Cognitive Psychology 108
Cognitive Psychology 108
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2H 1 An Introduction INTRO O 0 6514 857 PM Cognition mental activity Cognitive psychology Synonym for cognition Cognitive approach an approach emphasized on thought processes and knowledge A BRIEF HISTORY OF CP The Origins of CP 0 Psychology as a discipline didn t emerge till the 1800s even though technically Aristotle can be called the first cognitive psychologist Wilhelm Wundt many considers him to be the founder of psychology Early 1800s Thought of introspection a method of trained observers objectively reporting and analyzing their own thought processes Sometimes inaccurate Early memory researchers Ebbinghaus mid 1800s German first to scientifically study human memory Mary Calkins US found a memory phenomenon called the recency effect which explains how people recall the last few especially accurately 1st woman president of APA suggested researchers to study cognitive processes outside the lab setting William James Was more focused on people s everyday experiences rather than the introspection technique or Ebbinghaus s nonsense syllables Wrote the textbook Principles of Psychology Behaviorism 1st half of 20quot century focusing on objective reactions to the stimuli instead of on introspection Most prominent John Watson Mostly studied animals concluding that internal cognitive processes cannot be studied Contributed to research methods in psychology Operational definition precise definition that specifies exactly how a concept is to be measured The Gestalt Approach Psychology Beginning of 20quot century humans have basic tendencies to actively organize what they see The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Emphasized unity as a whole and looked down upon methods that separated components Found importance of insight with problem solving Frederic Bartlett early 1900s Conducted research on human memory in England Found humans tendency to make systematic errors during recall 9 human memory is active and constructive with which we try to interpret and organize the info that we receive Integration of new info with the old for the search for meaning SCHEMAbased approach The Emergence of Modern CP 0 Many agree the birth of CG as 1956 9 the growing support sometimes called the cognitive revolution Factors contributing to the rise of CP Research on human memory linguistics human memory chidren s thought processes contradicted with methods and findings of behaviorism The informationprocessing approach beginning of the 1960s argued that our brain is like a computer and that information passes through our cognitive system in step by step stages AtkinsonShiffrin model memory has a sequence of separate steps information being transferred from one storage place to another Sensory memory info is stored somewhat accurately but for about 2 seconds Working memory short term small amount of info that is being actively used but the info is not as fragile as those in sensory memory Can be lost within 30 seconds Long term memory relatively permanent but a fraction of the info in the working memory is passed onto here The Current Status of CP 0 O The AS model is the best known model for info processing approach Ecological validity the degree to which the settings of the study resemble the natural setting COGNITVE NEUROSCIENCE TECHNIQUES O 0 Cognitive neuroscience research techniques of CP the structure and function of the brain Social cognitive neuroscience using neuroscience techniques to explore the cognitive processes used during social interactions Brain lesions destruction of a certain area of the brain resulting from strokes tumors and accidents Research paved the way for researchers to associate lesions with cognitive deficits Helped the understanding of the organization of the brain 3 neuroscience techniques help provide better controed information Positron Emission Tomography PET Scan measuring the blood flow by taking images of the brain by injecting a small amount of radioactive chemical before taking on a task Relies on the idea that active areas require more blood and oxygen since the tracer travels to the organ that is activated during a task 9 possible to determine which areas of the brain are relevant to certain tasks Can be used to study attention memory and language Not very precise 9 takes several seconds to produce the data Very expensive and risky due to exposing participants with radioactive chemicals Functional Magnetic Resonance imaging fMRI same as PET in that they are both based on comparing brain activity This relies on the principle that oxygen rich blood is an index of brain activity Developed during the 1990s More preferable than PET because it is less invasive and requires no injections and radioactive chemicals Also takes about 1 second Can notice subtle differences in brain activity o EventRelated Potential Technique recording the brief fluctuations in the brain s electrical activity in response to a stimulus Uses electrodes on a person s scalp recording the electrical activity generated by neurons in a specific area of the brain ADDITIONAL AREAS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO CP 0 Artificial Intelligence a branch of computer science that seeks to explore cognitive processes by creating computer models that resemble intelligent behavior and perform the same human tasks There are 4 important topics related to Al The Computer Metaphor describing cognition as a complex muti purpose machine that quickly and accurately processes and stores information Similarities compare symbols and make decisions based on the results processing mechanism with limited capacity limited attention capacity Pure AI approach that designs a program that can efficiently perform a cognitive task as efficiently as possible Computer SimuationlModeing to program a computer to perform a specific task exactly how a human would including the errors The Connectionist Approach parallel distributed processing approach PDP neural network approach 1986 cognitive processes are networks that link together not strictly in a linear fashion hence the cognitive processes being parallel not linear Useful in explaining why some cognitive tasks can be done quickly and accurately This approach came out of neuroscience Al Cerebral cortex outer layer of the brain essential for your cognitive processes o Many research methods to explore this area were developed 9 discovery of neuron networks o The discovery recognized how info cannot be stored in a precise location of the brain It is stored in a network of neurons that are spread across a certain region of the brain Serial processing vs parallel processing 0 Serial processing a cognitive process that involves a one step at a time system o Parallel processing numerous signals handled at a time in contrast to having to complete the step before moving on to the next o Cognitive Science a broad field that also includes cognitive psychology a field that attempts to answer questions about the mind Three disciplines CP neuroscience and Al also includes anthropology philosophy linguistics sociology and economics Emerged when researchers noticed the connections among those disciplines AN OVERVIEW OF YOUR TEXTBOOK Themes in the book 0 O O 1 Cognitive processes are active not passive 2 Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accurate 3 Cognitive processes handle positive info better than negative info 4 Cognitive processes are interrelated with each other they don t operate separately 5 Many cognitive processes rely on top down processing and bottom up processing 2H 2 Perceptual Processes I Visual and Auditory ecognition 6514 857 PM INTRO 0 Evidence for Theme 2 efficient and accurate Theme 5 bottom up top down o Perception using previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses BACKGROUND ON VISUAL OBJECT RECOGNITION 0 Objectlpattern recognition identifying a complex pattern or arrangement as being separate from the background The Visual System o Distal stimulus actual object in the environment 0 Proximal stimulus info registered by sensory receptors o Retina back portion inside your eye that registers and transmits visual info from the outside world o Iconiclvisual sensory memory a type of sensory memory briefly saves an image after the image disappears 0 Primary visual cortex located in the occipital lobe that contains basic processing of visual stimuli Visual information comes from the iconicvisual sensory memory the 15 stop Visual perception often includes other brain regions outside the primary visual cortex as well Organization in Visual Perception o Gestalt psychology approach that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see Human perception is more than the sum of the information in the distal stimulus Figure a distinct shape with clearly defined edges Looks closer to us and more dominant Ground the region that continues on in the background o Ambiguous figureground relationship when the figure and the ground reverse from time to time There are two components Neurons in the visual cortex become adapted to one figure making it more likely to see the alternative version People purposely alternate between two reasonable solutions Illusory contours seeing edges when they re not physically there A perceptual error Theories of Visual Object Recognition o Templates specific patterns that you stored in memory One early theory that the visual system compares a stimulus with a set of templates to see which matches Not applicable because we still recognize some things even though they look different o Featureanalysis theory visual stimulus is made up of a small number of characteristicscomponents Distinctive feature each visual characteristic EX distinctive features of each alphabet to recognize the letter Consistent with psych studies neuroscience Visual system contains feature detection since birth A neuron activating vigorously by a certain feature Issues shapes in nature are much more complex since when they are moved they look different but we still know what it is The RecognitionbyComponents theory explains how people recognize 3D shapes A view of an object is recognized by a patternarrangement of smaller 3D shapes geons 0 Basically a feature analysis theory but with 3D objects There is one modification for this theory because of the different viewpoints one could have of an object Viewercentered approach proposes that people store a small number of views of the 3D objects instead ofjust one view o when we see an object at an unusual angle we use mental rotation it matches one of the stored views TOP DOWN PROCESING AND VISUAL OBJECT RECOGNITION 0 Theme 5 many of the cognitive processes use top down and bottom up processing The Distinction Between BUP and TDP Bottom up processing emphasis is on the stimulus characteristics to recognize an object O the combination of many simple features helps you recognize complex whole objects May be the very first processing the second may be TDP o Top down processing emphasis on how one s concepts expectations and memory can influence object recognition Starting from the higher levels and working the way down TDP is strong when the stimulus is registered for a fraction of a second or when it is incomplete or ambiguous 0 Vision requires both processes Top Down Processing and Reading o Word superiority effect the tendency to recognize a letter faster and better when it appears in a meaningful word rather than by itself 0 The context of the sentence enables word recognition in the sentence The context is important because word recognition partly operates in a TDP fashion Overactive TDP and Smart Mistakes in Object Recognition Change blindness failure to notice a change with an object or a scene due to overusing TDP O EX Asking a person for directions and the person asked switches with another person but the asker fails to notice the change When we look at a certain scene the TDP allows us to assume that the basics of the scene will remain stable which is a rational assumption o lnattentional blindness failure to notice an unexpected but completely visible change due to focus directed at a certain part of the scene When an object appears that contradicts with our beliefsexpectations we fail to recognize the change o Ecological validity the degree to which the conditions of the study are similar to the natural setting where the results will be applied 0 Change and lnattentional blindness fulfills Theme 2 because those cognitive errors are connected back to a rational strategy FACE PERCEPTION Recognizing Faces Versus Recognizing Other Objects o Recognizing faces involves different methods than recognizing other stimuli o We recognize facial features when they are in the context of a whole face o Holistic in terms of the overall structure and shape AKA gestalt Neuroscience Research on Face Recognition o Prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces while still having the ability for object recognition People with Prosopagnosia report that they see facial features independently from the face which is the opposite of normal facial recognition holistic o The temporal area of the brain is most responsible for face recognition more specifically the inferotemporal cortex o Faceinversion effect people are more accurate with identifying upright faces rather than upside down faces 9 supported by fMR studies and behavioral studies o Face recognition has a holistic approach rather than an isolated components approach Applied Research on Facial Recognition o The study of the accuracy of supermarket cashiers with judging ID photos They were mostly right when it was the correct photo of the undergraduates but when it was the wrong photo they only got it right 34 of the time 0 Security surveillance systems in banks and businesses 10 professors entered in the video and the participants were shown high quality photos of 20 professors and asked which ones were shown in the video Three categories of participants students familiar with the professors students unfamiliar with the professors and police officers unfamiliar with the professors The students familiar with the professors had correct high recognition with both seen and unseen professors The police officers and the unfamiliar students had the same rate of confidence and accuracy Confirms that people are much better at identifying familiar faces rather an unfamiliar faces Individual Differences Face Identification in People with Schizophrenia o Individual differences systematic variation in the way that groups of people perform on the same cognitive task o Schizophrenia one of the most serious disorders Lacking expression of intense emotions with hallucinations and poor performance with many cognitive tasks Difficulty with facial recognition as well as facial expression which might be due to general problems with cognitive tasks rather than a specific problem with faces STUDY 60 photographs of different facial emotions Control group and the schizophrenic group had similar results with accuracy but the schizo group took a significantly longer time to respond SPEECH PERCEPTION o Speech perception the translation of the vibrations obtained with your auditory system into recognizable sounds speech o Very complex but will focus on two things about speech perception characteristics and theories Characteristics of Speech Perception o Phoneme basic unit of spoken language English has around 4045 phonemes 0 There are 4 important characteristics of speech perception Word boundaries We re still able to establish boundaries between words without the silence cue We are rarely conscious of this ability Our brain initially covers several hypotheses of how the words should be separated immediate and efficient Variability in Phoneme Pronunciation Varies tremendously There is high variability in the pitch rate and tone of the phonemes Speakers often fail to produce precise phonemes Phoneme slightly varies from time to time because of coarticulation when pronouncing a phoneme the mouth remains in a somewhat same shape it was when you pronounced the previous phoneme it also prepares to pronounce the next phoneme Despite this high variability we still correctly recognize the phonemes because we look at other factors such as context and visual cues Context and Speech Perception People are active listeners so they use context and TDP actively use knowledge about language to create expectations of what we would hear to recognize speech Phonemic restoration filling in a missing phoneme by using contextual cues STUDY people are skilled at using the meaning of a sentence to correctly select the missing word o Tape recordings with a cough sound masking the beginning phoneme of a word in a sentence Visual Cues as an Aid to Speech Perception We use visual cues such as the speaker s shape of the mouth and hisher facial expression STUDY video of a woman saying simple syllables but with different auditory words Participants are asked what the word is Produced the McGurk effect the influence of visual information on speech perception o McGurk effect active in the superior temporal sulcus Theories of Speech Perception 0 Current theoretical approaches to speech perception falls in two categories domain specific or domain genera Whether it has a special mechanism or is involved in basic general cognitive skill o The Special Mechanism Approach Special mechanism approach AKA speechisspecial approach the idea that people are born with a specialized cognitive device that enables people to recognize speech faster and efficiently than other sounds Phoneticlspeech module special purpose neural mechanism that specifically processes all aspects of speech perception This approach suggests that this mechanism is not dependent do not rely on other general cognitive mechanisms 9 contradicts Theme 4 processes are interrelated and dependent upon each other One argument that favors this approach is the categorical perception Categorical perception the tendency of people hearing a clear cut phoneme with ambiguous sounds not halfway of this phoneme and halfway of that phoneme People also show categorical perception with complex nonspeech sounds o The General Mechanism Approaches General mechanism approaches most favor this approach Argues that speech perception can be explained without a special phonetic module People use the same neural mechanism to process both speech and nonspeech sounds A learned ability not really special Current ERP studies have shown that the brain s electrical shifts are the same with music and speech McGurk effect also supports this approach because if people rely on visual cues for speech perception it can t be argued that a specialized phoneticspeech module handles all aspects of speech perception Speech perception proceeds in stages that depend on other processes such as feature recognition learning and decision making 2H 3 Perceptual Processes II Attention and Consciousness 6514 857 PM INTRO o Attention a concentration of mental activity that allows you to take a limited portion of the info available externally and internally SEVERAL KINDS OF ATTENTION PROCESSES 0 There are four types of selective attention Dichotic listening Stroop task Visual searches Saccadic eye movements Divided Attention o Dividedattention task attention is divided to comprehend two messages 0 Multitask performing two tasks simultaneously Research shows that people cannot multitask Cellphones and walking Cellphones and driving Use of cellphones showed driver s tendency of inattentional blindness Talking and driving Listening to friend talk on the phone and driving Studying and other activity Ming talking to friend etc taskswitching o Selectiveattention task requires people to pay attention to certain kinds of info while ignoring others Dichotic Listening o Dichotic listening when a person is presented with two different messages respectively to each ear 0 Shadow instructed to listen to only one of the messages and repeat it after the speaker o People can process only one message at a time but they are more likely to process the unattended message under 3 conditions Both messages are presented slowly The main task is not challenging The meaning of the unattended message is immediately relevant o Cocktail party effect recognizing own name in unattended conversations even though you are paying close attention to one conversation High working memory capacity 9 noticed their name less frequently Low working memory capacity 9 noticed their name more frequently more easily distracted The Stroop Effect o The stroop effect when people take a longer time to identify the color of an incongruent word EX the color of the word is yellow but the word is purpe o One explanation of this effect is PDP parallel distributed processing Meaning that two pathways are activated when attempting to accomplish the Stroop task One pathway is identifying the color and the other is identifying the word Interference occurs because of the simultaneous pathways affecting the performance of both o Another explanation is that people have more practice with reading the words than identifying the color 9 making us automatically read the word instead of saying the color 0 Emotional stroop task the task of naming the ink color of the word that has strong emotional significance EX a person who has a phobia of spiders take longer time to name the color of the words that are related to spiders They are hyper aert to words that are related to their phobia and pay less attention to the color 9 attentional bias people pay extra attention to some stimuli or some feature Individual Differences Eating Disorders and the Stroop Effect o STUDY a group of women who diets frequently Stroop task with words relevant to body shape weight and eating Control group of neutral words and compared Eating Attitudes Test Iftaken longer to read words related to shape 9 high score on the EAT Consistent with the cognitivebehavioral approach the theory that psychological problems arise due to inappropriate thinking cognitive factor and inappropriate learning behavioral factor Visual Search o Visual search a task of finding a target in the midst of many distractors 0 People are much more accurate in identifying a target if it appears frequently 0 Isolatedfeaturelcombinedfeature effect people can locate an isolated feature more quickly than a combined feature 0 Featurepresentlfeatureabsent effect people can locate a feature that is present more quickly than a feature that is absent A parallel finding people are quicker at finding a moving target in the midst of stationary distractors rather than finding a stationary target in the midst of moving distractors In Depth Saccadic Eye Movements During Reading o Eye movement is the second central perceptual process involved in reading o Saccadic eye movement the very rapid movement of your eyes from one spot to the next The purpose of this is to bring the center of the retina into a position over the words you want to read It s an example of Theme 1 because it is an active cognitive process by actively searching for info When the eye jumps fonvard the focus is directed to the center of the word instead of to a blank space between words or sentences Eye also jumps over highly predictable words and frequently used words The size of the saccadic movement is small if there is an error in the next word or if it is unusuaL Good readers make larger saccadicjumps has shorter pauses and are less likely to make regressions moving back in a sentence to earlier material Happens usually when the reader didn t understand what they read o Fovea a very small region in the center of the retina that has better acuity than other regions o Fixation a brief pause between two saccadic movements to acquire info that is useful for reading o Perceptual span the number of letters and spaces that we perceive during fixation Includes about 4 positions to the left of the focused letter and about 15 positions to the right EXPLANATIONS FOR ATTENTION Neuroscience Research on Attention o The orienting attention network generally responsible for the type of attention required for visual search shifting attention to various spatial locations Located in the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex Identified the region of the brain that is responsible for visual searches by people with brain lesions specific brain damage due to strokes accidents other traumas People who have damage on the right hemisphere have trouble noticing visual stimuli on the left side of their vision Vice versa Unilateral spatial neglect ignoring a part of one s vision Recent research used PET scans to observe blood flow in the brain during visual searches and found that the parietal cortex has increased blood flow The orienting network develops during the first year of life o The executive attention network responsible for the type of attention that is used when the task is focused on conflict such as the Stroop Task Generally inhibits automatic responses to stimuli Primarily involved in top down control of attention Located in the prefrontal portion Overlaps with areas of the brain related to general intelligence Develops during the 3quot year of life Extremely important when acquiring academic skills Helps with learning new ideas Theories of Attention 0 Early theories of attention Bottleneck theories theories that emphasized the extremely limited information that people can process at a given time like a bottleneck Limits the quantity of info that that we can pay attention to Underestimated the flexibility of humans attention Neuroscience research has found that info is not lost during just one phase of attention but throughout many phases of attention beginning through later processing 0 Featureintegration theory Basic elements people sometimes use distributed attention processing many features all at once and sometimes use focused attention to process one item at a time The two types of attention are not distinctive categories but rather occurs in a continuum between the two o Distributed attention registers features automatically ow eve processing and we aren t aware that we are using it o Focused attention slower serial processing registers one object at a time Necessary when the object is more complex and requires more understanding Research STUDY if we process isolated features during distributed attention then we should be able to rapidly locate a target among its neighboring irrelevant items isolated featurelcombinedfeature effect o The target item should pop out STUDY when searching for a target with a combination of different distractors more attention should be usedfocused while using serial processing isolated featurelcombinedfeature effect o People need more time with finding a target when there are many distractors in a focused attention task Illusory conjunction when we are ovenvhelmed with too many visual tasks we form an inappropriate combination of features For example there is a blue J and a red T but we mistake the J as red and the T as blue o The human visual system processes object s features independently shape separately color separately As a result we sometimes have a binding problem where the visual system may not represent the features as a unified whole Focused attention allows binding processes to operate o We can also create illusory conjunctions with verbal material EX hearing dax and kay with distributed attention and thinking that we heard day Current status of the theory Sometimes distributed attention can occasionally resemble focused attention We may use distributed attention to quickly gather info to get the general gist of the scene CONSCIOUSNESS o Consciousness the awareness that people have about the external world as well as their perceptions beliefs thoughts images memories and feelings Consciousness is closely related to attention but we sometimes do things automatically without being conscious that we did them 9 consciousness is associated with the kind of focused attention that is not automatic 3 interrelated issues that cognitive psychologists are concerned with 1 The inability to bring certain thoughts into consciousness o We often have little direct access to our thoughts We may be fully aware of the products of our thought processes but not the processes itself This shows that researchers shoudn t rely on people s introspection 2 The inability to let certain thoughts escape from consciousness 3 Blindsight o Mindless reading when your eyes are moving forward and reading but you are not processing the information In fact your eyes are moving erratically instead of in a saccadic movement We may not be conscious of it o Mind wandering when your thoughts shift from the external environment to internal processing We may not be conscious of it until we notice it Thought Suppression Issue 2 o Thought suppression the attempt to eliminate thoughts ideas images related to an undesirable stimulus Ironic effects of mental control when our efforts of thought suppression backfire EX trying to avoid movement not notice pain trying to sleep trying to concentrate etc STUDY asked a group of students to suppress the thought of a white bear for 5 minutes and then for the next 5 minutes were told to think freely about a white bear The control group did not have the 5 minute session of thought suppression The result was that the treatment group thought even more about a white bear than the control group Initial thought suppression may produce a rebound effect o Relevant for people who have PTSD anxiety and OCD Blindsight Issue 3 o Blindsight condition in which a person with a damaged visual cortex claims not to see an object while being able to accurately point out some characteristics of the object such as location People believe that they are truly blind in partall of the visual field But the guesses of the participants with blindsight were significantly better than chance often nearly perfect One possible explanation for the ability of the blindsight people to be able to accurately identify other characteristics is that a small part of the info from the retina travels to other parts of the cerebral cortex making it possible for information to process in different ways even with a damaged primary visual cortex SH 4 Working Memory INTRO 0 Working memory the brief immediate memory for current processing of a limited amount of material while also actively coordinating some of the ongoing mental activities AKA short term memory o Long term memory the part of your memory that has a large capacity with the accumulation of memories experiences and information from your lifetime No limit to how much you info you can store o Psychologists may not believe in the same theoretical explanations o Performance in your daily life is different from the performance in the lab settings THE CLASSIC RESEARCH ON WORKING MEMORY SHORTTERM MEMORY George Mier s Magical Number Seven o Miller wrote a famous article called The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing nformation Basically said that we can only hold a limited number about seven around 59 items in working memory Article was written when behaviorism was very popular Emphasized that our cognitive processes are active chunking o Chunk the basic unit in working memory Made up of several parts that are related to each other EX you can remember seven numbers but you can also chunk several numbers together to form one unit such as memorizing phone numbers Other Early Research on the Capacity of ShortTerm Memory 0 The BrownIPeterson amp Peterson Technique a technique where you are shown a list of items that you are supposed to remember then you perform a distracting task then you are given a recall test Demonstrated that information held in working memory for less than one minute is forgotten frequently Provided much of the original information about short term memory Rehearsal silently repeating the items STUDY asked participants to memorize a three random letters Then they are given number tasks counting backwards by 3 s Then asked to recall the initial letters The first few trials recall was good After a few trials their recall steadily decreased and became poor Memory is fragile for material stored for a few seconds 0 The Recency Effect Serialposition effect the U shaped relationship asymptote between the placement of the word in the list and the probability of recall Recency effect better recall with the several last items on the list One way of measuring the capacity of working memory is to see how many of the last items you are able to recall Primacy effect better recall with the first few items in the list This is possible because of 2 reasons There is no competition with other items in the beginning of the list Rehearsal for the first items are more frequent than the items located later on in the list o Semantic Similarity of the Items in ShortTerm Memory Semantics the meaning of the words or sentences Proactive Interference Pl the trouble people have with learning new material due to interference of previous learning with new learning A release from proactive interference when there is a shift with the category of the chunking material there is no interference so the memory of the fourth or later item will be as good as the first item on the list if it is a different category than the previous items o Also works with shifts in semantic categories STUDY there were different groups to do the BrownIPeterson amp Peterson effect study Each group had a different categories of chunks they had to recall with four trials But in the last trial fourth trial all the groups were shown a chunk from the fruits category o Then the fruit group would have the worst recall in trial 4 because the category is the same for the previous trials Less Pl Atkinson and Shiffrin s Model o Short term memory and long term memory are distinct o Control processes intentional strategies for improving memory such as rehearsal o Explored the concept of learning and memory with short term memory but not about how it plays a role when performing other cognitive tasks THE WORKING MEMORY APPROACH 0 Working memory approach proposed by Baddeley the immediate memory or short term memory is used to manipulate and hold information while we do cognitive tasks This approach is different form the AS model of working memory because Baddeley introduced the idea of different components within the memory that has different respective functionsrole The working memory is not a passive storage it is an active part of our memory that manipulates information Evidence for Components with Independent Capacities o STUDY gave participants a list of numbers around 8 and also made them perform a spatial reasoning task whether a letter came before or after another in the alphabet yesno Surprising results the participants performed remarkable well in both tasks simultaneously with a low 5 error rate Showed evidence that the working memory does have several components since the participants were able to do both spatial reasoning task and verbal rehearsal Also contradicted the view that the working memory has only 7 slots In Depth Phonological Loop o Phonological loop the part of working memory that can process a limited number of sounds in a short amount of time Subvocalization silently pronouncing words when reading The phonological loop is active during this Research on Acoustic Confusions Acoustic confusions when people are confused with simiar sounding stimuli STUDY gave participants a list of similar sounding letters or a list of different sounding letters for them to memorize They recalled better with the different sounding list o The letters were presented visually STUDY Jones and his colleagues proposed that people made acoustic confusions when thy were rehearsing the items not when the items are stored in the phonological loop Other Uses for the Phonological Loop We use the phonological loop in our daily lives besides its role in the working memory Using the inner voice to count Gateway to long term memory Selfinstruction silently talking to yourself Learning new words in your language Producing language telling a friend about your trip Math calculations and problem solving tasks Neuroscience Research on Phonological Loop Phonological loop tasks activate the frontal lobe and part of the parietal lobe The left frontal lobe activates for verbal rehearsal and the left parietal lobe is activated for the storing auditory information o The left hemisphere would make sense because it is mostly used to process language related info Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS a neuroscience technique that uses a magnetic field to stimulate certain parts of the brain to produce interference Does not harm the brain o STUDY stimulated the left frontal lobe when the participants were given simple sentences with a sketch The task was so simple they gave the right answer even with stimulation 9 neither frontal or parietal were responsible for processing short simple sentences But when they stimulated the parietal lobe the participants made errors when given long sentences with simple syntax 9 stimulation interfered with the ability to store all the words in the sentence making the parietal responsible for the processing long simple sentences Long complex sentences were given while stimulating either frontal or parietal lobe left 9 many errors were made 9 left frontal lobe coudn t effectively rehearse the sentences while the left parietal lobe prevented the storage of the sentences 9 both are responsible for storing and rehearsing long complex sentences o Neuroscience research shows that the working memory is a much more complex system than simply a storehouse with the capacity of 7 give or take 2 items Visuospatial Sketchpad O O Visuospatial sketchpad processes both visual and spatial info The second component of working memory Allows you to look at a complex scene and gather visual information Also helps you navigate your way from one place to another Lets you store visual information of objects and their location Also lets you encode visual info from verbal descriptions This part of the working memory also has a limited capacity just like the phonological loop Cannot perform two visuospatial tasks at once Too many info entering this area prevents you from accurately portraying them Research on the Visuospatial Sketchpad There is less research on the visuospatial sketchpad than the phonological loop because of the lack of standardized set of visual stimuli that would be comparable to the words that we process using the phonological loop Another problem is that people have the tendency to use the phonological loop to further process visual information by providing names They might not use their visuospatial sketchpad for processing Researchers asked the participants to repeat on irrelevant syllable such as a a a while looking at a complex visual stimulus This preoccupies the phonological loop preventing them from making names by using the PL 9 making them more likely to use the VS Other Uses for the Visuospatial Sketchpad Students use more of the VS or PL depending on what kind of area they study art engineering architecture 9 VS psychology social sciences 9 PL Videogames jigsaw puzzles mazes Navigating from one place to another O Looking at a specific item within your reach Neuroscience Research on the VS Typically activate several regions in the right hemisphere of the cortex Working memory tasks with strong visual components usually activate the occipital region where the primary visual cortex is visual perception Specific locations of the brain rely on other characteristics of the task Various areas of the frontal cortex are also activated when people perform visual and spatial tasks Suggests that people mentally rehearse by shifting their attention from one location to another in their mental image activating the frontal and parietal lobes places that are associated with attention Central Executive 0 O 0 Central executive integrates info from the PL VS the episodic buffer and long term memory basically all components of working memory Also plays a major role in focusing attention selecting strategies transforming information and coordinating behavior Has a wide variety of functions such as focusing attention and switching between tasks Very important and complex Also responsible for suppressing irrelevant information helping you decide what to do next preventing you from getting sidetrackeddistracted 9 again going back to focusing attention Characteristics of the Central Executive Plans and coordinates but does not store information unlike the VS and the PL which have specialized storage systems Has a critical role in the overall functioning of the working memory Works like a executive supervisor in an organization Decides which matters to focus on and which to ignore Selects strategies and decides how to solve problems Also knows when to stop using an ineffective strategy Like any executive it has a limited ability of performing tasks simultaneously The Central Executive and Daydreaming Daydreaming requires an active participation of the central executive STUDY asked participants to generate a series of random numbers Stopped them every 2 minutes to let them write any thoughts The researchers went over the notes and examined the numbers when the participants reported that they were daydreaming vs when they were not o The numbers during daydreaming showed that they weren t so random 9 daydreaming took up a large part of their central executive o They numbers they generated when they were focused on the numbers generated successfully made a random sequence of numbers Neuroscience Research on Central Executive Researchers generally know less about the biological characteristics of the central executive compared to the PL and the VS Gathered data from people with fronta obe lesions and neuroimaging research Frontal region of the cortex is the most active portion when people perform a wide variety of central executive tasks Both hemispheres play a role in most CE tasks EX when writing a paper your CE prevents you from getting sidetracked helps you organize an outline helps you decide which articles to look at and not to look at guides you with time management etc Episodic Buffer o Episodic buffer a temporary storehouse that holds info from the PL V8 and LTM Baddeley added this fourth component 25 years after he proposed the working memory approach o Since the CE plans and coordinates several cognitive activities but cannot store any information Baddeley proposed a component of working memory where visual auditory and spatial information can be combined from the PL V8 and LTM This solves the theoretical problem of how working memory integrates information from different sensory departments modalities o Manipulates information to interpret earlier experiences solve new problems and plan future activities Like a platform desk with which you can organize plan and figure out whathow to do an assignment EX think about something that happened yesterday with a friend You can review this event and observe different info facial expression voice tone friends previous behavior from LTM to figure out whether your friend was offended o Allows you to make connectionsassociations with different concepts EX recall a time when someone made a rude comment to you and can connect that personal experience with your friend s reaction Also binds words into meaningful chunks so you can remember more easily o This concept is relatively new so there isn t much neuroscience research o Proposed that it has limited capacity just like all the other components of working memory o It is a temporary memory system that allows us to create a more complex richer representation of an event which can then be stored in LTM Working Memory and Academic Performance o Researchers have recently focused on individual differences in working memory o They found a significant correlation between working memory tasks and academic achievement Scores on working memory tasks are correlated with overall intelligence and grades in schooL Scores on WM tasks especially PL are usually correlated with reading ability Scores on CE tasks are correlated with verbal fluency reading comprehension reasoning ability and note taking skills People with ADHD a psychological disorder characterized by inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity have a more difficult time with CE tasks especially with tasks such as inhibiting a response planning a project or working on two tasks simultaneously Individual Differences Major Depression and Working Memory o Major depression people who feel sad discouraged hopeless fatigued and little interest in leisure activities o STUDY examined three major components of WM Compared WM performance between depressed and nondepressed people Administered PL tasks such as remembering a series of similar sounding letters while repeating the word the at the same time Depressed 9 correctly recalled 34 letters in a row Nondepressed 9 correctly recalled 53 letters Statistically significant Another test regarding VS showed a series of visual patterns with black and white squares Then they saw a probe pattern and asked if it was in the original patterns Depressed 9 avg span of 67 Nondepressed 9 avg span of 78 0 Difference was not as large as the results of the PL but still statistically significant 4 more tests on the CE BrownIPeterson amp Peterson task and a verbal reasoning task One test they showed a series of letters and asked them to repeat them backwards o Depressed 9 avg span 28 o Nondepressed 9 avg span of49 Recall the last four letters of a string of letters that varied from 48 letters o Depressed 9 32 o Nondepressed 9 74 Not clear why depressed people have problems with working memory tasks but the results are consistent with clinical reports claiming that depressed people have trouble concentrating One reason may be the ruminative style worrying about all the things that are wrong in their life that accompanies depression making it hard to focus on other things SH 5 LongTerm Memory 6514 857 PM INTRO o Working memory brief immediate memory for material we are currently processing o Long term memory has large capacity contains memories experiences and information that accumulated throughout your lifetime 0 Episodic memory focuses on your memory for events that have happened to you o Semantic memory organized knowledge about the world including knowledge about words and other facts o Procedural memory knowledge about how to do something o Encoding processing info and representing it in your memory o Retrieval locating info in your storage and accessing it ENCODING IN LONGTERM MEMORY o 3 important questions 1 Do you remember better when you process in a deep meaningful way or in a shallow way 2 Do you remember better when the context of encoding is the same as the context during retrieval 3 How do emotional factors influence memory accuracy Levels of Processing o Levelsofprocessing approach Craik and Lockhart deep meaningful processing results in better recall than shallow sensory kinds of processing AKA depthofprocessing approach EX more likely to recall a word if you process with it in terms of meaning in contrast it s less likely to recall a word based on physical appearance or its sound o Levels of Processing and Memory for General Material STUDY a series of yes or no questions about rhyming capitalization and sentence meaning Found that it s 3x more likely for people to recall a word if they had originally answered questions based on their meaning Deep levels of processing encourage better recall because of two factors Distinctiveness the way a stimulus is different from other memory traces Elaboration rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts o STUDY asked if the words were appropriate in either simple sentences or elaborate sentences The elaborate sentences produced better recall o STUDY people recognized more photos of faces if they had previously judged the faces as honest or dishonest rather than if they had judged the faces on a physical aspect 9 deep processing enhances memory for faces o Levels of Processing and the SelfReference Effect Self reference effect better recall if the info is related to you Self reference tasks encourage especially deep processing 1 Representative research STUDY asked to process words in one of the four categories visual characteristics acoustic characteristics semantic characteristics and self reference Recall was poor for the two shallow processing visual and acoustic Recall was much better with semantic Recall was much better than all three with self reference When we think of a word in connection with ourselves we develop a particularly memorable encoding for that word Supports Theme 3 handle positive info better than negative Self reference is quite powerful A metaanalysis statistically synthesizing numerous studies on a single topic also computes a statistical index that tells us whether a particular variable has a statistically significant effect is consistent with the self reference pattern 9 people do recall better with info that are related to them 2 Participant s failure to follow instructions some researchers believe that the research might actually underestimate the power of the self reference effect Participants may actually be using the self reference technique when asked to use shallow processing EX they were told to visualize the items in a certain way visualize imagine yourself using it before showing them a list of familiar concrete nouns Researchers found that some in the visuaize group used the sef reference processing So they sorted the results based on how the participant said they visualized it and found a big difference from the first analysis Supports Theme 1 active cognitive processes Must keep in mind that the participants may not the instructions precisely 3 Factors responsible for the selfreference effect Why do we recall better when the info is related to us 3 cognitive factors The self produces an especially rich set of cues We are able to easily link them to new info and the cues are also distinctive Self reference directions encourage people to consider how their personal traits are connected with one another 9 this kind of elaboration produces accurate recall People rehearse more frequently if the info is associated with the self Also more likely to use rich complex rehearsal when associating material to the self The Effects of Context The EncodingSpecificity Principle 0 O Encodingspecificity principle AKA contextdependent memory transferappropriate processing and reinstatement of context recall is better if the context during retrieval is similar with the context during encoding When the two contexts do not match it s more likely to forget the items Research on Encoding Specificity STUDY tested people living in Chile fluent in both Spanish and English Gave two stories in English and two stories in Spanish After a short delay gave them questions Half of the questions matched the language of the story while the other half did not Recall was better with consistent language between the story and the questions Context effects help us function more competently because we often forget material that is associated with contexts other than the one we are using now We don t need to remember things that are irrelevant right now 1 Different kinds of memory tasks context effects are inconsistent in the lab The difference between real life and the lab is that both typically test two different types of memory Recall task repeat the items they learned earlier Recognition task judge whether they have seen the item at an earlier time Real life examples of encoding specificity use the recall task to bring up earlier experiences Encoding specificity is typically strong in these real life longdelay s ua ons Lab settings typically use the recognition task and encoding specificity is weak in these shortdelay situations Encoding specificity effect is most likely to occur in memory tasks that asses your recall use reallife events and examine events that happened long ago 2 Physical versus mental context researchers usually manipulate the physical context in which the material is encoded and retrieved but the mental context may be more important than the physical context The physical details may be trivial the way a certain environment feels may be more important hence mental context o Levels of Processing and Encoding Specificity The levels of processing approach emphasized encoding but not retrieval however the encoding specificity principle tells us that recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context 9 so the encoding specificity can override the level of processing 9 shallow processing can actually be more effective with retrieval tasks that emphasize superficial info not consistent with the LOPA STUDY asked yes or no questions on rhyming Tested on the rhyming rather than the recall of words People did better if they used shallow encoding rhyming rather than deep encoding meaning Shows that deep semantic processing is effective if only the retrieval conditions also emphasized deeper and more meaningful features Supports Theme 4 cognitive processes are interrelated o SUMMARY memory is sometimes not always enhanced when the retrieval context resembles the encoding context The benefits of encoding specificity are more likely in recall tests with real life events and items that have been stored for a long time longdelay It also depends more on mental context rather than the physical context In some cases the match between encoding and retrieval is more important than deep processing In Depth Emotions Mood and Memory 0 O O Emotion a reaction to a specific stimulus Mood refers to a more general ong asting experience Two ways emotion and mood can affect memory 1 We remember pleasant stimuli more accurately than unpleasant stimuli 2 We recall material more accurately if our mood matches the mood that we were in when encoding the material mood congruence Memory for Items Differing in Emotion Pollyana Principle pleasant items are processed more accurately and efficiently than unpleasant ones 1 More accurate recall for pleasant items STUDY people learn lists of words that are neutral unpleasant or pleasant Varied the delay from several minutes to several months People recalled pleasant words better than negative items Neutral items are recalled least accurately suggesting that the overall emotional tone is also important 9 boringbland ones are least memorable STUDY showed pictures varying from pleasant to unpleasant including neutral with neutral backgrounds Surprise recognition test after 10 minutes People recalled positive and negative pictures equally well probably because the delay was short Recall of neutral images were significantly lower 0 But the recognition for neutral backgrounds was the highest 9 there is a tradeoff when the central stimulus is boring people explore and remember the background than in other conditions When the stimulus was negative the recall for background was low 2 More accurate recall for neutral stimuli associated with pleasant stimuli STUDY showed a video of Karate Kid or a video of Gorillas in the Mist with neutral advertisements inserted into each Asked students to recall the brand name of the ad and everything else about the product Recall was significantly better for both measures with the nonviolent video 9 anger and violence typically reduces memory accuracy 3 Over time unpleasant memories fade more than pleasant memories STUDY asked students to record one personal event each day for two weeks and rate the intensity and the pleasantness of the event After three months they had to re rate the pleasantness of the events Ratings did not change for the ones originally rated as neutral no change Events that were originally rated as pleasant were rated again as slightly less pleasant The initial negative events were re rated as much less negative Consistent with the Pollyana Principle Positivity effect people tend to rate unpleasant events more positively after the passage of time Related STUDY this time with people who have tendencies for depression and those who don t Those without showed the usual positivity effect but those with depressive tendencies showed the same amount of fading for both pleasant and unpleasant events 9 the unpleasant events still remained unpleasant o Mood Congruence recalling material more accurately if it is congruent with your current mood EX if in a pleasant mood you d remember pleasant material better than unpleasant material STUDY nondepressive group and depressive group Looked at a series of 20 positive and 20 negative words Asked to recall as many words as possible Nondepressed group generally recalled a lot more words and also recalled significantly more percentage of positive words Depressive group recalled slightly more negative words than positive words RETRIEVAL IN LONG TERM MEMORY Explicit Versus Implicit Memory Tasks o Definition and Examples Explicit memory task a researcher directly asks you to remember some information You know that your memory is being tested so you intentionally have to retrieve information that you ve learned before Most common is recall test and recognition test Implicit memory task you are asked to look at a some material Then during the test phase you are asked to perform cognitive tasks that do not directly ask you to recall or recognize the material you ve learned Researchers prevent using the word recall or remember Implicit memory shows the effects of previous experience that creep out automatically during normal behavior without conscious effort to remember o EX woman with amnesia being able to dial her mother s phone number Implicit measure were initially made in social psychology to measure attitudes and beliefs Repetition priming task a second measure of implicit memory a task that shows how people exposed to a set of words would be likely to remember one of those particular words when given cues that could evoke many different words o EX seeing guest room kitchen bathroom then later asked to name rooms in a typical house 9 more likely to use the words guest room kitchen and bathroom instead ofdining room etc 0 Representative Research Several different studies show that adults are often unable to remember stimuli in explicit memory tasks but they are able to remember stimuli in implicit memory tasks Dissociation when a variable has large effects on test A but little to no effect on test B also when a variable has one kind of effect measured by test A but the opposite effect measured by test B EX participants are able to recall more words with deep processing on an explicit memory test test A but they recall less on an implicit memory test test B 9 variable deep processing shows large effects good recall on test A explicit but shows little to no effects low recall on test B implicit The research on implicit memory shows that people know more than they can recall Individual Differences Anxiety Disorders and Performance on Explicit and Implicit Memory Tasks o The category of anxiety disorders has a broad range of psychological problems such as generalized anxiety disorder when one person experiences at least 6 months of intense long lasting anxiety and worry posttraumatic stress disorder when one person repeatedly re experiences an extremely traumatic event and social phobia when one person becomes extremely anxious in social settings o Kristin Mitte 2008 was interested in memory patterns of people who have anxiety disorders She thought that the results of the study depends on the type of memory task administered She performed a meta analysis and found that people with low and high anxiety had similar results in implicit memory tasks Same results with recognition tasks However recall tasks showed statistically significant differences Highly anxious participants were more likely to recall negative anxiety arousing words and less likely to recall both neutral and pleasant words 9 because they remembered so many of the negative words they had no more capacity to remember the pleasant ones Unsure as to why there is a difference between high and low anxious people in recall tasks o Maybe because high anxious people pay more attention to negative words 0 Or maybe because if they remember one negative words they are able to remember other related negative words Individuals with Amnesia o Amnesia when one has severe deficiencies in episodic memory o Retrograde amnesia when one cannot remember anything that happened before brain damage o Anterograde amnesia the inability to form new memories after brain damage HM had severe epilepsy and had his brain operated in 1953 to remove a part of his temporal lobe and his hippocampus Hippocampus structure located underneath the cortex that is important in many learning and memory tasks The operation cured his epilepsy but severely damaged his memory Expertise Studies showed that he had normal semantic memory and he was able to accurately recall events that happened before the surgery But he was unable to remember new things that happened after his surgery People with anterograde amnesia performed poorly on explicit memory tasks such as recognition and recall They also have difficulty in predicting events that will happen in the future STUDY presented a list of words to a group of people with anterograde amnesia As expected they performed poorly on recall and recognition tests However on implicit memory tasks the control group and the treatment group had the performed the same 45 This is a good example of dissociation Variable amnesia o Expertise exceptional performance with tasks in a particular area o Ericsson is currently the psychologist who has expertise in the area of expertise Intense deliberate and daily practice is key o The ContextSpecific Nature of Expertise A strong correlation was found between expertise and memory performance in that area of expertise but people who are experts in one area do not show a general outstanding memory skills STUDY Chao Lu a 23 year old grad student in China can recite around 67890 digits of the beginning of pi His skill was unable to be traced back to innate skill He was just really motivated and took him 7 years to memorize after forming a system for encoding and retrieval Other research shows that memory experts do not show a higher general intelligence 9 no correlation between IQ and the ability to memorize within their expertise o How Do Experts and Novices Differ There are several ways in which experts differ from novices regarding memory strategies 1 Experts have an organized and carefully constructed structure of knowledge that greatly aids them with encoding and retrieval 2 They are more likely to reorganize new info that they have to recall which forms meaningful chunks of related info 3 They are more vivid with the visual imagery of the items they have to recall 4 They work hard to emphasize distinctiveness for each stimulus that they have to recaH 5 They rehearse in a more strategic fashion 6 They are better at reconstructing missing portions of info from the info that partially remember 7 They are more skilled at predicting the level of difficulty of a task and monitoring their progress o OwnEthnicity Bias the tendency of being generally accurate in recognizing members of your own ethnic group than members from a different ethnic group The bias is related to expertise because people generally tend to interact more with members of their own ethnic group There are many studies that support the own ethnicity bias STUDY British White students were accurate in identifying White faces but performed poorly with South Asian faces In contrast British South Asian students performed well with both types of faces 9 small percentage of south Asians in Britain which increases the amount of interaction they have with whites but whites do not interact a lot with south Asians AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY o Autobiographical memory your memory for events and issues related to yourself May include a verbal narrative images of events emotional reactions and procedural information With long term memory the quantity of items you are able to recall is the dependent factor to measure memory but with autobiographical memory the dependent factor is memory accuracy o Ecological validity whether the lab settings are similar to the natural settings in which the results will be applied Schemas and Autobiographical Memory 0 Schema is your general knowledge or expectation that was formed from your past experiences o We use schemas to guide our recall we still remember the gist of an event but forget irrelevant info for a certain schema o Consistency bias the tendency to exaggerate the consistency between your past feelings and beliefs and our current viewpoint EX when asked about your view about animal cruelty in high school you would generate an answer by constructing your previous beliefs and attitudes that would be consistent with the way you feel about it right now STUDY Chicana garment workers went on a strike against the manufacturing company Many of the women viewed the strike as life transforming since it changed them from timid workers to assertive confident activists After several years they were interviewed again and they recalled that they were always assertive which is consistent with the way they feel HOW o Schemas influence past memories so that they feel similar to the way we feel right now Source Monitoring and Reality Monitoring o Source monitoring the process of trying to identify the origin of a certain memory STUDY asked college students to discuss an open ended topic A week later they were given a source monitoring test They were asked to identify whether each item on the list was their own idea or another s They seldom made source monitoring mistakes they rarely claimed someone else s idea was their own idea 0 Source monitoring can result in accidental and unintentional plagiarism o It can also result in much more serious consequences Bush claimed that Iraq was buying Uranium to justify the Iraq War but the source of the info was from falsified documents originating from Niger The CIA was also claiming that they have warned the president of the false information o Reality monitoring trying to identify whether an event actually occurred or if it was your imagination EX you think you ve discussed an urgent matter with a friend but you actually didn t and only reminded yourself to do so imagining the scene STUDY college students were shown a series of familiar objects like a pencil For half of the objects they were told to do a certain action but for the other half they were told to imagine doing a certain action without actually physically performing it A week later they saw pictures of some of the completed actions Another week later they were asked whether if they actually did each action When they didn t see the photo of the completed action less than 10 of students were confident that they had actually done the action But when they have seen the photo 25 were confident that they ve physically done it Flashbulb Memories o Flashbulb memory the memory for the circumstances in which you first learned about something very surprising or emotionally arousing Many believe that they can accurately recall the details of what they were doing when they first learned something surprising Brown and Kulik studied whether various important political events triggered contextually rich memories They suggested that flashbulb memories are more accurate than memories that are less surprising but later studies have shown that people make a lot of errors in their recall even though they claim that their memories were really vivid There is also no difference in accuracy between memories of surprising events and unsurprising events STUDY the day after 911 students were asked to report specific details on how they learned about the tragic event and also about an ordinary event Then they were randomly assigned to 3 recall testing sessions 1 week later 6 weeks later 32 weeks aterasked about the details of their memory and they were compared with the initial written observations that they have provided and counted the number of consistent and inconsistent details Both the flashbulb memory and the ordinary memory dropped consistency in the same fashion over time The number of inconsistent details slightly increased over time even though the students were highly confident in their accuracy actually all the students were confident Eyewitness Testimony 0 Three topics that can influence eyewitness testimonies own ethnicity bias memory schemas and source monitoring o Peope s long term memories are reasonably accurate with the gist of events but eyewitness testimonies require the recall of specific details which increases the likelihood of mistakes 0 Example of Inappropriate Eyewitness Testimony The case of Gary Graham as a murderer The jury was told that he had a pistol similar to the one involved in the murder and there were 8 eyewitnesses but only one identified him Because of the single eyewitness testimony he was sentenced to death No one will ever know if he was truly guilty 0 The PostEvent Misinformation Effect people see an event then they are misinformed and then later recall the faulty info rather than the actual event they saw Proactive interference when old material interferes with new memories making it difficult for one to recall new material Retroactive interference when people have trouble recalling old material because of the recently learned new material keeps interfering STUDY a series of slides of a car crash Half of them saw a yield sign and the other half saw a stop sign After 20 minutes to 1 week a questionnaire about the details was given One group was given consistent questions second group was given inconsistent questions and the third group was given neutral questions To answer the questions everyone saw two slides one with the yield sign the other with a stop sign and asked which slide they have previously seen People who saw the inconsistent info were much less accurate than the people in the other two groups 9 they often chose a sign based on the info in the ques onnake o This misinformation effect can partly be traced to faulty source monitoring because the people in the inconsistent info group had trouble deciding which sign was in the original slide The misinfo effect emphasizes the active constructive nature of memory Constructivist approach emphasizes that we construct knowledge by integrating what we know with new information making things understandable and coherent to us 0 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony People may create memories that are consistent with their schemas consistency bias People make errors in source monitoring Post event misinformation may distort recall retroactive interference Other factors 1 More errors are made if the crime was seen under stressful circumstances such as when someone was holding a gun 2 The longer the delay the more errors can be made 3 More errors can be made if the misinformation seems reasonable 4 They make more errors if there is social pressure Asking them more specific questions may pressure them leading to inaccurate recall Testimonies are more accurate if the eyewitnesses are allowed to report it in their own words with sufficient tune 5 They make more errors if they are given positive feedback They become more certain about the accuracy of their decision if they have previously been given posmvefeedback o The Relationship Between Memory Confidence and Memory Accuracy In many situations people are as confident about their inaccurate memories as much as their genuinely correct memories There is no strong correlation between confidence and accuracy The RecoveredMemoryIFaseMemory Controversy o The Two Contrasting Positions in the Controversy The recoveredmemory perspective mainly focuses on child abuse and many researchers claim that such traumatic memories can be forgotten and then remembered during adulthood More likely to forget if the abuser was a close relative or a trusted adult This memory may come flooding back at a later time The falsememory perspective proposes that most of these recovered memories are actually incorrect that they are constructed stories or events that never occurred o The Potential for Memory Errors The repeated suggestions of psychotherapists may get blended with reality to create a false memow These statements encourage patients to invent false memories because of social pressure o Arguments for False Memory Research demonstrates how people can have false memory in certain situations For example it is shows that people may recall seeing a word that they haven t actually seen Many researchers argue that this can also happen with childhood memories STUDY researchers tried to implant a false memory of spilling punch on the bride s dress at a wedding that they attended when they were 6 years old 25 eventually recalled this false memory while the remaining 75 refused to remember the event Shows that only a small percentage of people actually claim to have a memory of something that did not happen o Arguments for Recovered Memory The lab studies have little ecological validity with respect to childhood memories of sexual abuse There is not much similarity in recalling a word and recalling a false memory of sexual abuse 0 It is also not similar to embarrassing moments such as spilling punch on the bride but it is something that one can openly discuss unlike the topic of sexual abuse Research also shows that people cannot be convinced of even more embarrassing events Sexual abuse victims may actually forget the episode even though it has been documented by others Betrayal trauma how a child may respond adaptively when a trusted parent or caretaker betrays himher by sexual abuse The child depends on this adult and must actively inhibit the memories of abuse in order to maintain the attachment Both Perspectives Are at Least Partially Correct In reality both approaches are partially correct 2H 6 Memory Strategies and Vletacognition 6514 857 PM MEMORY STRATEGIES 0 Memory strategy performing a mental activity that can help improve your encoding and retrieval Most help you remember something that you learned in the past Suggestions from Previous Chapters A Review o Levels of Processing you will generally recall info more accurately with deep processing Elaboration is emphasized if you want to concentrate on the specific meaning of a particular concept Try to relate it to your previous knowledge and explain it to yourself Using simple rehearsal would be wasting your time One specific application of the elaboration method is creating and answering your own why questions Distinctiveness is especially important when trying to remember names Promotes less interference with other similar items Selfreference effect o Encoding Specificity Consider how you will be tested on the exam recall or recognition The physical setting during your encoding and retrieval are not that important o Avoiding Overconfidence Foresight bias when people have been studying for a future exam they are overconfident about how they will do on the exam Remember confidence is not strongly correlated with memory accuracy Strategies Emphasizing Practice 0 The TotalTime Hypothesis the amount that you learn depends on the total amount of time spent on learning Generally true But how you use the time is very important EX just reading the text over and over won t be very helpful Study time only predicts GPA only when the study quality is assessed Use active learning with deep processing 0 The RetrievalPractice Effect when retrieval is difficult but you succeed learning is enhanced Retrieval practice enhances test performance o The DistributedPractice Effect more material will be remembered if the learning trials are spread across over time spaced learning You remember less when you try to cram massed learning Research supports this principle for both recall and recognition tasks Distributed practice introduces desirable difficulties a learning situation that is somewhat challenging but not too difficult Testing yourself of a concept several times in a row will make the concept seem easy after several repetitions O But if you insert a delay after the first repetition you ll pay more attention to the concept Also the task will be slightly more difficult because it s harder to remember because you began to forget the concept A delay of at least one day between practice sessions is especially effective in long term retention The Testing Effect taking a test is an excellent way of boosting your long term recall for academic material STUDY asked students to read a scientific essay Half the students studied the same essays again the other half took a test on the content blank sheet write down as much as you can recall but received no feedback on the accuracy Everyone received a final test in which they wrote down their recall from the essay Some students received the test 5 minutes after the last activity others received it in 2 days or 1 week After 5 minutes 9 those who restudied the material performed slightly better than those who completed a test After 2 days or 1 week 9 students earned much higher scores if they previously took a test even though they didn t get any feedback on the accuracy Testing provides practice for retrieval Also prevents overconfidence Mnemonics Using Imagery O O O Mnemonics mental strategies designed to improve memory Mental imagery mentally representing objects actions or ideas that are not physically present Mnemonics sometimes emphasizes this STUDY asked to memorize by simply repeating the word pairs silently Others used mental imagery for encoding Then each was asked to provide the second word of the pair People who used mental imagery recalled 2x more than the other group Imagery is especially effective if the items that need to be recalled are shown interacting together Also especially helpful if the image is really bizarre Keyword method helpful with memorizing vocab words identify an English word kewvord that sounds similar to the new word you want to learn Then you create an image that links the kewvord with the meaning of this new word Mnemonics Using Organization 0 O 0 Organization bringing systematic order to the material they want to learn Retrieval is easier if there is a well organized framework Chunking combining several small units into larger units Hierarchy Technique Hierarchy a system in which items are organized into a series of classes from general to specific STUDY asked people to learn the words organized into a hierarchy other were asked to learn the words that were scattered randomly The hierarchy group recalled 3x more than the random group An outline is also an example of hierarchy FirstLetter Technique taking the first letter of each word you want to memorize and composing a wordsentence from those letters Research does not consistently show that this is effective Narrative Technique making up stories that link a series of words together STUDY told a group to make a story that incorporated a set of words The control group didn t receive any instructions Each group learned 12 words The narrative group recalled 6x more than the control group An effective strategy and has been used with people who have impaired memory Students often have the perspective that applying memory strategies is too much work reverting back to their old study habits In Depth Prospective Memory 0 O O O Retrospective memory remembering information that you ve learned in the past Prospective memory remembering information that you need to do in the future EX remembering to bring your book to class pick up a friend go grocery shopping Prospective memory tasks has 2 components Establish the intention that you must complete a particular task at a future time At that future time you must fulfill your original intention Occasionally the central challenge is remembering the actual content of the action EX you know you have to do something but you don t know what Comparing Prospective and Retrospective Memory Prospective memory focuses on action The research emphasizes ecological validity Retrospective memory focuses on remembering information and ideas Both are governed by the same variables such as distinctive encoding and effective retrieval cues short delay before retrieval similar rates of forgetting with the passage of time and both activates regions in the frontal lobe Absentmindedness and ProspectiveMemory Failure One problem is that the typical prospective memory tasks represents a dividedattention situation since you must focus on the ongoing activity while trying to remember the task you have to do later Absentmindedness is especially likely if a prospective memory task makes you disrupt a usual activity driving walking etc Prospective memory errors are more likely in highly familiar surroundings when automatically performing a task Also more likely if you are distracted preoccupied or feeling time pressure Suggestions for Improving Prospective Memory The reminders you choose must be distinctive Form strong connections between components EX between Juie s name and the fact that I have to give her a message Another problem is peope s overconfidence in their ability to remember later External memory aid any device that is external to yourself that facilitates memory in some way METACOGNITION EX shopping list rubber band around wrist alarms etc Placement of the aid is important Aids are helpful only if you can use them easily and if they are successful in reminding you of what to do o Metacognition the knowledge and control of your cognitive processes o We use our cognitive processes to think about our cognitive processes o The knowledge that you have about your cognitive processes can help you select strategies that would enhance future cognitive performance o Sef knowledge what people believe about themselves Includes your knowledge about your social behavior and personality o Metamemory peope s knowledge monitoring and control of their memory Extremely important if you want to improve memory Research in the area of metamemory is more extensive than all other areas of metacognition 5 Questions 1 What factors influence peope s metamemory accuracy 2 How do people who have ADHD perform on metamemory tasks 3 What are peope s beliefs about the factors that might influence their memory 4 What do people know about how to regulate their study strategies 5 How accurate are people in judging whether they will be able to recall a specific word Factors that Influence Peope s Metamemory Accuracy o Your metamemory isn t always accurate in predicting your memory performance o Metamemory Estimating the Accuracy for Total Score Versus the Accuracy for Individual Items Students reading a chapter in the textbook may be overly optimistic that they can remember a concept since they are directly looking at a description of the concept STUDY students predicted their test scores after taking the test Then divided the students into 4 groups based on their actual test score Students in the top quartile accurately predicted their scores As you go down each quartile the students are less accurate The less competent students overestimated their performance Less competent students are often unaware of their limitations o They don t know that they don t know the material O O Metamemory can be highly accurate when predicting which individual items they remember and which ones they forget but can be overconfident when estimating the total number of correct items Metamemory Estimating the Score Immediately Versus After a Delay Researchers have found that people do not accurately predict for individual items immediately after learning the items If they delay theirjudgments they are reasonably accurate with their predictions of which items they recall They are more accurate because they assess LTM When studying and trying to figure out which topics you need to work on wait a few minutes before assessing your memory since your metamemory is more likely to be accurate Metamemory Estimating the Scores on Essay Questions Versus MultipleChoice Questions Students are generally more accurate in estimating their scores on MC questions Individual Differences ADHD and Metamemory o AttentionDeficitIHyperactivity Disorder ADHD a cognitive characteristic that makes it difficult for a person to pay close attention at school at work and in other activities STUDY ADHD group without medication vs non ADHD group Showed each word pair 30 of them for about 8 seconds then immediately or after a delay asked them to estimate the probability that the would recall the second word if given the first word Calibration measures peope s accuracy in estimating their actual performance Both groups were similar in the accuracy of their immediate judgments Both groups were also similar in the accuracy of their delayed judgments but more likely to be calibrated as well Metamemory About Factors Affecting Memory Accuracy 0 0 Students awareness of their memory would help them select which strategies would be helpful for them but students have the tendency of thinking that all memory strategies are equal They also may think that some factors have no effect on memory although in reality they do They also may think that some factors do have an effect on memory but they really don t Try different strategies and see which ones were most effective Metamemory and the Regulation of Study Strategies o The research on the regulation of study strategies show that memory tasks require a pretty big amount of decision making regarding how to master the material o Allocating Time when the Task is Easy STUDY observed how students used their study time when they are given free reign They found that students reserved somewhat more time for the items that they thought would be difficult to master The students didn t passively review the all the material equally However students still use most of their time on studying items they already know A possible explanation is that students are not very accurate in judging whether their mastery has improved or not o Allocating Time When the Task is Difficult O STUDY a test that had 8 biographies that would require an hour to completely read them but only gave students 30 minutes The students read one paragraph for each biography rated the difficulty for each and planned how to choose their time Students in this situation spend the majority of their time on easy ones rather than difficult ones Students who face time pressure choose to study easy to master material Conclusions About the Regulation of Study Strategies Students can regulate their strategies and also regulate the regulation of their strategies They choose one style for difficult tasks and another style for the easy ones Metamemory and the Likelihood of Remembering a Specific Target 0 Tipofthetongue effect the subjective experience of knowing the target word that you are trying to remember yet you presently cannot recall STUDY gave this effect by providing the definition for an uncommon English word and asked them to identify the word asked them to provide words that resembled the target word in terms of sound but not meaning They are likely to identify the first letter or other characteristics of the target word and also similar sounding words Bilinguals experience the effect more than monolinguals Tip of the finger effect used by deaf people who has the subjective experiences of knowing the target sign yet unable to remember it Embodied cognition perspective that emphasizes how our abstract thoughts are often expressed by our motor behavior Feelingofknowing effect the subjective experience of knowing some info but you cannot recall right now People typically have a strong feeling of knowing if they can retrieve a large amount of partial information EX knowing all about a person but not remembering the name but at the same time being able to recognize it Both activate the frontal lobe of the brain Both are related to metacognition because you make judgments on whether you know some information Metacomprehension O O O Metacomprehension your thoughts about language comprehension Most research focuses on reading comprehension rather than comprehension with spoken speech Metacognition includes both metamemory and metacomprehension as well as topics related to the tip of the tongue and the feeling of knowing Metacomprehension Accuracy Generally college students are not very accurate in their metacomp skills Students often believe that they understood something they read because they re familiar with the topic but they fail to retain specific info and may overestimate how they will perform on a test of this material STUDY 0 Improving Metacomprehension Read a passage wait a few minutes then try to explain the passage to yourself without looking at the passage Metacomp requires you to accurately assess your level of understanding as well as regulate your reading 2H 7 Mental Imagery and Cognitive Maps INTRO O O 0 6514 857 PM Mental imagery a mental representation of stimuli when they are not physically present Visual imagery mental representation of visual stimuli Auditory imagery mental representation of auditory stimuli Perception interpreting stimuli through sense and previous knowledge STEM disciplines science technology engineering and mathematic Spatial ability is very important in theses disciplines Imagery relies on top down processing THE CHARACTERISTICS OF VISUAL IMAGERY O Imagery debate the debate over whether imagery uses perception analog or language propositional o Analog code close representation of the physical object O O The majority of the theorists believe this approach People register the physical features of the object they perceive and also save the relationship between the those characteristics This approach does not suggest that people literally hold a picture in their mind Supported by the fact that people do not remember all the details of the object they see they remember the gist Neuroimaging shows that the primary visual cortex is activated during imagery which supports the analog approach The study of people with prosopagnosia also seems to show that they have trouble with visual imagery for faces Propositional code abstract anguage ike representation The storage is neither visual nor spatial Since it is a close relative of language the brain will register a verbal representation but not in any language it is abstract Prosopagnosia the inability to recognize faces but can recognize other objects normally IN DEPTH Visual Imagery and Rotation O Shepard and Metzer s Research study on spatial rotation Based on the idea that physically rotating an object will take longer the bigger the degree of rotation is which suggests that mentally rotating an image will also take longer with higher degrees of rotation 8 participants with 1600 spatial pictures Right lever if the images are correct left lever if they aren t Measured the reaction time dependent variable 2 types of rotation 2D and 3D People had longer decision times based on the amount of rotation for both types of rotation The results were almost similar between the two so it didn t matter whether the rotation was 2D or 3D Relationship for both were straight lines on the graph Reaction time proportional to amount of rotation required Supports the analog approach Ifthe results supported the propositional approach then the decision times would not depend on the amount of rotation but both types of rotation would produce similar results o Subsequent Research on Mental Rotation Other studies used a variety of stimuli which produced similar results clear relationships between angle of rotation and reaction times Takeda 2010 recognizing rightleft hands Right handers recognized right hands faster than left hands and vice versa Both handers also recognized upright pictures faster than upside down pictures which makes sense because it takes longer to rotate them Elder people perform more slowly on rotation tasks but age is not correlated with other imagery skills Deaf people are better at looking at arrangements of objects in scenes and mentally rotating them makes sense because they have more practicing with spatial rotation through sign language In conclusion rotating geometric figures support the analog approach o Cognitive Neuroscience Research on Mental Rotation Tasks Kosslyn Thompson and others 2001 asked one group to watch an electric motor rotate an object and another group to physically rotate an object with their hands Then asked both groups to mentally rotate the figures Administered PET scans during the mental rotation The group that physically rotated the object with their hands had an active primary motor cortex but the other group did not The instructions activated the right frontal lobe and parietal lobes In a second condition participants were asked to mentally rotate themselves to see the object in a different perspective o Increased activity in temporal lobe as well as a part of the motor cortex Mental rotation helps stroke patients recover by stimulating their motor cortex VI and Distance o Kosslyn 1978 one of the most important mental imagery researchers found that there is a linear relationship between the distance and the time it takes to register the distance Scanning time proportional to distance Researchers worried about experimenter expectancy when the researcher s biases and expectations influence the results of the study Also worried about demand characteristics cues that might let participants know what the experimenter s hypothesis is So Kosslyn repeated the mental map experiment with assistants who weren t familiar with mental imagery research They were given an incorrect and detailed explanation about visual imagery which done correctly would produce a U shaped relationship Even without experimenter expectancy and demand characteristics a linear relationship resulted VI and Shape O Paivio 1978 asked participants to visualize the two hands of a clock by giving them specific times and asked which angles are smaller Also gave visual imagery ability assessments High imagery people vs low imagery people Both groups took longer to judge similar angles and shorter with very different angles Demonstrates strong support for analog codes Shepard and Chipman 1970 used more complex shapes Asked people to visualize images of the shapes of different US states Asked to judge the similarity between the two mental images of the shapes Also judged shape similarity while looking at sketches of the states The results were very similar between the two conditions People judged shapes of mental images similarly to the shape of the physical stimuli VI and Interference O 0 Visual imagery can interfere with visual perception Segal and Fusella 1970 asked participants to create a visual image then presented them with a physical stimulus and measured the reaction time of recognizing the physical stimulus The mental image interfered with people s ability to recognize the physical stimulus However imagining a sound while trying to recognize the stimulus had no interference When the real stimulus and the mental image are in the same sensory mode visual auditory etc interference occurs Mast and others 1999 asked to judge if a real stimuli of a line is exactly vertically oriented while having a mental image of a set of parallel narrow lines that they have rotated to make them diagonal Both set of lines similarly distorted the subjects judgments of the real line VI and Ambiguous Figures 0 When people try to create a mental image of something ambiguous they sometimes use analog codes and sometimes use propositional codes Reed 1974 tested people s ability to see if they can correctly decide whether a specific visual pattern was a part of a design they ve seen earlier Presented images and then presented them with another image may or may not be a part of the first image 14 right on the David s star 55 right on all stimuli hardly better than chance Reed proposed that people store images as descriptions propositional code Chambers and Reisberg 1985 gave image of duckrabbit removed the image then asked them to give a different interpretation of the image None could provide one they couldn t consult the stored mental image However when asked to draw the image then provide a different interpretation all subjects succeeded Easy to reverse a physical visual stimulus but difficult with mental images Suggests that in some cases proposition can dominate over analog codes o Verba labels are especially helpful with complex stimuli o Finke and others 1989 asked to combine two mental images People were able to form new interpretations with ambiguous stimuli Supported the idea that people can create images using both propositional and analog codes We use analog codes to produce picture like representations for mental images but when it is difficult to do so we use verbal representations VI and Other VisionLike Processes 0 Demand characteristics see above for definition o Some say that demand characteristics play a role in the analog experiments but many do not know the masking effect visual targets that are easier to see when surrounded by masking stimuli Explanations for VI o The Imagery Debate Analogical vs propositional Pylyshyn 2004 2005 agrees that people do use mental images but that they are not an essential central component Thinks that people would need a huge mental capacity to store all those images Emphasizes the differences between perceptual experiences and mental images 0 Referring to how people were unable to reinterpret the rabbitduck image Both may be partially right but so far the analog code explains most tasks and stimuli o Neuroscience Research Comparing Visual Imagery and Visual Perception Kosslyn and others 2010 concluded that visual imagery activates around 70 90 of the same brain regions as visual perception People with brain damage in the basic part of their visual cortex they have parallel problems with both perception and imagery Some cannot tell between the colors registered during visual perception and the visual mental imagery Visual areas of the brain are also active when imagining a walk and when asked questions about imagery Menta rotation activity of parietal lobe proportional to the angle of rotation Neuroscience research on the similarity between visual imagery and perception is especially persuasive because it avoids demand characteristics Individual Differences Gender Comparisons in Spatial Ability o Metaanalysis a statistical method for combining results multiple of studies on the same research area Generates an effect size or d D is close to zero when the results of multiple studies are similar so small to no differences o A meta analyses on verbal ability mathematics and spatial ability was done Verbal ability small gender differences Mathematics small gender differences Spatial ability only one meta analysis with large gender differences 4 small 3 moderate Spatial ability measured several different skills such as visualization small perception moderate and mental rotation large THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AUDITORY IMAGERY Al and Pitch O o lntonsPeterson from BrownPeterson amp Peterson technique did a study on how long it takes for people to travel the distance between two different auditory pitches Asked to imagine a sound cat purring then to switch to an image with a higher pitch slamming door and measured reaction time The distance between pitches proportional to reaction time Al and Timbre o Timbre the sound quality of the tone o Halpern and others 2004 study on auditory imagery for timbre of musical instruments Subjects Pitch a characteristic of sound on a scale from high to low were people who had at least 5 years of formal musical training Asked them to rate the similarity of timbres in two conditions perception gave actual instrument sounds and imagined gave instrument names High correlation between timber perception and imagery Cognitive representations for real and imagined timbres are quite similar COGNITIVE MAPS 0 Cognitive map mental representation of geographic information including the environment Background Information About Cognitive Maps 0 0 Spatial cognition refers to 3 cognitive activities thoughts about cognitive maps how we remember the world we navigate and how we keep track of objects in a spatial array Individual differences in spatial cognition skills are large the metacognition about your ability may be correct They are correlated with visuospatial sketchpad scores Spatial cognition scores are correlated with spatial task performance EX if you re good at mental rotation then you are good with maps Spatial skills can be improved Our cognitive maps include survey knowledge relationship among locations that we obtain directly through learning a map or exploring Theme 2 efficient and accurate also applies to cognitive maps Mistakes that we make with cognitive maps are understandable because they are systematic distortions of reality we tend to base ourjudgments on variables that are usually present also tend to judge our surroundings as more organized and orderly than it actually is Heuristic a general problem solving strategy that usually results in a correct solution CM and Distance o Distance Estimates and Number of intervening Cities Theordyke 1981 guesstimating the distance twothree cities When there are no intervening cities between two cities they look closer together When there are intervening cities between two target cities they look further apart o Distance Estimates and Category Membership Hirtle amp Mascolo 1986 made subjects learn locations on the map removed the map and then they were asked to estimate the distance between pairs of locations People tended to shift each pair of location closer to other locations that are in the same category Border bias when people estimate larger differences when the cities are on different sides of a geographic border compared to the cities on the same side of the border Friedman et al 20052006 asked college students from different countries America Canada Mexico to estimate the distance between various American cities 0 Border bias occurred Estimated larger differences with cities in different countries Mishra amp Mishra 2010 asked subjects to think about buying a vacation home in the mountains final choices ended up being Oregon or Washington then half of them were told about an earthquake that happened in Wells Oregon and the other half the earthquake in Wells Washington Control group present also no earthquake The earthquake was the same distance from both vacation homes 0 O O 0 Control decided 5050 Earthquake in Oregon group most chose Washington Earthquake in Washington group most chose Oregon Demonstrates a samecategory heuristic o Distance Estimates and Landmarks Landmark effect the general tendency to give shorter distances when travelling to important geographical locations landmarks CM and Shape o Angles 90 degree angle heuristic thinking that angles in a mental map are closer to 90 degrees o Curves Symmetry heuristic tendency to remember figures as being more regular and symmetrical than they actually are CM and Relative Position o We use heuristics with the relative positions in our mental maps They encourage two errors We remember a slightly tilted geographic structure as more vertical or horizontal than it actually is rotation heuristic We remember a series of geographic structures as being arranged in a straighter line than they really are alignment heuristic o The rotation heuristic only rotates one coastline o The alignment heuristic lines up several separate countries structures etc in a straight row Creating a Cognitive Map 0 Cognitive map mental representation of geographic information We actively create it to make relevant connections with the features of the scene 0 Franklin and Tversky s Research Gave a description of a visual scene with locations of five objects Then asked subjects to imagine themselves turning around to see a different object Then asked which object was positioned in each location Measured reaction time Rapid answers specifying above or below Took somewhat longer to say if it was ahead or behind Took even longer to say whether it was left or right People judged the vertical dimension more quickly than the other dimensions o The Spatial Framework Model emphasizes that the above beow spatial dimension is especially important front back dimension is moderately important and the right eft dimension is least important in our thinking The vertical dimension is important because It is correlated with gravity We know objects fall downwards not upwards which gives it a bit more importance The vertical dimension on an upright body is asymmetrical We are able to easily distinguish the top and bottom of the human body The front back dimension is the next most relevant because we usually interact with objects that are in front of us more easily than the objects farther away from us The right eft dimension doesn t have the asymmetry as the front back dimension We need additional processing time to make sure we don t confuse left and right because our hands are half symmetrical The Situated Cognition Approach we make use of helpful information in the immediate environmentsituation o Our knowledge depends on the surrounding context
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