then you move back in with parents (common)  Self focused age -more independent from parents but not yet tied to others (married, in a relationship) -“self-esteem” movement (less egocentric, higher rates of volunteering/offering time) =adjustment from parental influence -delay marriage until later -goal of self focus is self sufficiency  Age of feeling in-between -not an adolescent, not an adult -answer to the question, “Do you see yourself as an adult?” becomes more complex than a simple yes or no -transitional time  The Age of Possibilities -optimism -making independent decisions -dramatic changes in life  Variations of this theory by social class -education continues to be a large looming thing -age of finding a 5-year job goes up the less education you have -5 features apply across social classes -people from lower class backgrounds feel to be an adult earlier, marry 2 years earlier, and have children earlier than people from higher/middle class families th November 17  Separation anxiety- transition from a dependent adolescent to an independent adult, may find separation challenging  Delay with transition to adulthood because the person may still be dependent on mom and dad financially  Boomerang kid- someone who returns home (moves back in with parents) due to various reasons such as -divorce -job issues -extended education  About 53% of young adults are, or have been, boomerang kids  Financial advisors advise parents to charge rent to boomerang kids to keep them from getting too comfortable  Issues with boomerang kids moving back in include -lifestyle differences -division of labor -economic issues -rules and regulations  Reflective and relativistic thinking -view the world in less terms of right and wrong or black and white  Postformal thought -understanding that the answer to a problem requires reflective thinking and can vary from situation to situation  Age 18-21 -weight gain -alcohol use (binge drinking)  Chapter 10: Young Adulthood  Aging begins -graying and thinning hair -wrinkles -metabolism lowers -muscles become weaker -immune system ages (production of T cells and B cells declines)  Cognitive changes Expertise- extensive knowledge and skill in a specific field (doing something for 10 years classifies you as an expert)  Creativity- putting new ideas together in creative ways (ex. Decorating house/child’s bedroom)  Robert Sternberg -passion: physical attraction and sexual desire -intimacy: closeness and emotional attachment -commitment: pledge to love over the long run  Infatuation: “love at first sight,” physiological arousal  Empty love: only commitment (arranged marriages)  Romantic love: intimacy and passion (summer fling)  Fatuous love: commitment and passion (rarely works, stormy marriage, jealous type of love that can lead to physical or emotional abuse)  Companionate love: intimacy and commitment (long term friendship or an 80 year old couple)  Consummate love: passion, commitment, and intimacy (only special relationships reach this point)  Martial satisfaction is dependent upon -realistic expectations -shared interests -shared roles/responsibilities -shared power  John Gottman and the 4 Horsemen of Apocalypse -criticism -contempt -defensiveness -stonewalling December 1 st  Middle Adulthood  Vision declines  Hearing declines, especially for high pitched sounds  Environment can play a role in hearing loss (war, manufacturing job)  Climacteric- fertility decline in midlife  Menopause- end of monthly ovulation and menstruation  Timing of menopause is determined by genetics  Culture can impact symptoms of menopause  Men’s changes include lowered testosterone and lower quantity and quality sperm produced  Major health risks -women: osteoporosis -men: cardiovascular disease -cancer  Cardiovascular disease -risks: high fat diets, smoking, lack of exercise, household air pollution (developing countries)  Cancer is the second leading cause of death among adults -prostrate and breast cancer and the most common  Cognitive development  Intelligence is fairly consistent over time  Theories of multiple intelligence- controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities  Culture-fair tests: unbiased IQ tests  Crystallized intelligence: accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age (peaks in middle adulthood)  Fluid intelligence: ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on (risks and declines)  Expertise and job satisfaction peaks in middle adulthood  Dissatisfaction can occur in middle adulthood December 3 rd  Late Adulthood and Aging  Young-old: 65-75; fit and healthy  Old-Old: 80 and up; frail/extreme-aged  Gerontology: study of human aging  Senescence: change in biology of organism as it ages after its maturity-loss of function  Progression -biological: reduced efficiency of organ system -decline in memory -change in social rules  Cycle of adaptation -context changes, so individual must change -individual changes, so environment must change  Havighurt’s Task of Development in Later Life  Disengagement theory: those who withdraw become more passive  Activity theory: social activity is the essences of life for all people of all ages  Gerotranscendence: investing in certain relationships, taking comfort in being alone  Continuity theory -personality is stable -adaptations to young adulthood and middle adulthood predicts that person’s general pattern of adaptation of old age  Erikson: integrity vs. despair  Gerontophilia: honor, respect, and status for elderly  Gerontophobia: emphasis on youth, older people are seen as victims  Media and aging: TV ads push products to mask signs of aging  Until now, the proceeding generation had been wealthier than the preceding generation  Stereotypes: ageism is reinforced- institutionally, socially, spatially  Depression  Strongest relationships are typically with siblings  Social convoy -protective layer of family and friends who surround a person  Filial piety: custom demanding that family member respect and care for elders th December 8  Older people are less likely to fear death as opposed to younger people  Middle adulthood/late adulthood usually experience a heightened awareness of death  Fear of death- apprehension has a specific identifiable source  Death anxiety- lack a specific identifiable source  Death competency- capability and skill in dealing with death  Social death- may feel we are being abandoned by others  We all have different ways of dealing with life-threatening illnesses  Closed awareness- individual doesn’t know of impending death but others may know  Suspected awareness- dying person suspects prognosis but others around them will not verify it  Mutual pretense- everyone recognizes death will be the outcome, but act as though otherwise  Opened awareness- death is acknowledged and discussed, allows for shared support  Stages of grief -denial -anger -bargaining -depression -acceptance December 10 th  Wakes- “party” around the deceased  American funerals  We tend to make a bigger deal of funeral rites than we do manhood rites/puberty rites  Deathwatch- spending time and giving comfort to someone in their final days or hours of life  Wake- ceremony where the deceased is present; ex. Visitation  Disposition- whether the person is cremated/buried; what they decide to do with their remains  Procession- funeral transportation in the hearse to the graveyard/spot where the person will be “put to rest”  Committal- graveyard service, committing the deceased to the ground for burials  Life review promotes reminiscence  The reviewer of his/her life actively evaluates the past and attempts to resolve conflicts  Interiority- focus on self and internal messages; less focus on outside social issues (as one comes closer to death, they also become more interior) Final  Erikson’s stages of life Middle Adulthood: Generativity vs. Stagnation Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair  Sandwich generation- people who are taking care of both their younger children and their older parents as they become unable to take care of themselves  Filial piety- custom demanding that family member respect and care for elders  Young-old: 65-75, vigorous, fit, and healthy  Old-old: 80 and up, frail, elderly, or extreme-aged  As we get older our hearing declines because the cilia thins out and the inner ear becomes less flexible  Leading causes of death in late adulthood: cardiovascular disease, cancer  Fluid intelligence- ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on  Crystallized intelligence- accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age  The reason the brain begins to die is because the neurons die faster than they are generated  “Kin Keepers” are commonly daughters, who are more likely than sons to care for their parents in times of old age  Social convoy- personal network of individuals who give from whom the older person gives and receives support


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