Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Final Study Guide
Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Final Study Guide
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by Lillian Huebner on Friday June 6, 2014. The Bundle belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 198 views.
Reviews for Introduction to Biological Anthropology: Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 06/06/14
ANTH 270 Midterm Study Guide Weee One 1 Anthropology The eld of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology includes cultural anthropology archeology linguistics and physical anthropology 2 The Scientific Method 1 Hypothesis 2 Data collection 3 Test hypothesis 4 May become theory 3 Science 1 Young age of earth creationism 2 Fixity of species once created nothing changes 3 Geography stratigraphy 1 Catastrophism earth s geological landscape was shaped by violent events 2 Uniformitarianism the earth s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and greatly contributed to the concept of immense geological time 4 Evolution 1 Natural selection The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first described by Charles Darwin the term refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals 1 production of variation random selection of variation not random modification of what already exists species produce offspring faster than food resources increase biological variation in all species always struggle for existence competition possession of favorable variation is an advantage 2 Inheritance of acquired characteristics theory of use and disuse of parts animal tries to perfect itself used organs would be more developed increased development would be inherited by offspring 3 Evidence experimental dog breeding biogeographic animal distribution around the world geology amp paleontology fossils old earth comparative anatomy homologous traits vestigial structures comparative embryology 5 Reproductive Success The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age or an individual s genetic contribution to the next generation 6 People to Know 1 Nicolas Steno amp Wilham Strata Smith Stratigraphy 2 Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon external environment and living forms change is possible biogeography questioned young earth mentioned common ancestor 3 George Cuvier extinction still believed in fixity of species modern animals not related to extinct ones 4 Charles Lyell founder of modern geology Uniformitarianism old earth 5 Thomas Malthus Human population size cannot increase forever due to limited food source constant competition for food controls population sizes 6 Jean Baptiste Lemarck species evolved due to environment simple organisms evolved spontaneously but complex organisms evolved from simple ones inheritance of acquired characteristics 7 Charles Darwin natural selection theory of evolution common descent elimination of type theory mechanism for evolution 8 Alfred Russel Wallace co discoverer of natural selection discovered under malarial fever Weee Two 1 Genetics study of heredity and inheritance of traits from parents to offspring 1 Mendelian Genetics inheritance from one generation to the next 1 traits not blended offspring get traits from both parents some traits dominant or recessive 2 Cellular amp Molecular Genetics genetics at level of basic building blocks DNA 3 Population Genetics variation in observable traits and DNA level within populations 4 Phylogenetics evolutionary relationships through observable traits and DNA level 5 Behavioral Genetics genetics in uence on behavior 2 Recessive Describing a trait that isn39t expressed in heterozygotes it also refers to the allele that governs the trait For a recessive allele to be expressed an individual must have two copies of it ie the individual must be homozygous 3 Dominant In genetics describing a trait governed by an allele that39s expressed in the presence of another allele ie in heterozygotes Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes This is the definition of complete dominance 4 Homozygous Having the same allele at the same location on both members of a pair of chromosomes 5 Heterozygous Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes 6 Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Genotype usually refers to an organism39s genetic makeup or alleles at a particular locus 7 Phenotype The observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism the detectable expressions of genotypes frequently in uenced by environmental factors 8 Polygenic Referring to traits in uenced by genes at two or more loci Examples include stature skin color eye color and hair color Many polygenic traits are in uenced by environmental factors such as nutrition and exposure to sunlight 9 Sexual Dimorphism Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species For example humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size with males being taller on average than females of the same population Sexual dimorphism is very pronounced in many species such as gorillas 10 Geological time scale The organization of earth history into eras periods and epochs commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists 11 Epochs Categories of the geological time scale subdivisions of periods In the Cenozoic era epochs include the Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene and Pliocene from the Tertiary Period and the Pleistocene and Holocene from the Quaternary Period 12 Neocortex The more recently evolved portions of the cortex of the brain that are involved with higher mental function and composed of areas that integrate incoming information from different sensory organs 13 Placental A type subclass of mammal During the Cenozoic placentals became the most widespread and numerous mammals and today are represented by upward of 20 orders including the primates 14 Heterodont Having different kinds of teeth characteristic of mammals whose teeth consist of incisors canines premolars and molars 2 The Cell 1 basic building blocks of life eukaryote single cell prokaryote multi cell 2 cell membrane allows water molecules to pass through cytoplasm contains organelles nucleus 3 The Nucleus contains DNA 1 DNA double stranded helix James Watson amp Francis Crick universal code base pairs A G C T information storage and transfer DNA replicates itself 4 DNA Replication 1 Enzymes break bonds pull DNA strands apart 2 DNA is copies repaired with free oating nucleotides 3 Necessary for growth development cell repair 5 Mitosis 1 Only in somatic cells NOT seX cells 2 produces identical cells diploid 3 chromosomes duplicate 4 chromosomes join align and separate 5 cell divides into two cells 6 Meiosis 1 forms gametes sex cells 2 results in four gametes haploid 3 initial duplication 2 separations 4 recombination results gene Variation 7 Protein Synthesis 1 Transcription DNA separates attracts free oating nucleotides DNA code is copied mRNA carries DNA outside of nucleus 2 Translation copied DNA code is translated into groups of 3 mRNA bases codons codons specify which protein is made 3 Transfer RNA grabs amino acid that matches codon transfers to what is being translated carries to ribosomes ribosome joins amino acids together form polypeptide chains and proteins NLclaar pure F1 buor e gr Nuclear mweiupa p wusz es the base uracil U instazad Elf p Earl p Gimme lE3lL 5 W quot393397 hml umm quot9 according to the CO fQlquotllI E3DdD maitlnug 8 Mutation Ultimate source of all genetic variation Weee Three 1 Modern Synthesis merging of natural selection with genetics 2 Forces of evolution 1 Gene Flow Exchange of genes between populations migration sex to spread genes movement of individuals between populations 2 Genetic Drift Evolutionary changes or changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors in small populations Genetic drift is a result of small population size chance event causes difference in allele frequency massive death contradicts survival of the fittest survival may be unrelated to genotype 3 Bottleneck Effect significant part of population dies more likely to experience genetic drift 4 Founder Effect A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from larger populations or are remnants of the latter 3 Microevolution change in allele frequency between generations 4 Hardy Weinberg Principle HardyWeinberg Principle The original proportion of genotypes in a population remains constant if 39 population size is large 39 random rnating is occurring 39 no mutations 39 no genes are introduced or lost 39 no selection occurs means all genotypes can survive and reproduce equally vvell 5 Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium P 5U2 l32 2 3C q21 Where p the frequency of allele A q the frequency of allele a p2 the frequency of individual AA q2 the frequency of individual aa 2pq the frequency of individual Aa 6 Macroevolution evolution over a long period of time 7 Speciation new species arise over time species produce VIABLE offspring Cladogenesis 1 Allopatric Speciation speciation among populations living in two different ranges or territories Geographic isolation leads to reproductive isolation 2 Sympatric Speciation Species living in the same or overlapping ranges adapt to different ecological niches Anagenesis change in allele frequency in entire population without splitting continuous evolution into a descendent species gradual changes through natural selection gradualism no increase in diversity can be difficult to distinguish from extinction 8 Phylogenies 1 Phenetic eXplanation based on existing phenotypic traits 2 Cladistic eXplanation more concerned with genotypyes 9 Morphological species concept Morphological characteristics shared between individuals indicate interbreeding 10 Evolutionary species concept A species is a series of ancestor descendent populations passing through time and space independent of other populations each of which possesses its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate 11 Epigenetics Controls the way genes are expressed by controlling access methyl blocks acetyl initiates transcription 1 epigenetics and inheritance epigenetic tags reprogramming erased most genetic tags so that egg can develop into any type of cell Experiences of parents may affect offspring smoking Weee Four 1 Fossils provide direct evidence of organism existing several dating methods used must know exact location 2 Stratigraphy layers of strata geological age Laws of Stratigraphy 1 Original horizontality all rocks originally deposited horizontally 2 Lateral Continuity sedimentary rocks are laterally continuous over large areas 3 Superposition layers usurp each other as they are formed 4 Cross cutting Relations anything cutting across a stratum must have been formed after the stratum 5 Law of Inclusions rock fragments must be older than the rock containing the fragments 3 Taphonomy act of moving from biosphere living world to lithosphere rock Death Decay Remains BURIED bone replaced by minerals rock 4 Dating Fossils 1 Relative Dating something is older or younger than something else but not by how much 2 Absolute Dating chronometric gives an estimate in actual years 3 Combination paleomagnetism biostratigraphy 5 Geological Epochs 1 Paleocene 6555 MY Amillion years ago 2 Eocene 5533 MYA 3 Oligocene 3323 MY A 4 Miocene 23 53 MYA 5 Pliocene 53 25 MYA 6 Pleistocene 25 O1 MY A 7 Holocene 10 KYA thousand years ago present 6 Primates Members of the mammalian order Primates includes lemurs lorises tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Ku 39 a 39 39 I E V r I Tmmzrnanmic Il39I4Jr39I39 all Livil g Prim3595 Hirnuataa5 I I I I I Huplcrrhinuzxs I z Wuzwrld x lial WcnrIi Nmnikeyaiii Apes and IHumans Cabi39lleu CenCIIpiIl39IEcruiIlEi Haznmirmzhidecz ir i 5cuiles T fii ide I I E lemurtg IIernImidue Lcr39ies ILniIu mII Tgnrsier l lapucliins and ltin ICexi1ce Gilll lHl 39lDlE r id39 EI IemurIlheircgg iclI1e1l IT7 Iiig5 G I393IQ Iquot IIClEIE1 TE395iiIlIJlElI Sukia and kin Pi Il1e1inflUampil p E I Gr ffl EJ I S1 I39339F i Li1 EiI39I 393 lti39l39ll Ip D39jigIngn1IraiiIIgEII I Ilquotaquot39E 39If39I I39I39I5I 39 l5I39iIl TumurimII39CI1lliIrIl1IIIl fJeI CIl1iImpDIWNIBBI Picf lliD lF IQ gm lndriidggj I IIlgawller and S5idr mtnlw55 and kin I1Ei lequotJe 3 H mil ida H imInIal E39 tr Dld Wienrld Mmnkeya Cercupifhecisalme SEEurn1ilrCauml3niinsira SiIlaElnIn1ilj 39CvIerup5i i rl1aga ir1sE c I1IrigLIr5 uI lleu Frr1n 1lLe395 I33Ieragc1uJuasE 1Inge1n Guernqnsgvzltidg35 1 Archaic Primates suborder Plesiadapiformes Range approx 7030 MY A most from 6050 Distribution North America Europe Asia Body Size 20 g 5 kg Dental Formula 2 1 3 3 Families 1112 approx 120 species Plesiadaformes Features Long snout Small brain No postorbital bar strut around eye socket not fully enclosed Claws at the end of the digits Thumb and big toe not Very opposable in some species Ankle Some with nail on big toe only Some with grasping big toe Molar tooth morphology lIiddle ear maybe Large procumbent protrude horizontally more than Vertically incisors with a diastema space or gap between adjacent teeth in dental row Many dental specializations and highly reduced dental formulae All but Pmggaforiom had too few premolars to be ancestral to true primates 2 Euprimates Primates of modern aspect First appear in fossil record in earliest Eocene Adapiforms and Omomyoids 3 Eocene Climate 65 MY A 8 degrees C warmer than today Ice free poles Tropical forest at high altitudes Up to 52 MY A temperatures had increased now global cooling 33 MY A dramatic cooling Antarctic ice sheet appears 4 Strepsirrhini wet nosed Adapiformes Lemurs Range 56 approX 7 MY A Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa Body size 100 g 8 kg Dental formula 2 1 4 3 some reduced 3 families 34 genera 75 species Features Basically lemur like lack dental comb front teeth arranged in a way similar to a comb Some are diurnal Include many frugivores and folivores fruit and leaves One lineage probably represents the ancestors of modern Strepsirhines 5 Haplorrhini dry nosed Omomyoids Tarsiers Range 5523 MY A Distribution North America Europe Asia Africa Body Size 30 g 25 kg most under 300 g Dental Formula 2 1 4 3 many reduced 3 families 34 genera approx 70 species Features Most are smaller than adapiforms tarsier like but lack many tarsier specializations Small canines big incisors Some with euprimate ears some later forms with haplorhine like ears May be ancestral to haplorhines tarsiers or neither 395 33 Egsh U 6 u IJ Em KLI 01 cum mm a G LUJ ECU U1 ECU CIJ om may 96 LG 32 E G x 55 va ca as as 3 as 3 g gm E cn ac 2In gun Em mm EN Em I5 39539 Em Er our E 451 L I ll n U32 I5 Catarrhlni Strepslr niIni Anthropioidea Haiplurhilni Eu primates D M as 617 E7 033 Ti 31 375 E9 by Ea w 2 42 my as 93 6 9 is 3 63 ate go 9m E3 tn 8390 En men U1 9 F10 3ui Um Em Em EN gm 5quot Lim Era O3 39 E39 411 r E crb u39 I Cauta rrhl in i Strepsirhini Anthropoldea U M quotU quot1 39Ua39amp 6 CLI Em ow v39 mm cum E9 1 0396 1 9 2 131 Lu Eu qJ v9 Eu Eu Eu 5quotC1 jQ quot 313 CL 09 5 Equot W QI H 42 U Em Bm EN ED 5quot gm an own L n 39 OE E39quot nE u3939 I 39 Caata rrh in i Strepsirhini Antlhropoideai Haplorhini 1 Anthropod Origins The Fayum Egypt 3631 MY A 5 families 15 genera including anthropoids adapids omomyoids early catarrhines 2 Early Anthropoids Features Postorbital closure de nite anthropoid feature Tympanic ring similar to platyrhines Fused frontal bone feature shared by all anthropoids 3 Late Eocene Fayum Anthropoids Range 3633 MY A Distribution AfroArabia Body Size 0330 kg Dental Formula 2133 some 2123 3 families 12 genera 18 species Features Some have unfused mandible Some have prosimian teeth 3 Family Propliothecidae Range 3433 MY A Distribution Africa Body Size 47 kg Dental Formula 2123 2 genera 6 species Features Fused mandible Anthropoid teeth Earliest Catarrhines 4 Platyrhines First in South America approx 27 MY A simultaneous with caviomorph rodents Closest relatives in Africa 5 Pliopithecids Primitive sister catarrhine radiation in Europe and Asia 6 genera 17 species 2610 MYA SUMMARY a Plesiadapforms a major radiation in North America and Europe 6555 MY A a period of increasing global temperatures i Most are too derived to be ancestral to Euprimates As a group the sister taXon to primates Continent of origin UNICNOWN b Euprimates appear 55 MY A with Eocene global warming i Adapiforms are generally lemurlike and probably ancestors to strep sirhines wetnosed Omomyoids are small and tarsierlike and may be ancestral to haplorhines dry nosed just tarsiers or just anthropoids North American and European forms largely go extinct during late Eocene global cooling c lda nice transitional stage between Prosimians strepsirhines and Anthropoids haplorhines d De nite anthropoids at Fayum by 36 MY A i Had prosimian teeth but postorbital closure First catarrhines also present at the Fayum but about 33 MY A Platyrhine problem i Several older Asian forms may be more primitive anthropoids 1 Strepsirrhines Members of the primate suborder Strepsirhini which includes lemurs and lorises 2 Haplorhines Members of the primate suborder Haplorhini which includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans 3 Bilophodont Referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel row resembling ridges or quotlophsquot This trait is characteristic of Old World monkeys 4 Catarrhine Member of Catarrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini It contains the Old World monkeys apes and humans 5 Platyrrhines Members of Platyrrhini a parvorder of Primates one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorhini These include only the New World monkeys 6 Y 5 Molar Molar that has five cusps with grooves running between them forming a Y shape This is characteristic of hominoids 7 Zygomatics cheekbones Weee Five 1 The Comparative method By comparing similarities and differences between species we can get information When traits evolved did they evolve before or after common ancestor why they evolved how do niches of species with traits differ from without how likely they were to evolve analogous traits 2 Primate Trends Grasping hands and big feet opposable thumbs and big toes nails tactile pads Reliance on vision binocular stereoscopic color Reduction of olfaction decreased snout size decreased whisker number Generalized dentition generalized diet omnivorous Increased encephalization especially for memory thinking and learning Increased parental investment reduced litter size one offspring long gestation Primate life history trends Single offspring Extended Ontogeny prolonged life history Learning behavioral exibility 3 Why are primates social Disadvantages competition for food visibility to predators competition for mates risk of social tension and violence Advantages predator defense access to food mate access assistance in care of young defense of food 4 Primate social systems 1 In general primate social systems evolve based on food resources a Females group where food is b males group where females group 2 Semi Solitary N oyau a ie Orangutans and nocturnal strepsirhines 3 Single male polygyny one male multi female a Gorillas colobus monkeys howler monkeys 4 Multi maleMulti female groups a baboons and macaques 5 Fission Fusion a Type of multi malemulti female group b Chimpanzees spider monkeys 6 Monogamous pair bonded a Gibbons and tarsiers 7 Polyandry multi male one female a Marmosets and tamarins 8 Social Structure a Dominance rank system as norm b Dominance hierarchies i reduces actual violence gp males and or females c High rank i greater food access 0 q growth and survival PMo mate access 9 Type of social interaction a grooming b play c displays d aggression e cooperation f reproductive strategies i reproduction requires survival mating rearing offspring male vs female strategies 5 maximizing reproductive success 1 Males emphasize mating a rarely contribute to the cost of gestation so may father more offspring 2 Females emphasize rearing of offspring a once fertilized females will not increase reproductive success by repeated mating iv Male Strategies 1 Single Male groups a become dominant male b recruit new group c infanticide 2 Multi Male groups a monitor estrus cycles b friendship consortships c peripheral mating 1 Sexual Selection A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species It39s the result of competition for mates and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits 2 Polygynous Pertaining to polygyny A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female This is the most common mating pattern found in mammals including most primates 3 Polyandry A mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male usually two or three with whom she mates Among nonhuman primates polyandry is see only in marmosets and tamarins It also occurs in a few human societies 4 Encephalization The proportional size of the brain relative to some estimate of overall body size such as weight More precisely the term refers to increases in brain size beyond what would be expected given the body size of a particular species Weee Six a Hominin vs Hominid i split from African apes after ape human split hominid P5 split prior to ape human split hominin I bemmn hrm ar s and chimpanzess taking moiEcuI1an clc3cc EbDiL2 L5 Ma p TM39l39EilIi139lsis GBI39fILI39 F39ararI1hnmus H at tncanes mnd in Kmwa S Ma Z P rlzrimnaram P ruhustlhm I P bfmi i P J A H 0 il H wmestmrsils H J H j H a a a a Harm G quot1 ajI 5 ilc Er j i 1 Combined bipedal locomotion with small ape sized brains 2 Other ape characteristics include length and power of arms sexual dimorphism tool use not well developed thick molar enamel What makes a hominin 1 Bipedalism a foramen magnum valgus angle medio lateral pelvis arches adducted halluX lordosis and kyphosis 2 Climate a cooling temperatures lock water in glaciers decreases rainfall tropics begin to retreat and create a mosaic 3 Fossil Remains of Early Hominins oz Sc96am ampm z cyadeimk 1 Ape or human 7 MY A 2001 Michel Brunet iv 340360 cc cubic centimeters brain capacity V Features anterior foramen magnum neck muscles attached mosaic environment no post crania b O7 07z397z Zugeneyiy i Original man U Tugen Hills Kenya 2000 Senut and Pickford iv V Dated to between 61 and 58 MY A radiometric volcanic dating faunal correlation magnetostratigraphy Features thick molar enamel like other hominins includes post crania angle of femoral neck suggests parttime bipedalism may be direct ancestor femur more closely resembles human than that of Australopithecines Remains from at least 5 individuals 6 Am z39bz39z yew mmzdm i iv V 1992 Afar and Awash regions of Ethiopia 5844 MY A Pollen analysis suggests woodlands or forest Features same size as modern chimpanzees toe morphology foramen magnum and humerus suggest biped on ground thin enamel large canines prognathism Female 47 inches tall 110 pounds 44 MY A 300350 cc brain capacity a KeigmiJropmp43op i iv Lake Turkana site 1999 3532 MY A Classification K p0230295 A p023opsquot A cyz7emz39v Difficult to assess e The Australopithecines Southern Apes gt4 MY Aapprox 1 MY A i Gracile older 7 A9Jimopif9ecz7 e oy zremzlv 3930 MY A a Ethiopia and Tanzania Lucy b 70 individuals at 6 sites in East Africa c Features relatively large canines slight sectoral p3 thick enamel 420 cc post crania indicates constant bipedalism partly arboreal 2 A9Jimopif9ecz7 e oyfrzkam5 324 MY A a South Africa Taung child and Mrs Ples b 4 sites in southern Africa c Arms slightly longer than legs Robust younger 7 Pozmm ympm boiyei 2213 MY A 2 Pozmm ampm rob52 J 21 MY A f A9Jimopiz 96695 239 Habitual bipedalism relatively long arms arboreal adaptations Valgus Angle I ll11391391 iI1 1 a39f3i H u iI39 i Small brain 350 5OO cc prognathic face cranial crests U shaped dental arcade canine reduced but still large large molars small bodied retention of arboreal adaptations pronounced sexual dimorphism primarily vegetarian hunted not hunter limited tools and culture limited population size and distribution 8 Behavior Ranged throughout southern and eastern Africa lived in environments rich in grasses woodlands forests savannah mosaic fruits leaves nuts or grains and tubers tool use Polygynous meat eaters 1 A d d ie fif 1 78 fossils from two sites in Kenya 2 4239 MY A 3 Features thick enamel large canines slight sectoral p3 sexually dimorphic 29 A yedika 1 195178 MYA South Africa 2 Transitional species 52 H0720 like canines A9Jim0pz39Zyew like cusps b Paranthropus Robust Grncillei i Robert Broom 1938 schoolboy found skull in Kromdraai South Africa 2 71 years old 3 publish only part of what you know 4 staged discoveries 5 based on skull excavated Swartkrans with TNT C Pczmm aropm 1 sometimes referred to as robust australopithecus 2 suite of adaptations for heavy molar chewing distinguishes from austra 3 descended from atyfraopz ieczJ Features large thick enameled molars and premolars prominent sagittal crest in males wide anteriorly positioned zygomatic arches producing dished face usually in males marked postorbital constriction 5 Chewing muscles a Temporomandibular joint w acts as fulcrum b posterior temporalis muscle is most effective on incisors c anterior temporalis and masseter on molars 6 Pcmzm aropm defaiopzmy a Arambourg and Coppens 1968 b Least well known c Range 2622 MYA d Distribution East Africa Omo Ethiopia West Turkana Kenya Cranial capacity 410 cc only one specimen Features mix of Amz m0pz39z yew cmd Parambropm large anterior dentition prognathic face large sagittal crest both anterior and posterior more nuchal crest smaller brain than other Paranthropines missing link between A and P 7 Pczmm ampm rob52 J a Broom 1938 Range 2010 MYA c Distribution South Africa Swartkrans Kromdraai Coopers Drimolen South Africa d Cranial capacity 530 cc one specimen Body size 3240 kg males 433 ft females 35 ft Features anterior dentition reduced cheek teeth large with thick enamel anteriorly positioned sagittal crest in males but not females wide deep anterior zygomatic arches extreme postorbital constriction orthognathic dished and deep face 8 Pczmm ampm boisei a Leakey 1959 Range 22 14 MYA c Distribution East Africa Konso Omo Ethiopia West Turkana Koobi Fora Kenya Peninj Olduvai Tanzania Malemba Malawi d Cranial capacity 475545 cc 6 specimen average 514 Body size 3449 kg males 45 ft females 4 ft Features cheek teeth larger than P robustus more thickly enameled anterior teeth smaller than humans anteriorly positioned sagittal crest in males very wide deep zygomatic arches extreme postorbital constriction 9 P rob Jim M P bozlvei a share several features to the exclusion of P aethiopicus i orthognathic face reduced anterior dentition loss of nuchal and posterior sagittal crests b likely descended from P aethiopicus 2 Homoplasy independent appearance of a trait in 2 or more lines of descent not from common ancestor a because human ancestors are so closely related they could have evolved similar traits in response to similar environments b Pczmm Jmpz397 ev share several similar traits related to heavy chewing have some traits in common with early Homo c most believe gracile A9JimopifJecz7 e that led to Homo while Pozmm 970pz39mv formed a terminal branch d Homoplasy must be considered 3 Cladistic analysis a b C d C Weee Ezht39 Wilh Hennig Traits and species must be clearly de ned must understand functional meaning of trait follow the sequence of change of a trait arrange species from most primitive to most derived Homo habilis and Homo erectus 1 Homo habilis 0909 1quot Range 2415 MYA Distribution East and South Africa Cranial capacity 509752 cc Body size 3252 kg 4 3 Features cheek teeth smaller more narrow in proportion esp premolars large brained more globular braincase with thicker vault bones more orthognathic similar to A9JimopifJami overall postcranial proportions comparable to Austra well developed arch big toe is stout and in line with others 2 Homo rudolfensis 0909 1quot Found near lake Turkana Kenya 1972 Range 2416 MYA Height malefemale 4 9 Weight male132 lb female112 lb 781 cc cranial capacity Features at face no brow ridge large palate no sagittal crest more Australopith foot 3 Oldowan tools 21 b C d associated with Homo habilis named for the Olduvai gorge Range 2615 MY A East north and south Africa hard hammer technique used akes 4 Homo erectus a b 0 9 Range 25 O2 lYA Distribution north east south africa asia europe Cranial capacity 6121250 cc increases over time Body size smaller end of modern variation Features thick cranial bone low forehead widest at base pronounced nuchal torus prominent brow ridges sagittal keel 2530 increase in cranial capacity sloping frontal bone less prognathic face than habilis teeth smaller than habilis supraorbital sulcas pencil test 5 Zhoukoudian life a hunter gatherers killed deer and horses gathered nuts berries eggs b Brain size and intelligence i no relationships between brain size and intelligence in modern humans Important organization connectivity grey matter Increased brain sizenerve tissue is more expensive than others 8 of body weight 2030 metabolic rate devoted to brain function requires higher caloric diet 6 Acheulean technology a associated with erectus and later hominins named for St Acheul France 16 25 MY A Weee N ine Neanderthals and Sapiens 7 Homo Jeidekeiggemzlv a transitional hominid between erectus and sapien 2 Homo ma derz Jaemzb a Range 400000 30000 BP Distribution Western Europe Middle East c Feature low forehead occipital bun arching supra orbital tori post orbital constriction no chin heavy dense bone d Males 5 5 Females 5 1 Brain size over 1400cc Comparison to sapien curved and thickwalled ram I femur 5hI FI paia 3 liiv Large and thick patella lquotr 39 rxl K ll II I 39 I 395hjr attened and 1U w1Il3d4 I f Tibia Ill 39rrIIJrm I I N I II I I it Taraals P Large MIME JOIN M au als Wide and 5crcrng me bcant5 V 9 Neanderiai Modern Hmno nupiem 1 Neanderthal culture a Burial Iraq b Tools i Mousterian 1 usually made of int points scrapers hand aXes 2 3 Lavallois technique 4 made by neanderthals and sapiens c Fate joined by sapiens 2 H0720 mpz m mpz m a de ned morphologically not behaviorally cranium teeth chin brain capacity time line c Features high rounded forehead pronounced chin thin cranial bone reduced browridges 3 Collective learning a about 100000 years ago the pace of change began to increase Evidence appears from about that time of humans living in east central and southern Africa They were making more advanced and varied tools experimenting with decoration and abstract symbols and trading b Tools began to be made of bone made decorations with symbolic meaning c creation of art specialized tool ber decorate clothing make jewelery semi permanent structures needles painting 4 llitochondrial Eve a samples showed low variation highest variation in Africa 5 lnterbreeding a sapiens with neanderthals b The Denisovans c mystery African species d speciation is far more messy than fossil record eludes to Weee Ten Human Variation and Adaptation 1 Why does variation eXist in humans a microevolutionary processes i gene ow genetic drift sexual selection 2 Describing human variation a traditionally race b means species nationality religion identity ethnic cultural group 3 Historical meaning of race a Linneaus first systematic and scientific attempt at human classification i Homo sapiens afer Africans V H s americanus Native Americans Hs asiaticus Asians 0 Hs europaeus Europeans iv Hs ferus Wild Men and Hs monstrous V Based on head shape skin color geography and perceived intelligence vi Classical Races Blumenbach 1 Caucasoid 2 Negroid 3 Mongoloid 4 American Indian 5 Australoid vii Emphasis on measurement and empirical investigation of differences 1 Anthropometry craniometry 2 Cephalic indeX thought to be precise scientific technique for classifying humans viii Emphasized fiXity of differences and hierarchy of worth ranking 1 Context of colonialism scientific racism ix Eugenics 1 philosophy of race improvement selective breeding can improve human species a Nazi pseudoscience ideal of racial purity 4 How do we describe variation within a species a Biologists use population b Sub species i must be geographically distinct have discrete variation be genetically distinct c Human variation is not consistent with sub species level differences 5 Problem with concept of race in phenotypical differences a choice of traits is arbitrary b environment affects differences c most outward traits polygenic d most traits used for classification display continuous change 6 Social implications of racial categories a miscegenation laws until 1967 b Landownership c emergency act of 1921 7 Race and Health a health problems b overemphasis on racial causes c can affect treatment 8 Biological Variation a classification orders nature b adaptationchanges to surmount challenges i cultural and behavioral pNo cold adaptation doesn t solve but helps o Multiple levels of human biological adaptation 1 functional adaptations a single generation acclimatization b adaptability 2 genetic adaptation a natural selection adaptation b over many generations difficult to measure evolutionary change adaptation to thermal stress 3 Skin color is continuous trait a very dark to very light b darker skin closer to equator Bergmann s Rule Body size within species larger at low temperatures Allen s Rule appendages within a species shorter at low temps Types of Functional Adaptations 1 Acclimatization short term reversible Are we still evolving Evolution allele frequencies selection natural seXual kin gene ow mutation Disease Outbreaks Pandemics large spread of disease global plague Endemics infection is maintained malaria Epidemics HIV AID S Helpful tip After the midterm most of the material was learned through LABS
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'