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Ch 5-10 Notes

by: Chase Boots

Ch 5-10 Notes ASI 320

Chase Boots

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Principles of feeding
James Lattimier
ASI 320
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This 57 page Bundle was uploaded by Chase Boots on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ASI 320 at Kansas State University taught by James Lattimier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Principles of feeding in Animal Science and Zoology at Kansas State University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
ASI 320 2/9/2016 UNIT 5 – MINERAL AND VITAMIN NUTRITION UNIT 5 – MINERAL AND VITAMIN NUTRITION ▯ Student Objectives: • Identify minerals and vitamins into their correct classification ‒ Macro vs. micro minerals; Fat vs. water soluble vitamins • Understand how to formulate a diet differently for breeding vs. market animals? • Understand how phytate-phosphorus in feed ingredients influences ruminant and non-ruminantnutrition • Understand Ca:P ratio differences between species • minerals difference between chelated and inorganic sources of • Know why dietary fat and water solublevitamin additions are different • Know what impacts vitamin stability • Understand issues associated with vitamin stability in feedstuffs • Know how vitamin intake by animals is typically managed by nutritionists Minerals ▯ Minerals are ___________ elements essential for normal metabolic function • _________ metabolism • __________ metabolism • Osmotic and pH Balance ▯ All mineral elements must be consumed in the diet – ________ can be _____________by the body ▯ Subdivided into categories based on the magnitude of the body’s requirement • _____-minerals– requirementsexpressed as % of the diet • _____-minerals(a.k.a. trace minerals) – requirementsare expressed as parts per million(ppm)of the diet J.M. Lattimer 1 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Macro-Minerals ▯ Calcium Ca ▯ Phosphorus P ▯ Sodium Na ▯ Chlorine Cl ▯ Potassium K ▯ Magnesium Mg ▯ Sulfur S Calcium (Ca) ▯ Distribution • 99% of Ca is in the _________ and teeth • 1% of Ca is in the soft tissues (blood, muscle, etc.) ▯ Most exists in complex with phosphorus (2:1 ratio) in the form of hydroxyapatitecrystals ▯ Functionsof calcium • Formation of _______ matrix (i.e., hydroxyapatite) • Muscle ____________andrelaxation • Blood clotting Phosphorus (P) ▯ Distribution • 80% of P is in the skeleton • 20% of P is in soft tissues ▯ Severe deficiency results in _______abnormalities ▯ Functions of phosphorus • Formation of bone matrix (i.e., hydroxyapatite) • Component of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) – necessary for cellular __________-yielding reactions • Component of nucleic acids and enzymes J.M. Lattimer 2 ASI 320 2/9/2016 When are Ca and P levels most important? ▯ Periods of Rapid ____________ • Majority of bone growth occurs early in life ▯ Gestation and _____________ • Elevated mineral requirement of milk production • Ca and P deficiencyresults in weak or non- ambulatory females ▯ Dietary Ca and P levels depend on goals: • Market animals vs. breedinganimals • Environmentalconcerns Effects of Increasing Ca and P on Pig Performance Ca and P Level Low Medium High ADG, lbs 1.85 2.07 2.05 Ash, % 63 65 67 Breaking strength, lbs 290 380 415 Ca:P Ratios ▯ Pigs, Dogs • ______:1 Ca:P ratio is targeted • At extreme ratios(i.e., > 2:1) Ca interferes withabsorptionof other mineralsanddecreases feed intake • Large/giantbreed dogs more sensitive to excessive Ca ▯ Horses • ______:1to 2:1 is targeted • Can handleup to 3:1 withoutany ill effects ▯ Poultry • 2:1 is idealfor meat birds • 4:1 for laying hens ▯ Cats • Safe range0.5:1 to 1.5:1 J.M. Lattimer 3 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Ca:P Ratios ▯ Ruminants • Generallya _____ Ca:P ratio is targeted • At extreme ratios (i.e., <1:1) steers are at risk for urinary calculi (a.k.a. waterbelly) ▯ Regardless of the species • Diets are formulated to Ca and P mins first and the corrected for the ratio Ca and P in Diet Formulation ▯ Forages are relatively _______ in Ca • Forage-fedruminantsrequire little or no supplemental Ca ▯ Grains are relatively ______ in Ca • Limestone is usually addedto grain-baseddiets ▯ Forages are relatively low in P • Worldwide,P is the most frequently deficient mineral ▯ Most grains are relatively high in P • Only ________ of P in grainsis availableto monogastrics • The other2/3 is in the form of phytate phosphorus(phytate-P) Common Ca and P Sources Ca P • ______________ • Mono-or Dicalcium • Calciumcarbonate phosphate • Di- or TricalciumphosphateAmmoniumPhosphate • Bone • Sodiumtripolyphoshate J.M. Lattimer 4 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Phytate-P Digestibility ▯ Monogastrics • Do not have the necessary enzyme to breakdown phytate- P • A syntheticform of ______ can be addedto swine and poultrydiets • Swine/Poultry - Requirementsfor P are expressed as __________ P and not total P • Horses - Requirementsfor P are expressed as _________ P ▯ Ruminants • Ruminal____________producethe enzyme called phytase • Phytase breaks downphytate-P and releases P for absorption Effects of Phytase on P Balance in Finishing Pigs P intake P excretion P retention 12 10 8 6 4 Ph2sphorus, g/d 0 0.3% P + Phytase 0.4% P University of Kentucky, 1997 Phosphorus Intakes of Yearling NRC Cattle Industry Requirement Average 6 5 4 3 ADG, lbs 2 1 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Phosphorus Intake, g/d Erickson et al., 1999 J.M. Lattimer 5 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Phosphorus in Cattle Diets ▯ Phosphorusis typically _______ in beef and dairy diets • Commoningredients(i.e., grainsand byproducts)can be very high in P • Peoplealso add a margin of safety to their diets ▯ This results in __________lbsof excess P excretion in manure per animal per year ▯ Reduction in dietary levels could benefit the _____________and reduce certain difficulties with waste management Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), and Chlorine (Cl) ▯ ____________that help maintain osmotic pressure and acid-base balance ▯ Deficiencies of K and Cl are rare ▯ Deficiencies of Na are ___________– depressed feed result, depressed growth, and depraved appetite • Addedto livestock diets in the form of NaCl (salt) • Inclusionof 5 to 10 lbsof salt per ton in completefeeds is normal • Free-choicesalt needsto be continuallyavailableto grazinglivestock Magnesium (Mg) ▯ More than _______ mammalian enzyme systems are activated by Mg • Many are associated with ____________metabolism ▯ Generally not limiting in concentrate-based livestock diets because most protein sources and cereal grains are excellent sources of Mg ▯ Cattle grazing on cultivated, lush, spring grasses can develop ___________ ____________ • Characterizedby muscle rigor or ___________ • Caused by ______________Mgand Na and elevated K • Preventioncan be difficult becausethe most economical source of Mg (Mg Oxide)is _________,making voluntary consumptionlow J.M. Lattimer 6 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Trace Minerals ▯ Cobalt Co ▯ Iodine I ▯ Zinc Zn ▯ Iron Fe ▯ Copper Cu ▯ Manganese Mn ▯ Selenium Se Trace Mineral Premixes ▯ Monogastrics ▯ Common sources • Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, I, and • ManganeseOxide • Inclusion rates of 1.5 to 3.0 lbs per ton • Iron oxide • Zinc oxide ▯ Ruminants • Copper sulfate • Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Se, • PotassiumIodide Co • Sodiumselenite • Inclusion rates of 1.5 to 3.0 lbs per ton Trace Minerals ▯ Some minerals have been shown to have growth promotional properties when fed at __________________ concentrations in pigs ▯ Zinc • Requirement 50ppm • Growth promotion 3,000ppm ‒ Weaning to 25lbs of BW only - Improves ADG 5-7% ▯ Copper • Requirement 10ppm • Growth promotion 250ppm ‒ 25 to 150lbsof BW – Improves F:G 2-3% J.M. Lattimer 7 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Trace-mineral Sources ▯ Trace minerals can be provided in several forms: • Sulfates– inorganic,high relative bioavailability • Oxides – inorganic,low relative bioavailability • ___________–organic, high relative bioavailability ▯ The choice of one over anotheris driven by cost and the speed with which mineral status of the animal must be changed Chelated Trace Minerals ▯ Chelated (a.k.a__________) traceminerals are those bound to an organic molecule – often an _____________________ Zinc Methionine ▯ They are distinct from traditionalmineralsources in whichthe trace mineralof interest is bound to an inorganic salt (e.g., sulfate or oxide ions) ▯ Chelated mineral sources are reportedly absorbed and metabolizedwith 300 to 500% ___________ efficiencythan inorganic mineralsources (Marston et al., 1999) ▯ Controversy exists as to the _____________ significanceof this claim(MacPherson, 2001) Vitamins ▯ Ofrom water, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and mineralct matter ▯ Present in minute amounts ▯ Essential for normal metabolism in animals and consequently required for normal growth, development, maintenance, and reproduction ▯ Most are _______ synthesized by the animal in sufficient amounts to meet metabolic needs and therefore deficiency symptoms occur if they are deficient in the diet ▯ Generally function as ______________ cofactors J.M. Lattimer 8 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Fat-Soluble Vitamins ▯ Stored in adiposetissue ▯ Daily intake is not necessary ▯ _____________can be a problem ▯ Vitamins _____, _____, ______, and K Water-soluble Vitamins ▯ Chemically unrelated to fat-soluble vitamins ▯ Not stored in the body ▯ Best if consumed ___________ ▯ Toxicity is ________ ▯ Vitamin B • B vitamins: biotin, choline, folacin, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin,thiamin, pyrido6ine(B ), and cyanoc12alamin(B ) • Non-ruminants– B vitamins are ___________ • ____________ activities in the gutquirements through ▯ Vitamin C • Ascorbicacid (vitamin C) • Non-primate animals do not require supplemental vitamin C Vitamin Stability ▯ potency with each __________ of storage0%) of their ▯ Vitamin stability and potency decrease with: • Storage • Sunlight • Humidity • Exposure to trace minerals • Thermal processing of diets ▯ Vitamin availability from stored feedstuffs is low ▯ Requirements of ____________ animals are met entirely through vitamin supplements (i.e., premixes) J.M. Lattimer 9 ASI 320 2/9/2016 Factors Affecting Vitamin Intake by Animals ▯ Vitamin content of stored feedstuffs and forages is usually ____________ by diet formulators • Variationin vitaminconcentration • Variationin bioavailabilityof vitamins • Vitaminlosses duringstorage andfeed processing • Use of a limitednumberof feed ingredients ▯ Most nutritionists will meet vitamin requirements of animals using ____________only ▯ Inventory control must be strict • The effective shelf-life of most vitamin complexesis less than 60 days UNIT 5 – MINERAL AND VITAMIN NUTRITION ▯ Review Questions: • Identify minerals and vitamins into their correct classification. ‒ Macro vs. micro minerals; Fat vs. water soluble vitamins • animals?d you formulate a diet differently for breeding vs. market • Describe how phytate-phosphorus in feed ingredients influences ruminant and non-ruminantnutrition. • Understand Ca:P ratio differences between species. • What are the differences between chelated and inorganic sources of minerals? • What are the differences between dietary fat and water soluble vitamins? • What impacts vitamin stability? • What issues are associated with vitamin stability in feedstuffs? • How is vitamin intake by animals typically managed by nutritionists? J.M. Lattimer 10 ASI 320 2/11/2016 UNIT 6 – NON-NUTRITIVE FEED ADDITIVES UNIT 6 – NON-NUTRITIVE FEED ADDITIVES ▯ Student Objectives: • Understand how animal age, sanitation,and management influenceanimal response to non-ionophoreantibiotics • Be aware of consumer concernswith non-ionophore antibiotic use in food animals • Describethe mode of action of ionophoreantibiotics • Describethe classes of chemotherapeuticagents and their general activities •characteristicsof feedstuffsare used to improvestorage • Describethe use of and mode of action of MGA • Be aware of consumer concernswith use of endocrine-like growthpromotants in food animals • Describethe use and mode of action of beta agonists Feed Additives ▯ Non-food compounds intended to ___________, mitigate, ___________, or cure disease ▯ Non-food compounds that affect the structure, composition, or _____________of the body ▯ Specific Functions of Feed Additives: • Stimulate _______________ • Improve _____________efficiency • Improve animal health • Repartition ___________toward muscle development J.M. Lattimer 1 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Classes of Feed Additives ▯ ________________ • ______________ • Non-Ionophore(Conventional) ▯ Chemotherapeutic agents • _________________ • Coccidiostats • Antibacterials ▯ ______________ ▯ Preservatives and antioxidants ▯ Growth Promotants Non-Ionophore Antibiotics Mode of Action Cell Wall Synthesis DNA •Vancomycin Replication •Bacitracin DNA •Nalidixic Acid •Penicillins •Quinolones •Cephalosporins mRNA THF-A DHF-A Ribosomes Protein Synthesis PABA 50 50 50 (50S Inhibitors) 30 30 30 •Erythromycin •Chloramphenicol Protein Synthesis Folic Acid Metabolism (30S Inhibitors) •Trimethoprim •Tetracycline •Sulfonamides •Streptomycin Effects of Non-Ionophore Antibiotics on Gut Microbes Microbes in the small intestine depress growth Antibiotics reverse growth depression DIRECT INDIRECT ▯ Competition with host for nutr▯ Growth-depressing metabolites ▯ Reduced intestinal inflammation ▯ Turnover of gut mucosa IMPROVED GROWTH AND FEED EFFICIENCY Gaskins et al. (2002) J.M. Lattimer 2 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Feed Additives ▯ Non-ionophore antibiotics are produced by a ___________organism to inhibit the growth of another organism ▯ Reduce infections of the digestive and respiratory tracts • Chlortetracycline – cattle, poultry, swine, and sheep • ___________________– cattle, poultry, swine, and sheep • Penicillin – poultry and swine • _____________– cattle, chicken, and swine Feed Additives ▯ Factors affecting the ____________of response to a non-ionophore antibiotic: • Healthy animals, ________ responsive • Mature animals, ________responsive • Good management, _______responsive • Clean environment, _________responsive • Stressful environment, ________responsive Influence of Antibiotics and Sanitation on Growth Rate of Broiler Chicks 12.8 12.6 12.4 12.2 12.0 11.8 Clean Dirty Clean Dirty No Antibiotic Antibiotic Klassing (1994) J.M. Lattimer 3 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Effect of Pig Age on Antibiotic Effectiveness to Promote Growth 10 8.1 8 7.0 6 4 2.9 2 Percent Improvement 0 Starter Grower Finisher Pig Age Straw (1995) Feed Additives ▯ Antibiotic ____________ inFood • Withdrawal compliance isnot difficultto determine ▯ Antibiotic _____________- Conflicting Evidence • Resistance may be real but why or how does it occur? • Livestock industry vs. human medicine ▯ Use of ______________ antibiotics for growth promotion of livestock may be eliminated in the future ▯ Alternative management strategies • Better managementand cleaner environment • Biosecurity FDA Voluntary Phase Out Plan ▯ Voluntary plan to phase out certain antiobiotics used to enhance production ▯ “This action promotes the judicious use of important antimicrobials, which protects public health and, at the same time, ensures that sick and at- risk animals receive the therapy they need.” J.M. Lattimer 4 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Feed Additives ▯ Ionophore antibiotics are synthetic, ______________bacteria in the rumen ▯ Reduction of Gram-positive bacteria results in: • Improved efficiency of __________ utilization • Greater ______________ production • Reduced ______________production ▯ Coccidiocide ▯ In most cases, they are __________to non- ruminants ▯ No ___________in human medicine Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Elanco, 2008 Mode of Action of Rumensin (Monensin-Na) Elanco, 2008 J.M. Lattimer 5 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Mode of Action of Rumensin (Monensin-Na) Elanco, 2008 Feed Additives ▯ Chemotherapeutic Agents – synthetic inorganic or organic compounds that inhibit the growth of ____________or _____________organisms ▯ Pathogen Inhibitors - generally improve rate of __________ and ___________ efficiency • Arsanilic acid (Roxarsone)- poultry and swine • Carbadox – poultry and swine Feed Additives ▯ Coccidiostats • Used to prevent and treat ______________ • Amprolium • Decoquinate • Results in improved feed efficiency J.M. Lattimer 6 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Antihelminthics – Dewormers ▯ Benzimidazoles • Fenbendazole - Safeguard, Panacur • Albendazole - Valbazen ▯ Imidazothiazoles • Levamisole – Levisol • Morantel tartrate - Rumatel ▯ Macrolides • Ivermectin - Ivomec • Moxidectin - Cydectin Feed Additives ▯ Probiotics – _____________ produced from specific microbial cultures that flourish in the GIT and ______________with harmful organisms • ________________ • Streptococcus • Yeast • Fungi ▯ Most probiotic organisms are naturally present in the gut • ‘GenerallyRegarded as Safe’ (GRAS) by the FDA ▯ Little substantiated _________ to economically _____________the use of probiotic compounds Effectiveness of Probiotics 0.90 c 0.86 0.85 0.81c b b 0.80 0.79 0.78b 0.79 0.79 ab 0.77 0.75 0.73 ADG, lbs 0.70 0.65 ControlCarbadox A B C D E F Probiotic a, Means in the same row with different subscripts (P < 0.05) Keegan et al. (2002) J.M. Lattimer 7 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Feed Additives ▯ Antioxidants – compounds that prevent _____________ • fatndedwith fat supplements or ingredientshigh in • Butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),& ethoxyquin ▯ Chemical Preservatives – Compounds used to prevent product deterioration (mold inhibitors) • Ascorbic Acid • Citric Acid • PropionicAcid Feed Additives ▯ ______________-Based Growth Promoters • Cause physiological responses similar to those of naturally-occurringsex or growth hormones ‒ Increased ADG and F:G ‒ Increased red meat yield ‒ Increased milkproduction • Most modern endocrine-based growth promoters are administered in ____________form • Only one is administered as a feed additive Implant J.M. Lattimer 8 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Feed Additives ▯ Melengesterol Acetate (MGA) • Fed to feedlot heifers to ____________ estrus • Chemically similar to progesterone • Prevents heifers from expressing estrus • Prevents undesirable behavior ▯ Improves ______ 7 to 11% ▯ Improves ______ 6 to 10% Estrogenic Activity of Some Common Foods 180000 168000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 Estrogen, ng 60000 40000 35000 20000 11250 0 1.3 1.9 225 3400 Untreated bHormonePotatoes (3 oz) Wheat Germ Birth CoSoybean Oil (3 (3 oz)implatned beef oz) Pill oz) (3 oz) Feed Additives ▯ _______ ___________– orally active compounds that repartition nutrients toward lean ____________ deposition and __________from fat deposition • _____________ for use in swine diets • Optaflexx and Zilmax for use in cattlediets ▯ Significantly increases red meat yield ▯ Response to beta agonists is limited – the effect disappears ___________time • Used for 21 to 42 days late in the finishingperiod ▯ Response is generally greater for beef cattle than for swine J.M. Lattimer 9 ASI 320 2/11/2016 Comparative Response of Heifers to Optaflexx 25 20 18 15 10 5 2 0 -5 -10 -15 -14 Im-20vement, % of Control ADG Feed Intake F:G UNIT 6 – NON-NUTRITIVE FEED ADDITIVES ▯ Review Questions: • How do non-ionophoreantibioticswork? • How do animal age, sanitation, and management influence animal response to non-ionophoreantibiotics? • Are publicperceptions about routinenon-ionophoreantibiotic use in livestockproductionjustified? • How do ionophoreantibioticswork? • Name the classes of chemotherapeuticagents and theirgeneral activities • Are probioticsa suitablesubstitutefor antibiotics? • Are endocrine-likegrowthpromotants safe for use in food animals? • How do beta agonistswork? J.M. Lattimer 10 ASI 320 2/16/2016 UNIT 7 – FEED TAGS AND REGULATIONS UNIT 7 – FEED TAGS AND REGULATIONS ▯ Student Objectives: • Understand why the US government regulates the use of feed additives in animal diets • Name the government agencies that regulate feed- additive use in animal diets • Name the 7 elements that must appear on a feed label and explain their significance • Know the classification system for medicated feeds, its significance, and additional labeling requirements for medicated feeds • Know the categories of feed-additive drugs and their significance to human health Feed Regulations ▯ Many animals are sources of ____________ food ▯ The ___________ andwholesomeness of human food is influenced by what these animals eat ▯ Animal protein consumption provides an indirect opportunity for animal diet components to enter the human food supply ▯ The purpose of state and federal regulations pertaining to animal feed products is to ensure the __________of human foods ▯ Governmental regulatory agencies impose strict standards for the production, distribution, and labeling of animal feeds J.M. Lattimer 1 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Feed Regulations ▯ Standards for production, distribution, and labeling of feeds are rigorous for food animals: • Cattle, sheep, and goats • Pigs and Poultry • Rabbits • Fish and Shellfish • Horses ▯ Regulations are just as stringent for pet foods • For differentreason – Completeand Balanced Feed Regulations ▯ Agencies governing the production, distribution, and labeling of animal feeds and feed additives in the US: • The Food and ___________ Administration(FDA) • The US Department of Agriculture(USDA) • The Environmental ______________Agency(EPA) • Various state regulatory agencies ▯ American Association of ____________Control Officials (AAFCO) • An organizationof federal and state regulatory officials that develop standards for ‘Good ______________of livestock feeds and pet foods Feed Labels ▯ Labels provide information about nutrient content, target species, and intended use • Non-medicated feeds • Medicated feeds ▯ All feed labels must contain seven elements • 1. Quantity • 2. Productname and _____________ • 3. Guaranteed _______________analysis • 4. _______________composition • 5. _______________for use • 6. Precautionary statement • 7. Name and address of the __________________ J.M. Lattimer 2 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Required Elements of Feed Labels ▯ 1. Quantity • Specifiesthe net __________of a packaged feed product • Sales invoices for ___________ feeds (i.e., truck-load or railcar) must include areference to net weight ▯ 2. Product Name and Purpose • Product names must be clearly displayed onthe label • The targeted animal ______________and _____________must be specified(i.e., starter pigs, growing horses, pasture cattle, etc.) J.M. Lattimer 3 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Required Elements of Feed Labels ▯ 3. Guaranteed Nutrient Analysis • Expressed in the form of minimum and/or maximum guaranteed nutrient concentrations in the product • The specific nutrients that must be listed differ somewhat between animal species and animal classes • If total Ca, P, and NaCl content exceeds 6.5%, the following must also be included: ‒ Minimumand Maximum Ca ‒ MinimumP ‒ Minimumand Maximum NaCl Guaranteed Nutrient Analysis ▯ Requirements for Pet Food • Crude Protein – Min % • Crude Fat – Min % ‒ Max % if a low fat product • Crude Fiber – Max % • ________________– Max % • CrAlso commonly included • Ash – Max % • ____________ – Min % (Cats only) Guaranteed Nutrient Analysis Required for all species Other requirements may and classes include – Crude Protein – Min % – Salt, Cu, Se, Zn, VitA, – Crude Fiber – Max % lysine – Crude Fat – Min % – Ca – Min %,Max % – P – Min % J.M. Lattimer 4 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Required Elements of Feed Labels ▯ 4. Ingredient Composition • Identifies all ingredients includedin theproduct but does not specify their ________________ • Ingredients are usuallylisted in order of the _________ abundant to the ____________abundanton labels; however, there is no legal requirement to do so • Ingredients are listed using standardized names identified by FDA or AAFCO • Ingredient names can be specificor collective ‒ Specific Name = Dried Whey ‒ Collective terms provide manufacturers with flexibility to produce least-cost formulations from a wider array of ingredients Ingredient Composition ▯ Animal Protein Product • Blood meal, _______meal, whey, meat and bone meal ▯ Plant Protein Products • ________meal, whole soybeans, cottonseed meal ▯ Forage Products • ____________meal, grass hay Ingredient Composition ▯ Grain Products • Corn, barley, oats ▯ Processed Grain By-Products • ___________, wheat midds, corn gluten, bran ▯ Roughage Products • ___________, cottonseed hulls, Beet pulp J.M. Lattimer 5 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Required Elements of Feed Labels ▯ 5. Directions for Use • Specify how the productis to be incorporatedinto animal diets • Includebut are not limitedto instructionsfor feeding and mixing ▯ 6. Precautionary Statement • Supplementary informationneeded to use the product safely • Providea visualcue to prevent inappropriateuse ▯ 7. Name and Address of Manufacturer • Allows consumersto alert manufacturers of potential problems or to obtain additionalinformationabout products 1. Quantity Net Weight 50 lb Complete Pig Starter 2. Product name and purpose Guaranteed Analysis Crude Protein (min) …….……….22.0% 3. Guaranteed nutrient Lysine (min) ……………………….. 1.3% analysis Crude Fat (min) ………….………… 4.0% Crude Fiber, max% ……….………. 4.0% Calcium (min) ……………….…….. 0.8% Calcium (max) ……………….……. 1.5% Phosphorus (min) …..…………….. 1.0% Salt (min) …………………….…….. 0.35% Salt (max) …………………….……. 0.50% Selenium (min) ……..………….…… 0.3 ppm Zinc (min) ……………………..……. 150 ppm Ingredients 4. Ingredient composition Ground corn, dehulled soybean meal, menhaden fish meal, dried whey, wheat middlings, choice white grease, vitamin A supplement, D-activated animal sterol (source of vitamin D activity), L-lysine, riboflavin supplement, biotin, thiamin mononitrate, pyridoxine HCl, vitamin E supplement, menadione sodium bisulfite complex (source of vitamin K), folic acid, ethoxyquin (a preservative), ground limestone, monocalcium phosphate, salt, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, zinc sulfate, iron sulfate, cobalt carbonate, sodium selenite. Feeding Directions 5. Directions for use Feed free choice as the complete ration to starter pigs weighing 11 to 44 lbs. Caution 6. Precautionary statement Do not feed to adult pigs Manufactured By: 7. Name and address of the Willie Wildcat Feeds Manhattan, Kansas 66502 manufacturer Net Weight 50 lb 1. Quantity High Gain 40-20 Supplement For Feedlot Cattle 2. Product name and purpose Guaranteed Analysis Crude Protein (min) ………………………………………………….. 40.0% 3. Guaranteed nutrient (Not more than 20% equivalent crude protein from non-protein nitrogen) Crude Fat (min) ……………………………………..…….………… 2.0% analysis Crude Fiber, max% ……………………………………..….………. 5.0% Calcium (min) ……………………………………………..….…….. 10.0% Calcium (max) ………………………………………..…….………. 12.0% Phosphorus (min) …..……………………………………..……….. 0.6% Salt (min) ………………………………………………………….… 4.5% Salt (max) ……………………………………………………….…… 5.5% Potassium (min) ……..…………………………………………….. 3.0% Vitamin A (min) ……………………...…………………..………. 20,000 IU/lb Ingredients 4. Ingredient composition Plant protein products, processed grain byproducts, animal protein products, urea, sodium bentonite, ground limestone, salt, potassium chloride, vitamin A supplement, vitamin E supplement, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, zinc sulfate, cobalt carbonate, potassium iodide, sodium selenite. Feeding Directions 5. Directions for use Mix this product with with grain, other concentrates, and roughages to prepare complete diets for finishing cattle. Feed approximately 1 to 1.5 pounds High Gain 40-20 supplement per animal daily. 6. Precautionary statement CAUTION Use as directed Manufactured By: 7. Name and address of the Willie Wildcat Feeds Manhattan, Kansas 66502 manufacturer J.M. Lattimer 6 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Medicated Feeds ▯ Contain FDA-regulated feedadditives ▯ Require____________labeling information to protect animal and human consumers • The word ‘______________’ must appear on the label immediately following theproduct name • The _______________of the medication– label claim • The AAFCO-accepted name of each drug component • When applicable,withdrawalstatements, cautionary statements, and warningstatements must be included Medicated Feeds ▯ Classes of Medicated Feeds • Type A:Premixes used to manufacture medicated Type-B feeds • Type B: Premixes used to manufacture medicated Type-C feeds • Type C: Intended to be fed ____________further mixing J.M. Lattimer 7 ASI 320 2/16/2016 Medicated Feeds ▯ Categories of Feed-Additive Drugs • Category I ‒ Low risk of tissueresidues ‒ No pre-harvest ____________periodis required • Category II ‒ Pre-harvest withdrawalis required or there is a zero-tolerancepolicy for residues Medicated Feeds ▯ Label Claim • animal health or performanceresultingfrom product use • as a feed-additive drugl claim ___________FDA approval ▯ Examples of Illegal Claims • Magnesium Oxide - “ Prevents grass tetany” • Copper Sulfate - “Improvesreproductivetraits” • Zinc Sulfate - “Antibiotic-likeeffects” • Lactobacillusacidophillus- “Reduces E. coliin cattle” • Diatomaceous earth – “Prevents fly larvaedevelopment in livestock manure” Medicated Feeds ▯ Veterinary Feed Directives (VFD) • Periodically,______________medications are required in animal diets • Traditionalprescriptionsare difficultfor FDA to review and control • The VFD has been used by FDA since 1996 to provide written and electronic documentationof: ‒ Veterinary diagnosis of a disease ‒ Recommended treatment ‒ Feeding instructions for a prescribed medication • A VFD drug is approvedfor mixing into animal feed after a signed directive (VFD) is issuedby a licensed __________ J.M. Lattimer 8 ASI 320 2/16/2016 UNIT 7 – FEED TAGS AND REGULATIONS ▯ Review Questions: • Why does the US governmentregulate the use of feed additives in animal diets? • Which governmentagencies regulate feed-additiveuse in animal diets? • What are the 7 elements that must appearon a feed label? • Name and define the3 classes of medicated feeds. • What additionallabelinginformationis required for medicated feeds? • Name the 2 classes of feed-additive drugs andexplaintheir significance.Why do we need this classificationsystem over and above the one used for medicated feeds? J.M. Lattimer 9 ASI 320 2/18/2016 UNIT 8 – GRINDING AND MIXING UNIT 8 – GRINDING AND MIXING ▯ Student Objectives: • Be able to describe hammer mills and roller mills, their major components,strengths, and weaknesses • Know the advantages and disadvantages of finelygrinding feedstuffs • Know the definition of anglerepose and describe the factors that affectit • Identify the various types of feed mixers and know their strengths and weaknesses • Know how mixer efficiencyis measured • Know how to avoid cross contamination (residues)in feed manufacturing • Know the general order in which feed should beaddedto a mixer Why do we process animal feeds? ▯ Improves animal _______________ ▯ Improves __________ characteristicsof the diet ▯ Improves feed handling ▯ Simplifies bunk or feeder management J.M. Lattimer 1 ASI 320 2/18/2016 Grinding Ground Corn Hog Feed ▯ What is the purpose of grinding? • Particle size ______________ • ______________surface area ▯ Typical types of feed grinders • _____________mills • _____________mills Rolled Corn Cattle Feed ▯ Swine and Poultry • Fine particle size is essential ▯ Ruminants • Relatively large particle size is preferred Grinding ▯ Hammer Mills • Flywheel rotor with swinginghammers • Hammers hit the grainuntil particlesare small enough to pass througha perforated _____________ ▯ Advantages compared to roller mills • More easily produces a wide ___________of particlesizes • Accommodates a wider varietyof _______________ • Lesser initial________ and lesser maintenance costs • Easier to operate ▯ Disadvantages compared to roller mills • Less ____________efficient • Generates moreheat, dust, and noise • Less ____________particle size Hammer Mill J.M. Lattimer 2 ASI 320 2/18/2016 Hammer Mill Rotating Hub Free-Swinging Hammers Worn Hammers Grinding ▯ Roller Mills • Grain is passed between 1 or more pairs of matched, rotating cylindersand is either sliced or compressed into a flake • The difference in ____________between the paired cylinders d‒ Rolls turn at the same speed (1:1) – large flakes ‒ Rolls turning at _______________speeds (>1:1) – small slices ▯ Advantages compared to hammer mills • More energy efficient, especiallyat fine particlesizes • Greater particlesizeuniformity • Generates less heat, dust, and noise ▯ Disadvantages compared to hammer mills • Poor performance with ______________ ingredients • Greater initial and maintenance costs J.M. Lattimer 3 ASI 320 2/18/2016 Roller Mill Roller Mill Paired Cylinders Issues with Feed Particle Size ▯ Advantages of Fine Grinding: • Increases surfacearea • Greater access by digestive________ • Increases nutrient_______________ • Decreased nutrientexcretion • Improved feed ______________ ▯ Disadvantages of Fine Grinding: • Increased _______________ • Increased power consumption • Increased processingtime • Decreased feed _______________ • Increased gastric__________, in pigs and increased ruminitis, bloat,_____________in cattle J.M. Lattimer 4 ASI 320 2/18/2016 Issues with Feed Particle Size Horses and Companion Animals ▯ Advantages of Fine Grinding: • Same listed on pervious slide • Inc


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