Grammar for Communicators: Final Study Guide
Grammar for Communicators: Final Study Guide
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Date Created: 06/06/14
Lecture One The Subject 1 Find the subject identify verb find what is doing the verb or describing it a The cat hides in the shoe catsubject hidesverb 2 Two rules to remember a May be more than one subject in a sentence i While sitting across from this guy Susan was afraid the wind would blow and all would be revealed subjectsSusan wind all b Sometimes the subject is implied usually you i Don t think the meme to the right is a complete sentence 3 Subject or Object a A noun or pronoun that doesn t have its own verb is an object 4 NOT SUBJECTS a Non essential nouns or pronouns i The girl but not her cousins attends the wedding take out but not her cousins and the sentence does not change b Any noun or pronoun in a prepositional phrase i Between you and me I think weddings cost too much Between you and meprepositional phrase SUMMARY 1 The subject of the sentence must match the verb 2 Subject is never found in non essential noun or pronoun phrase 3 Subject is never found in prepositional phrase Lecture Two Verbs 1 Action Verbs describe an action walk smile etc 2 Linking Verbs connect subject to something that describes it I feel funny Can help you decide whether or not to choose an adverb or adjective 1 did action verb well adverb vs I feel linking verb good adjective 3 Helping Verbs work with main action verb He might go this summer mighthelping 4 Verb tenses a Present she screams b Past she screamed c Past Participle she had screamed d Future she will scream 5 Irregular Verbs 6 Commonly Mistaken Irregular Verbs Present Past Past Participle arise arose arisen blow blew blown bring brought brought broadcast broadcast broadcast burst burst burst draw drew drawn forbid forbad forbidden leap leaped leaped mow mowed mown stink stank stunk Present Past Past Participle bear bore borne beat beat beaten bite bit bitten cost cost cost drag dragged dragged lead led led lend lent lent mean meant meant drink drank drunk rise rose risen shake shook shaken 7 Lay vs Lie Lay someone does something to an object replace lay with place He lays the groceries on the table He places the groceries on the table Lie to rest or recline be in a horizontal position The treasure lies at the bottom of the ocean Conjugation Present Past Past Participle lay laid laid lie lay lain 8 NOT VERBS 1 Gerunds end in ing serve as nouns either subjects or objects Dancing is how they stay fit dancing subject 2 Infinitives to blank serve as nouns I love to wave at strangers to wavesubject Lecture Three SubjectVerb Agreement 1 Collective nouns ALWAY SINGULAR describe a group audience board class jury society team etc 2 Units of measurement SINGULAR number of things work as unit dozen 314 five gallons 3 Singular nouns joined by and PLURAL The wedding and reception were held in the same church weddingreception2 things 4 Nouns separated by or nor match verb closest to subject 5 Latin based words PLURAL media curricula symposia SINGULAR medium curriculum symposium 6 ALWAYS SINGULAR Each either anyone someone everyone much one no one nothing ALWAYS PLURAL Both few many several Fractions with fractions or words such as part plenty or rest match verb to what the fraction is modifying 34 of my brain HATES math brain is singular 34 of students HATE math students is plural 9 Special Rules A number always plural a b The number always singular c One of match verb to group d Only one of always singular SUMMARY 1 Each everyone and someone are always singular 2 With fractions and fractional words such as most and some match the verb to what those words modify 3 Latin based words ending in a are always plural 4 The phrase the number is always singular 5 A number is always plural 6 Collective nouns are singular 7 If you want to show the individual members of a collective group such as committee family or jury are doing something on their own use members 8 With nouns or pronouns joined by or or nor match the verb to the closest subject 9 When someone is part of a group match the verb to the group 10 When someone is the only one in a group doing something match the verb to the individual cc 7 S 11 Some nouns ending in are singular 12 Units of measurement are considered singular not plural Lecture Four Pronouns Pronouns replace nouns can be subjects objects or possessive Pronouns and antecedents antecedent is noun a pronoun replaces He She clunkiness they can t be paired with singular nouns 39P 3 Types of pronouns subjects have their own verbs objects receive action or follow prepositional phrase possessives own a noun that follows 5 DO NOTJOIN NOMINATIVE AND OBJECTIVE CASE WITH AND Nominative Objective Possessive I me my mine you you your yours she her her hers he him his it it its we us our ours they them their theirs who whom whose 6 TIP If you would use we in a sentence replace with I he or she If you would use us in a sentence replace with me him or her 7 Who vs Whom 8 Re exive Pronouns I see myself as a lion correct I see me as a lion incorrect Lecture Five Adjectives and Adverbs 1 Adjectives modify nouns Comparisons with pronouns consider adding implied noun to end of sentence The short guy is rounder than he is Less vs Fewer use fewer if the nouns can be counted use less if they can t be Adverbs modify verbs adjectives and other adverbs When ONLY when talking about time Where ONLY when talking about location In Which all other occasions Good vs Well good bad used only as adjectives well badly used only as adverbs 0 U 9 Conjunctive adverbs Qoin things also besides for example however meanwhile etc 10 When to use adverbs adjectives use adjectives with linking verbs use adverbs with action verbs 11 Prepositions tell how where when at by far from in of on to with Lecture Six Sentence Structure 1 Comma Splices a Two independent clauses connected by a comma i I love my uncle he doesn t frighten me 1 Fix with coordinating conjunctions FANBOYS semi colon or a period 2 Dead Construction a ThereIt areis i confuses the reader about what the subject is 1 There location itemphasis 3 Parallel Sentences a using same verb form throughout sentence same POV don t miX noun forms i Do one brave thing then be running away WRONG Do one brave thing then run away 4 Modi ers a Should be close to what they modify i I shot an elephant in my pajamas Who s in the pajamas 5 Passive voice vs Active voice a Passive i The object is acted upon often using helping verbs The email was sent by my cat b Active i The subject acts on the object P My cat sent the email c Use passive voice if the object is more important than the subject 6 Redundancy a Repeating the same though using different words b DO NOT DO Lecture Seven Punctuation a Periods End sentences used with acronyms and abbreviations i ONLY USE 1 punctuation to end a sentence If a sentence ends in abbreviation don t add another period If a sentence has a complete sentence within it don t put a period after the inside sentence b Commas Separate dependent and independent clauses separate items in a list set off long introductory phrases help avoid confusion i separate independent clauses with coordinating conjunction and comma separate long introductory clauses from sentence with comma pl separate items in a series with commas iv use comma before complete quote v NC comma before partial quote vi use comma where reader would be confused vii Appositives give more information about noun 1 separate appositive from rest of sentence with commas 2 ex Jeff Merkley a US Senator represents Oregon a US Senator is not the subject of the sentence but it does clarify who Jeff Merkley is L op 5 viii DO NOT separate a subject from its verbs or objects unless there is a list or nonessential phrase in between ix DO NOT separate a noun or pronoun from its re exive x DO NOT separate subject from its object xi separate nonessential phrases from sentence with commas em dashes or parentheses Semicolons Separate independent clauses separate items in a list that have internal commas i separate two independent clauses p separate series of items that have commas in them already use before a conjunctive adverb iv DO NOT USE after dependent clause Colons Introduce something including another independent clause a long list or quotations longer than 2 sentences i introduce long lists introduce quotes with two or more sentences 3m introduce a second related sentence iv something you want to emphasize Hyphens Join compound modifiers well known add a pre x un American i use with modifiers such as self ex quasi and well use with fractions three quarters one half Em Dashes Emphasize and set information apart En Dashes Show a range 112 Ellipses Indicate missing information or dialogue that trails off Apostrophes Indicate possession or contraction quotes inside of quotes Quotation marks Indicate words spoken by someone else in AP style used for titles of books poems plays films speeches songs works of art subjects or lectures magazine articles i Periods and commas that are next to closing quotation marks go INSIDE quotation marks Parentheses Set non essential information apart from the rest of a sentence Question mark i use only with direct questions m Exclamation point i NEVER use more than one 2 Contractions and Possession 21 Plurals i NEVER use apostrophes to make a noun plural lrregulars noes yesses IDs DVDs iPods A s Make noun plural first THEN possessive b Possession i singular possession for word ending in s sound 1 use apostrophe s plural possession for word ending in s sound 1 form plural then add apostrophe c Contractions i require apostrophes goes where letter is removed limit use of conjunctions with nouns confusing Y apostrophe following personal pronoun signifies contraction not possession Lecture Eight Word Choice 1 Avoid unprofessional word choices awesome awfully pretty awful etc 2 Avoid redundancies 3 These are not words anyways conversate disorientated ginormous impactiful irregardless lasterday self depreciating supposably totes unthaw 4 Ageist language use elderly carefully find a more specific label avoid old folks avoid cougar or MILF 5 Sexist language assumes male is the norm using masculine pronouns as singular norm adding lady or woman to a title use female terms as derogatory terms for males use same terms for both genders sexes 6 Racist language assume white is the norm don t identify race unless it is relevant NO She s a great talent for a race 7 Sexual orientation Don t assume sexual orientation don t include in story unless relevant 8 AP Style 1 Numbers Use figures above 9 spell out below 10 Use figures for age sums of money temperature proportion Spell out numbers if begin sentences DO NOT use roman numerals except when part of title or name Fractions standing alone are spelled out 2 Capitalization Titles precede names specific regions not compass point holidays or specific events names of religious deities formal names of schools and departments DO NOT capitalize am or pm the seasons prepositions or conjunctions in titles former ex elect pronouns except I 3 Misc spell words out completely quotation marks with books poems plays films songs and articles NO magazines or newspapers
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