notes for test 3
notes for test 3 HRMN 3420
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HRMN 3420 at Auburn University taught by J. Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Human Resource Management with Walker in Business, management at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
• Training, Learning, Talent Management and Development • Training • The process of teaching employees the skills required necessary to perform a job • • Employee Development • Ongoing education to improve knowledge and skills for present and future jobs within the firm • • Types of training • • Steps in the training process • 1. Assessing the needs for training and development • 2. Selecting how to shape behavior through training and development • 3. Designing the training and development • 4. Delivering the training and development • 5. Assessing in the training and development. • • Challenges to the training process • Unprepared workforce • Return on investment/cost justification • Resistance to change and employee insecurity • Strategic congruence • Scheduling • Overcoming training challenges • Ability to learn, motivation to learn, selfefficacy, perceived utility/value Learner readiness • • Learning theories • Classical Conditioning • The process by which individuals link the information from a neutral stimulus to a stimulus that causes a response Ivan Pavlov Used for marketing purposes • Learning theory – Classical conditioning • • • Learning theory Operant Conditioning • Behaviors Consequences • The individual … Shaping Behavior Learning Styles Fleming learning styles Visual individuals prefer to have material provided in a visual format such as graphs and charts Auditory individuals prefer to learn information based on hearing that information Tactile individuals prefer to physically perform a task in order to learn Training Delivery From Training to the Job Transfer of training Increasing the transfer of training Distance or E – Learning Synchronous distance learning All trainees sign in to a particular website where the instructor interacts with the students and teaches the topics for the day Asynchronous distance learning Trainees can sign into the training site at any point in time and materials are available for their studies. Assessing Training To evaluate whether or not the training achieved the shaped behavior identified through the needs assessment. Levels of training evaluation Training Evaluation Training evaluation designs Post measure, pre/post measure, and pre/post measure with control group Legal issues and training Training design and delivery criteria and practices used to select individuals, accommodations of individuals with disabilities, and requiring signing of training contracts Career Development Firms make career paths and career counseling available so employees can Achieve personal goals over the course of their career Are more motivated which can lead to improved productivity and job satisfaction, and lower absenteeism and turnover. Training VS Development HR Development Employee Development PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND APPRAISAL Performance management VS Performance Appraisal Performance management The process of identifying, measuring, managing, and developing the performance of human resources Performance Appraisals Ongoing process of evaluating employee performance Performance Appraisal Process Identifying and Measuring Employee Performance Performance Criteria for Appraisals Quantity of output Quality of output Timeliness of output Efficiency of work completed Effectiveness of work completed Presence/Attendance on the job Identifying and measuring Employee performance Job duties Important elements in a given job as identified from job descriptions What an organization pays an employee to do Types of Performance Information Relevance of Performance Criteria Factors Affecting Relevance Deficient Measures Contaminated Measures Overemphasized measures Legal concerns and performance appraisals Legally Defensible Performance Appraisal System: •Appraisal criteria based on job analysis (i.e., jobrelated) •Absence of disparate impact and evidence of validity •Formal evaluation criteria that limit managerial discretion •A rating instrument linked to job duties and responsibilities •Documentation of the appraisal activities •Personal knowledge of and contact with appraised individual •Training of supervisors in conducting appraisals •Review process to prevent undue control of careers •Counseling to help poor performers improve Related to jobs analysis—high in validity as it relates to performance appraisals, high in reliability Needs an up to date jobs analysis Reliability as it relates to performance appraisals Who conducts appraisals? Sources of Performance Appraisals Supervisors rating their employees Employees rating their supervisors Team members rating each other Employees rating themselves Outside sources rating employees Multisource or 360 degree feedback Often times it is better to assess from a variety of different directions Peers, self, customers, suppliers If you just look at supervisors, you’re missing something, employees have a lot more interaction than just with the supervisor. The 360 degree feedback is looking at it full circle Negative feedback from the 360 degree a lot of time to collect the material, difficult to decide how to weigh each type of evaluation (peer vs supervisor—equal weight of different) and with self evaluation, people tend to be more honest. Performance appraisal measurement methods and forms Graphic Rating Scale example more popular type through jobs analysis identify specific job duties and rate the employees limitations very subjective on how we define each anchor point (needs improvement different meanings to different people) Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale Example Take each job duty and through observation you can identify the common behaviors associated with that job duty Ex A call center the caller must have customer service – associating the example with the rating More objective in nature Limitations a lot of time to develop requires observation Comparative Methods Ranking A list of employees from highest to lowest Drawbacks 2 main Cant tell the difference between the rankings Always assuming the lowest rank is the worst Forced Distribution Causes ratings of employees to be distributed along a bell shaped curve Drawbacks ***Jack Welches approach to performace appraisals*** ***the 10, 70, 20 appraoch *** cut throat approach 20 eligibile for promotion 70 nothing changed 10 were fired Other Methods Critical Incident Manager keeps a written record of highly favorable and unfavorable employee actions Drawbacks a lot of time and observation—a lot of different views on what is critical and what is not. Management By Objectives (MBO) Specifying the performance goals that an individual and his or her manager agrees the employee will try to attain within an appropriate length of time Motivate employees by precipipatory goal setting because they are more involved in developing that performance appraisals approach Performance appraisals problems and avoiding them Common errors with appraisals Distributional errors 3 main types central tendency error 5 point scale everyone is lumped around a 3 leniency – falls on high end strictness falls on low end Attribution error Tendency to attribute someone’s behavior to internal causes and not take into account potential external causes Might have been something external that happened (traffic, sick child) attributed to the person Avoid performance appraisal process problems—strategies Develop accurate performance measures Use multiple criteria Minimize the use of trait based evaluations Give the measures the OUCH and BLANCHARD tests Train evaluators To overcome the common problems of assessment To use the measurement methods and forms Use multiple raters Rights and Employee Development Employee Rights That which belongs to person by law, nature, or tradition Statutory rights Comes from the government Federal, state, local laws that comes from the courts EX EEO law cant discriminate against protected call individual or minimum wage Contractual Rights Rights that are derived from a specific contract that exists An organization is not obligated to provide rights if no contract exists EX terms of employment specific to the job itself can be implied Employee rights Management rights Employment at will (EAW) Alabama is Employers Employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, or promote as they choose, unless there is a law or contract to the contrary Have the right to make an employment related decision as long as they don’t violate a contract that exists/law but cant discriminate against a protected class Employees Employees have the right to quit and get another job under the same constraints Have the right to quit as long as they don’t violate contract/law Exceptions 1.Public policy Can not make an employment related decision if it violates public policy (43 states) AL Is not one of those states As an organization, can not retaliate if that employee does something illegal 2. Implied contract employment handbook is the most common basis for this argument (38 states ) AL is one 3. Good faith and fair dealing should act in these ways when acting in employment related decision. Also known as just cause and due process. (11 states) AL is one Just cause Reasonable justification for taking an employment related decision Due Process The means used for individual to explain and defend their actions against charges and discipline Distributive justice Procedural justice International justice Due process involves employees to defend themselves or justify why Problem employees Progressive Discipline Process This approach allows individual employees to correct themselves Does not apply to major issues (gun at work) Every day types of problems Terminating Necessary when an employee cannot be made into a productive member of the workforce Causes for dismissal immediately following investigation Gross negligence A serious failure to exercise care in the work environment Serious misconduct Intentional behavior can potentially cause great harm to another or the firm Violations can lead to terminations last step in the discipline approach EMPLOYEE AND LABOR RELATIONS Nature of Unions Union A formal association of workers that promotes the interests of its members through collective action Why do people unionize? The key to a union is collective action. Can get a lot more done as collective action People unionize because you can get a lot more done. Groups can get more done Managers/execs hate unions because it limits what a manager can do, limits power, have to follow what contract is in place High costs with union representation Union Membership as a percentage of the US Civilian Workforce Steady decline in union membership Reasons manufacturing to service industry causes decline. laws have changed that help to make the workplace safe that werent in existence, Main industry today is service US Labor Laws 1935 National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) passed in 1935 (great depression) scared about loosing job, saw unions as a way of improving job security. Unions gained a lot of momentum. Management were against unions. Coerse employees saying they wont be hired as an employee if they were apart of a union. Gave employees a right to unionize and prohibited employers from coersing them. Improved job security 1947 TaftHartley Act passed to offset the wagner act. Attempt to give rights back to employers/management. Outlawed a “closed shop”– agreement between mngt and union where mngt would only hire current union members– became illegal. 1959 LandrumGriffin Act Union gained so much power and some became corrupt– mafia involvement Made union actions more transparent– Required all unions publish all financial reports Required all unions to provide all members bill of rights Employee and Labor Relations 5 step process. 1.Sponsor them, trying to identify a sponsored union 2.Union comes in and distribute authorization cards. Needs 30% of employees to sign cards or else union ends 3.What employees – specifically assign who the bargaining unit is– clearly and explicitly 4.Majority election– bargaining unit votes.. Less than 50% process ends Decertification of union acts the same way as this process. Union Organizing The NO TIPS RULE No Threats – managers can’t threaten that the firm will shut down a facility that votes for unionization. No Interrogations – managers can’t ask an employee about union organizing activities. No Promises – managers can’t promise employees pay or benefits rewards if they vote against union authorization. No Spying – managers can’t plant spies in union organizing meetings or other activities. Limitations placed on management during initial organizing efforts Managements rights during Unionization efforts No unionization on company time Management’s positions on unionization Change agreements and use of non union employee representation Management does have these rights Decertification Elections can be held to remove a union but Not within a year of a previous attempt at decertification. The company cannot initiate a decertification petition or encourage a decertification petition. If requested by employees, management can provide information to employees regarding decertification, but cannot threaten employees or promise benefits. Collective Bargaining Process If a union is certified – enter into a collective bargaining process. Might move to right to have a ratification. Or left to bargaining impass where parties cant negotiate in good faith and have a strike or a lock out. Strike work stop on part of employee. Lock out work stop on part of management. Mediation acts like a facilitator in process, keep parties talking and not upset. No fighting, keep productive. Don’t make binding decision Arbitration make binding decision and both parties must abide by them Contract agreement– included– anything that affects employee relationship CHART Typical Items in a Labor Agreement Purpose of agreement Nondiscrimination clause Management rights Recognition of the union Wages Incentives Hours of work Vacations Sick leave and leaves of absence Discipline Separation of allowance Seniority Bulletin boards Pension and insurance Safety Grievance procedure Nostrike or lockout clause Definitions Terms of contract (dates) Appendices Negotiation Process Has a lot of hurdles WHY AMAZON PAYS EMPLOYEES $5000 TO QUIT Amazon makes the offer once a year but only to those in the fulfillment centersorders boxed and shipped starts at $2000 and goes up $1000 each year. Encourages employees to take a moment and realize what they really want and if its not that job then leave Only small percentage take the deal Amazon offers tuition of workers even if not relevant to job Got the idea from zappos Amazon sued for employee rip offs on overtime hours Amazon sued for making employees get screened before work COMPANIES SAY NO TO HAVING AN HR DEPARTMENT LRN corp removed their HR department Wanted to force peoples issues into the middle of the business Companies seeking flat management structures and more accountability for employees are frequently taking aim at human resources. LRN working out the glitches as they go Work problems out themselves Five person team a mojo team
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