EXP4404 Exam 2 Study Guide!
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Test 2 Study Guide 68 & 13 Lecture 1: (CH 6) 1. Episodic memory is part of the Explicit/declarative long term memory system a. Episodic memory is a person's unique memory of a specific event. It is not autobiographical memory, that uses semantic memory as well. Everyone’s episodic memory of an event will be different. b. The Bartlett Approach: embraced the complexity of memory rather than trying to constrain it's variables i. The war of the ghosts: Participants were presented with a story and then they attempted to recall it ii. Results: The story they recalled tended to be shorter, more coherent and fit into their own viewpoint iii. Effort after meaning iv. Schemas had an effect on recalling information c. Schemas: Longterm structural representation of knowledge that are used to make sense of new material in order to aide in storage and retrieval d. Meaning and Memory: Related words vs unrelated words vs mixed i. Clustering by meaning may occur ii. Words are learned quicker when there is an association between them e. Dualcoding hypotheses: Easily imageable words are easier to recall based on multiple (visual and verbal) encoding modalities i. The words are encoded based on their visual imagery which makes them easier to recall. f. Predictability and Memory: Sentences are not randomly comprised of words there is grammar structure and subject of the text i. Cloze technique: People are presented with a passage where every fifth word has been deleted and they have to guess the missing words ii. The predictability/redundancy of the passage represents the ease to memorize and the level of readability 2. Levels of Processing: a. Depth of processing: i. Structural – e.g. Is the word upper case? ii. Phonological – e.g. Does the word rhyme with another? iii. Semantic – e.g. meaning (Deepest level of processing) b. Craik and Lockhart (1972) i. Levels of processing hypotheses: the why material is processed determines how long it lasts in LTM. ii. They suggested that for printed text the visual characteristics of words are processed first and then the sound and then the meaning iii. Deeper processing leaves a more durable trace c. Craik and Tulving (1975) i. Words were presented to participants and the were asked to judge structural, phonological and semantic qualities about the words ii. They found that the greater depth the word was processed the more likely they were to recall the word iii. The effect was stronger when the answer was yes to the questions because they were able to picture it iv. Deeper processing takes longer d. Gelenberg, Smith and Green (1977) i. Increased number of repetitions had little effect on recall ii. Incidental learning of words e. Deeper coding is better because it is more elaborative i. Shallow rehearsal is just maintenance rehearsal ii. Deep is elaborative rehearsal iii. Levels of processing: structural → phonological → semantic f. Spontaneous Reminding: i. Kelly Memory Lab: Spacing of related words ii. Related to maintenance vs elaborative rehearsal 1. Maintenance rehearsal: Keeping the word/item in mind but not processing it any deeper. Continuing to process something at the same level like repeating a phone number. 2. Elaborative rehearsal: Items are processed deeper, with more meaning and linking the new information with information that is already in out memory. iii. More remindings in maintenance rehearsal. Participants form relations between items on the list during maintenance rehearsal g. Transfer Appropriate Processing: Retention is best when the mode of encoding and retrieval are the same 3. Organization and Memory a. Subjective organization is a strategy where the learner attempts to organize unstructured material to enhance learning b. Category bases chunks c. Category omission d. Conceptual Hierarchy: organizes information based on each dimension of quality of the item. e. Best organization strategies i. Story Method: Groups information into chunks and links the information together 1. Increases intrusion 2. Demanding ii. Visual imagery mnemonics: Effective for links items and easier than the story method f. Intention to learn isn’t necessary, it is just what you do with the information i. Incidental learning will occur when the learner is unaware that a test will occur ii. Intentional learning is when the learner expects a retention test g. Seriation: How we store serial items in long term memory i. Chaining Model: Each item is associated with the next 1. Oliver and Erikson: Tested actor's ability to recall lines after using 1,2 and 4 word probes 2. They use chaining model 3. only 77% accuracy with 1 word probe but almost completely accurate with longer probe ii. Positional marker model: Each item is associated with a context or tag iii. Primacy model: Each item is recalled by activation strength h. The Hebb Effect: Participants are presented with digit sequences. Every third is the same but even if participants do not notice the results are the same 4. Language Acquisition: Phonological loop and learning vocabulary a. Related to learning hebb sequences 5. Semantic vs. Episodic: Episodic memory is a person's individual recollection of the events that will vary from person to person. Semantic memory are the facts that are not in debate like the date and time of the event. a. When recalling episodic memory you realize you are recollecting from the past, when recalling semantic memory we do not realize we are recollecting b. Episodic memory is also more vulnerable c. Episodic memory is more likely to become impaired, some patients suffer from semantic dementia where patients suffer from a severe loss of concept knowledge even though their episodic memory and cognitive functions are intact. d. Semantic dementia is associated with damage to the anterior frontal temporal lobe while amnesia tends to be in the medial temporal lobe e. Sensory and perceptual information can be used to recall recent autobiographical memories but semantic knowledge is required to recall remote memories Lecture 2: (CH 7) 1. Semantic memory is the other part of the declarative/explicit long term memory system a. Semantic memory is composed of ideas and concepts that are not from personal experiences. It includes more common knowledge things like the names of colors, sounds of letters and names of places. b. Patients with hippocampal damage tend to have more impaired episodic memory because it is a newer and more vulnerable system c. Retrograde amnesia for episodic memory tends to span several years while semantic memory amnesia tends to be a short period d. The patterns of brain activity are similar when retrieving semantic or declarative memories e. Semantic dementia 2. Organization of Memory a. Loftus and Suppes (1972) i. Information tends to be organized by first letter cues than last letter cues. I.e. think of a fruit that starts with p, now think of one that ends with p b. Hierarchical network model (Collins and Quillian, 1969) i. Semantic knowledge is organized into a series of hierarchical networks 1. There are major concepts associated with each concept. ii. Semantic memory assists inferential processing iii. Familiarity limits the speed of judgement iv. The typicality effect: concepts do not fit neatly into a single category, a concept is more or less typical of a category, The finding that the time taken to decide a category member belongs to a category is less for typical than atypical members v. Limitations are that the effect may be due to familiarity more than hierarchy of information vi. Ambiguity can be an issue vii. Items that are stored in the same level of hierarchy are more known and quicker to say they are correct (canary is yellow) as the levels get further apart it takes longer to recognize the correctness of the item viii. Concept Hierarchies 1. Superordinate categories a. e.g. furniture 2. Basiclevel categories a. e.g. chair 3. Subordinate categories a. e.g. armchair c. Spreading activation model (Collins and Loftus, 1975) i. Semantic memory is organized on the basis of semantic relatedness or semantic distance. (Asking people to decide how closely related a word pair is). Whenever a person sees, hears or thinks about a concept the appropriate node in semantic memory is activated. This activation spreads strongly to other concepts that are closely semantically related. ii. Semantic priming iii. Concepts aren’t housed in a single node and can be processed flexibly iv. Barslou theory of concept representations was that they are like detached encyclopedia definitions in a database of categorical knowledge of the world d. Situated Simulation Theory (Barsalou, 2009) i. Stated that all of the previous theories are incorrect because we rarely process concepts in isolation. We process them in various different settings and the processing is influenced by the context or settings. Representation of a concept will vary depending on the features of the situations and current goals. ii. Concept processing can involve sensory processes, such as visualization iii. Concept processing can involve motor processes iv. Processing of concepts is influenced by current context. v. Concepts are not processed in isolation vi. Bub, Masson and Cree 1. Participants were trained to gesture in response to colors a. red=poke, blue=grasp 2. Presented with object picture with color background a. doorbell, pliers 3. Participant instructed to gesture in response to color, not object e. Hub and Spoke Model: The spokes contain several modalityspecific brain areas in which sensory and motor processing occur. The hub is a modalitly independent unifed conceptual representation that provides an efficient way of integrating out knowledge of any given concept. i. Spokes 1. Visual features 2. Verbal descriptors 3. Olfaction (smell) 4. Sounds 5. Praxis (motor information) 6. Somatosensory information (sensations from skin and internal organs) ii. Hub 1. Modalityindependent unified representation 2. Located in anterior temporal lobes iii. Pobric et al. 1. Participants named: a. Living things b. Manipulable objects c. Nonmanipulable, manmade objects 2. TMS applied to: a. Anterior temporal lobe i. The location of the semantic conceptual hubs b. Inferior parietal lobule i. Involved in processing info related to actions we can make towards objects iv. Many patients exhibit category specific deficits where semantic memory is impaired for some types of memory, which supports the theory for spokes. 3. Schemas a. A wellintegrated chunk of knowledge about the world, events, people, or actions. b. Function in organizing and interpreting information that is input through sensory systems. c. Schemas can change. d. Scripts: Knowledge about events and the consequences of events. A typical sequence of events in various common situations e. Frames: Knowledge structures referring to some aspect of the world containing fixed structures. Information about objects and their properties are stored here. f. Assimilation: New information is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas g. Accommodation: Existing schemas are adjusted to fit new information h. Two major types of information in semantic memory i. Abstract concepts generally corresponding to individual words ii. More broad and flexible organizational structures based on schemas and scripts Lecture 3/4: (CH 8) 1. Tip of the Tongue State a. Accurately recall abstract properties when in tip of the tongue state b. Brown and Mcneil 2. Retrieval Cues: Memory is linked by associations that vary in strength a. ie: Fruit: Banana is strong but fruit: guava is not as strong b. Spreading Activation i. Each memory trace has an activation level. ii. Memories automatically spread activation to other memories that are related to it. Like they are spreading energy. If the target accumulates enough activation it will be retrieved. c. Activation level The variable internal state of a memory trace that contributes to its accessibility at a given point. Every memory has it's own level representing how excited or active it is. This increases when something related occurs. d. Retrieval is the process of recovering a target memory based on one or more cues subsequently bringing that target into awareness i. Target memory/trace: the particular fact or memory we are seeking ii. Retrieval cues are the snippets of information that allow you to access a memory iii. Traces of memory are linked by associations or links e. Intentional Retrieval: Targeting a particular trace in memory i. Cuespecification 1. Determining which cues are relevant to your memory search 2. What we are trying to remember 3. May include a retrieval pattern ii. Cuemaintenance 1. Focusing on the relevant cues to activate more cues 2. Helps overcome interference from competing memories that are also brought to mind by the target iii. Postretrieval monitoring 1. Screening retrieved memories for relevance iv. Interference resolution 1. Suppressing distracting, irrelevant memories f. Cortical Reinstatement: Ghosts of past brain states i. The pattern of neural activity that was present at the time of the experience was encoded into memory g. Divided attention negatively affects retrieval. Dividing attention at encoding affects retrieval even worse h. Retrieval is less effective if cues are not properly attended too. Diminishing attention makes cues less effective i. Cues that are present at encoding are better than cues that are not when it comes to retrieval i. Encoding specificity principle: The more similar the cues available at retrieval are to the conditions present at encoding, the more effective the cues will be ii. Controlled retrieval occurs when cuetarget strength is weak iii. As the number of cues increases the probability of correct retrieval increases as well j. Weak items in memory are difficult to retrieve i. The strength of hippocampal activation during encoding impacts the later retrieval success k. Retrieval strategies are important because inaccurate one's can be slow and create interference l. Retrieval mode is the frame of mind that orients a person toward the act of retrieving i. Without this we would have to constantly be reminded m. Retrieval Failure n. Retrieval success is determined by: i. Attention to cues ii. Relevance of cues iii. Cuetarget strength iv. Number of cues v. Target strength vi. Retrieval strategy vii. Retrieval mode o. Context cues: Retrieval cues related to the encoding condition, such as location and time of the event. i. Incidental context important for episodic memory retrieval. p. Retrieval mode: The cognitive set or state of mind that orients a person toward to act of retrieving and ensuring that stimuli are interpreted as retrieval 3. Recognition Memory: Distractor items present meaningful information a. A person's ability to correctly decide whether they have encounter a stimulus previously in particular context. The detection of old and new items. b. Signal detection theory: Faint tone present when you hear white noise and participant responds when they hear it. Four outcomes are possible: i. Hit: Signal present and respond ii. Miss: Signal present, does not respond iii. False Alarm: Signal not present, respond iv. Correct Rejection: Signal not present, no response c. Dualprocess theory of recognition: Two processes: i. Recollection: The slower, more attention demanding component of recognition which involves retrieval of contextual information about the memory. ii. Familiarity based recognition: A fast, autonomic recognition process based on the perception of a memory’s strengths. Familiarity is considered to be independent of the contextual information characteristic recollection. iii. Dualprocessing theory of recognition: A class of recognition models that assumes that recognition memory judgments can be based on two independent forms of retrieval process: Recollection and familiarity iv. Remember/Know procedure: Recognition memory tests separate the influences of familiarity and recollection on recognition performance d. Source Monitoring i. The process of examining the contextual origins of a memory in order to determine whether it was encoded from a particular source ii. Source misattribution error: when you misattribute the source of your recollections iii. Postretrieval monitoring process 1. Retrieval of context information from encoding Lecture 5: 1. Prospective Memory: Remembering to carry out some intended action in the absence of any explicit reminder to do so. This is the memory for the future. More when information a. Timebased Prospective Memory: Time is the cue indicating that a given action needs to be performed b. Eventbased Prospective Memory: An event provides the cue to perform the action c. Medication compliance: 50% of patients do not maintain prescribed schedule, this could be due to prospective memory d. Do you decided to do something and then forget to do it i. Prospective forgetting is interpreted as the person being unmotivated or unreliable e. Helps us plan out days or goals f. Zogg’s model of prospective memory g. Metamemory: The tendency to underestimate prospective memory i. Obsessive compulsive disorder manifests with excessive checking because patients think they will forget something but they really don’t. Continuous checking actually impairs memory from working correctly h. Time based tasks are more difficult than event based. i. Fisher(2007) participants were instructed either to call at a certain time or after they received a text. ii. There tended to be more intentional retrievals for timebased tasks i. Eventbased tasks are easier because environmental cues are more prevalent i. Continuous monitoring occurs more often j. Multiprocess theory says that attention is not necessary for PM i. Stipulates that detection of cues will be automatic if: 1. the ongoing task stimulates processing of the target event on the PM task. 2. the cues and the tobeperformed action are highly associated. 3. the cue is conspicuous or salient. 4. the intended action is simple. k. Implementation intentions: Plans spelling out in detail how individuals are going to achieve the goals they have set themselves l. Zogg’s model i. Intention is formed ii. Retention interval: There may be minutes or weeks between intention formation and extinction. There is usually some monitoring of the environment for taskrelated cues iii. Cue detection and intention retrieval: The individual must detect and a recognize a relevant cue. Then selfinitiated retrieval of the appropriate intention must occur. iv. Intention Recall: The individual successfully retrieves the intention, there may be issues with the complexity of the intention or it's relation to other stored intentions. m. PAM theory says attention is required for PM i. Two types of processes are always involved in successful prospective memory performance: 1. Monitoring process: begins when intention is formed and ends when action is complete 2. Retrospective memory processes a. Function to recollect the intended action (what) and discriminate between target and nontarget cues (when) 2. Retrospective Memory: Memory from past, more what information a. Do you forget to do something you were asked to do a few minutes ago b. More external cues are present with retrospective c. Forgetting tends to be interpreted as the person having a poor memory
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