Anthropology Additional Notes for Unit II
Anthropology Additional Notes for Unit II 102
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Maternal fetal incompatibility A and B cancel each other out that is why native Americans are only O Type two diabetes is extremely common in most cultures today because we are not designed to consume so many calories. Diabetes and obesity are adaptive advantages Rhesus Factor- RH factor is dangerous for babies, no diseases associated with it, RH- females are more likely to give birth to fat babies, the medical data suggest that babies with diabetic mothers are born fatter which in some cases is an adaptive advantage during times of famine and malnutrition; discovered from Rhesus monkeys; what adaptive advantage? Associated with pregnancy type 2 diabetes (give birth to big babies) off-sets famine environment; maternal-fetal incompatibility is a high price to pay for this adaptive advantage Polar T3 complex- stay warm when you’re cold, more efficient than shivering because shivering is exhausting, only kicks in when you’re eating a low protein diet, selective advantage for a hormone that produces body heat without causing physical fatigue; increases metabolic rate; Inuits have a genetic mutation that allows them to constantly produce this protein 6. It doesn’t make sense that AB continues to exist when they produce antibodies against each other, mother will create antibodies against the baby, there must be an adaptive advantage, no sense that ABO exist if mothers create antibodies that target and kill fetuses, maternal-fetal incompatibility, makes no sense unless it is being selected for; given the incompatibility AB should be extinct, something is keeping AB in the population; ABO stay in the human lineage because they provide protection against epidemic diseases; it is necessary that it stays in the population despite the high cost Natural penicillin, ABO, someone will always survive as long as different alleles are around, which is why Native Americans are susceptible to diseases Bushmen- the real aborigines of South Africa Negritos- Asian equivalent of African Pigmies (they have a mutation that impairs production of growth hormone), humid heat stress accounts for body type, forest/jungle Bergmen and Allen- spidery bodies, dry heat, Australian aborigines, TROPICAL (this name does not make sense but whatevs) body build is the savannah/desert adapted body type Asthma and allergies- disease of modern life, adaptive advantages, the system that generates an allergic response is different from a disease or bacterial response, “cannon to kill a fly”, allergies are common today because we are in an environment in which we are no longer normal so our bodies respond dramatically Goiter- condition due to the lack of dietary iodine, causes thyroid to enlarge, can cause arthritis and mental deficiency, certain foods can inhibit the absorption of iodine, tasters can avoid foods that inhibit iodine absorption (PTC tasting)- the fussy eater hypothesis Zoonoses- disease we have acquired from domesticated animals; prime mover of natural selection Haplogroups and Haplotypes- mutation in junk DNA; specific mutation that characterizes an ethnic group; point mutations Parasites- a foreign invader; “shooting a fly with a cannon”; human body is designed to fight against parasites therefore the immune system responds dramatically (allergic reactions); not in our ecological niche anymore 8. nasal shape- related to humidity and heat (two different things); purpose of nose is primarily to humidify the air; environment determines nasal shape lactose intolerance- normal human condition; designed to not drink mother’s milk after a certain age; we not longer have the enzyme to break down the sugar in milk; populations that have the longest history of cattle keeping have higher lactose tolerance cystic fibrosis- inherited disease; two allele disease; produce too much mucus; drown in their own bodily fluids; why are there so many carriers? It is advantageous because bacteria can not stick to you and make you sick 9. modern life does not reflect our ideal ecological niche; type II diabetes a selective advantage for an environment that food is “scarce”; therefore, in our modern environment, consuming too much sugars has consequences; we are designed to to eat unpredictably and store extra food as fat hypertension result of too much salt consumption, being able to retain salt is an adaptive advantage in a hot dry environment Monge’s Disease- high altitude condition; acclimatize (what a child can do) vs acclimate (what an adult can do) Mitocondrial DNA- controls cell death, metabolism, and holds junk DNA, matrilineal Y chromosome- only mapped chromosomes along with mitochondrial chromosomes Lactose Intolerance Sugars in the milk can not be digested In order for lactose to be absorbable by the body it need s to be broken down in to smaller components(glucose) Populations that are milk “herders” have a selective advantage when it comes to lactose tolerance Hypertension- high blood pressure, excessive pressure strains blood vessels, damages blood vessel walls, stress kidneys leading to kidney failure, clotting more likely; the primary cause of hypertension is too much salt African Americans seem to have a pre-disposition, due to higher blood pressure, higher sodium retention, African populations are equatorial, so in order to stay cool you must be able to sweat efficiently, meaning stay cool but not dehydrate. Physiological adaptation to heat stress, retention of salt Diabetes- not designed to retain body fat Type II Diabetes Diabetes predisposes to obesity Modern peoples eat more refined carbohydrates and burn far fewer calories Needed to be able to metabolize food slowly, to go longer between meals 1962 J V Neel proposed the “thrifty” genotype model to explain why diabetes occurs at such high frequencies in some populations when calories burned is greater than the intake, energy in the blood stream is available for longer periods Thyroid- one of the largest endocrine glands in the body, controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones, a consequence of iodine deficiency, associated with mental retardation cretinism, ADHD 13 points lower on IQ tests, joint stiffness, lethargy; iodine is used in the production of hormones by the thyroid gland, regulates the conversion of fat to energy stabilizing our body weight, found in dairy products and proteins Phenylthiocarbamide- the ability to taste the thiocyanates PTC tasting- substance is part of a chemical which blocks iodine absorption The fussy eater hypothesis- we are hardwired to avoid foods that inhibit iodine absorption Allergies and Asthma Adaptive Allergens trigger excessive immune response Immune system role: Detect and destroy ‘non-self’ Create protective proteins called antibodies- specifically targeted against particular foreign substances 1. Antitoxin theory a. Allergens associated with or produce chemical toxins b. Initial exposure- arms immune system c. Subsequent exposure- massive response 2. ‘too clean’ theory a. our immune system is set up to expect some level of bacteria; when our immune system no longer expects bacteria the result is an unbalanced system prone to allergy b. is true but not for allergies 3. parasite immunity theory a. Iowa- Dr. Joel Weinstock i. Crohn’s disease- inflammatory bowel disease, auto immune disease ii. Gave patients disease- controlled helmenth infestation- within a few weeks most became asymptomatic b. Two basic types of parasites i. Helminthes or intestinal nematodes ii. Protozoa HOW WE ACCLIMATE Dry Heat Stress Genetic adaptations Certain ethnic groups 1. Bergman and Allen Limb a. Proportions i. Long arms and legs, elongated torso 2. Reduce sweat less- to avoid dehydration a. True of east Africans, aborigines, and African Americans b. African Americans genetically retain salt because they have a heat-stress adapted physique. They retain salt to keep from losing it during the process of perspiration. Not good in America where diet is high in salt. Humid Heat Stress Sweating is ineffective Solution- don’t get over heated Generate little body heat by having a little body Aborigines of the tropical forest are Pygmies (Africa) and Negritos (southeast Asia and Australia) Cold Stress Consequences of cold stress: hypothermia and frost bite Two kinds of cols stress: 1. Moderate- above freezing 2. Severe- below freezing Essential in cold stress- clothing, shelter, external sources of heat (the body has its limits) The physiological responses humans have when dealing with cold stress: Acclimate/acclimatize 1. Vasoconstriction a. In moderate cold stress, reroutes the blood to the body core to keep it warm and prevent hypothermia 2. Vasodilation a. In severe cold stress, allows blood to flow to the extremities b. In extreme cold stress and the danger is frost bite 3. Counter-current 4. Shivering a. Increases metabolic rate 5. Non-shivering thermogenesis a. Hormones, adrenaline 6. Fat deposition a. Insulation, requires high calorie diet Surface Area- Bergman and Allen- short limbs and round deep chests retain heat better Physiological response: Bergman/Allen- body form- genetic Metabolic rate- 13-45% higher than Europeans, high protein diet Vasodilation o More vascularized o More RBCs o Higher plasma volume o More globulins Body Fat o Stored fat, brown fat (body core) o High metabolic rate but they store brown fat o They benefit more from subcutaneous fat and burn brown fat instead Non-shivering thermogenesis o Polar T3 Syndrome Hormone- thyroxine (thyroid) Stimulates production of brown fat (body core fat) Burned as fuel in Europeans but is not burned by Inuits Suppressed by high protein diet and a high metabolic rate Inuit condition is that they are constantly producing the hormone HIGH ALTITUDE STRESS Hypoxia (lack of oxygen) There are no cultural buffers for hypoxia prior to the 20 century Symptoms Sleepiness, impaired judgment, tremors, increased heart rate, blood pressure decreases Acute Mountain Sickness (Soroche) Nausea, fatigue, dizziness, chest pains, heart palpitations Chronic Mountain Sickness (Monges disease) Acclimating to Hypoxia (days to months of exposure) 1. Pulmonory Ventilation a. Hyperventilate, get more O2 in lungs b. Consequence: respiratory alkalosis blood pH increases and never returns to 7.4 2. Hemoglobin-oxygen affinity a. Hemoglobin loses oxygen affinity at high altitude but, increased alkalinity of blood fixes that b. Has you go higher up your hemoglobin loses the abilty to sick to oxygen molecules 3. Oxygen transport in blood a. Increase in RBC production to capture oxygen molecules b. Plasma level stays the same i. Consequence: blood gets more viscous and heart must work harder 4. Result: increased oxygen carrying capacity ACCLIMATIZE Acclimatization to Hypoxia 1. Larger lung volume a. More surface area 2. Increased pulmonary diffusion Some people are biologically adapted to high altitude High altitude patterns- Andes mountains Barrel chest Hypoxia- oxygen deprivation Medical consequences- Saroche and Monge’s disease Acclimate- what adults can do, acclimatize what kids can do World DNA Two sources of DNA information 1. Mitochondrial DNA- maternal inheritance 2. Nuclear DNA- uses DNA from the Y chromosome, paternal inheritance Haplogroup- mutation that defines a lineage, specific mutation on non-coding DNA which defines a lineage Premises of DNA testing that are problematic: 1. Mutations only happen once- they don’t 2. They don’t back mutate- yes it does 3. Mutations are junk DNA- not necessarily true 4. Mutations occur at a regular frequency- may speed up or slow down, can not predict mutations 5. Generations are 20 years- not necessarily true You can trace sequences but it may not be accurate without archaeological proof Not many aboriginal populations Mots populations are “genetic mutts” Bushman- oldest lineage, have been genetically isolated mtDNA Female lineages Both the mtDNA and y-DNA show that we originate from Africa We are all Asiatic Bushman have the deepest lineage- isolation Pygmies also have deep routes Population boom- bantu expansion, complications reconstruction of MOTHER ASIA If you are not of African origin, then you are Asiatic Sundaland- land mass now mostly submerged in the ocean South Asia- Cross road of DNA Complex political history Cradle of civilization: Indus Valley Caste system Tribal peoples Ainu- deep haplotype= DE Corroborates archaeological evidence for 12000 year east Asian existence (Jomon culture) Modern Japanese (Yayoi) are a hybrid of Ainu and mainland Asia INDIAN SUBCONTINENT east-west DNA highway the fulcrum of Asia DNA suggests the the people of north India migrated from the middle east Negritos- aborigines of the tropical forest, southeast asia Conclusions DNA has a very broad east-west distribution iwht a blurred area indetween Central Asia is a tangled genetic complex South was the cross roads North is and was sparsely occupied- would not take much to swamp the gene pool Ainu are the aboriginal people (Jomon culture 10000 to 300 BC) 300 BC the Japanese (yayooi) came from Korean peninsula Negritos are the aboriginal southeast asia India possesses india-unique DNA haplotypes that are arguably between 40- 60 kya Australian aborigines- long isolation European haplotypes are very recent All of us are of Africa decent Africans still in Africa reflect the past demographics from when the first people left the continent Few peoples in Asia that are not mixed- reflect genetic diversity that is very few, almost gone
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