Journalism 1100 1st trimester
Journalism 1100 1st trimester 1100
Popular in Principles of American Journalism
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Journalism and democracy Journalism and democracy are two words for the same thing” JOURNALISM AND SOCIETY Journalism is a social institution -economic -political -legal -cultural -technological history of U.S. journalism mirrors history of U.S. -broadly “libertarian”; concerned with freedom -emerges out of enlightenment philosophy us journalism; us society core ideals -publication as an extension of free speech -no restrictions; no punishment -free competition leads to the triumph of truth over falsehood -free press best achieved through free market NOTE THESE ARE IDEALS, NOT NECESSARILY FACTS -countries have gov subsidized journalism but still operationally free ex Canada more to worry about than just the state ORIGINS OF U.S. JOURNALISM First us newspaper in 1690, Publick occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick(Boston) -Early press was noisy and partisan -no notion of objectivity or public service -goal was to support political parties and make money -but some things have remained -powerful interests don’t like scrutiny power changes people -ex of john adams garunteed freedom of press understand emergence and character of us press as part of a broader John Milton eng poet 1608-74 licensing order of 1643 wrote areopagitica a passionate defense on free speech originator of marketplace of ideas concept (though he did not actually use this phrase notion of “truth and falsity grappling” and the “self-righting process” “rational man” argument -reason as the source of truth -not authority -or because god tells you so -gov tells you so -not tradition bc that’s the way its always been -part of shift away from authoritarianism to democracy (essentially, self-rule) -Age of Enlightenment; revolutions in philosophy and science -in order to exercise reason, must have access to information What is democracy Many variants, but characterized by: -free elections -full enfranchisement -each vote is equal -majority rule (with cavets) -independent judiciary.. important feature -equality before the law -guarantees of civil liberties freedom of speech core ideas sovereignty of the people(informed by rational man theory what democracy needs from journalism -information dissemination -helping people make informed decisions -giving people the capacity for self-rule accountability -hold the power to account -“comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable” representation -counterbalance institutional power -ensure that voices are heard deliberation and conflict resolution -conversation as the cornerstone of community three metaphors the mirror -reflect society as it is, not as we would like it to be the watchdog -will bark to the sound of the alarm -will bite to defend the little guy - journalism as the eyes and ears of the people passing along info about gov the marketplace -will provide a robust “marketplace of ideas” to ensure we get a range of topics, view, and issues How does the press fulfill democratic needs? -Journalism informs, analyzes, interprets, and explains* -Journalism as a bridge connecting the citizen to society (News is info after it processed through the journalistic process) -helps explain politics and complex things -journalism investigates* -casts journalists in an adversarial role -using sources and public records to expose wrong doing, corruption -journalism creates a public conversation* -helps generate social empathy* -helps us appreciate diversity and difference -helps us connect with one another to recognize our common humanity -encourages accountability -should function as a “fourth Estate” -as a “fourth institution outside gov -gov cannot keep itself accountable and nor we would want it to -other institutions need to be held to account proportionate their power and influence Day 2 Review from class -Journalism and democracy are intimately linked -Journalism is a social institution shaped by social/political system in which it operates American journalism reflects core libertarian values about freedom and individual liberty Enlightenment thinking developed the rational man argument People could distinguish truth from false Democracy requires from journalism -Info dissemination -Accountability -Representation -Conflict resolution and deliberation 3 metaphors to describe function of journalism in democracy -mirror -watchdog -marketplace How press fulfills demo needs Informs, analyzes, interprets, and explains…. Watergate Investigates Creates public convo Generates social empathy Encourages accountability Free speech Congress shall make no law respecting an establish of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” Constraint on government but not on public people 1 amendment Press of freedom-one of 5 Government is not the only threat to journalistic freedom, (freedom of speech wont protect them look into) -cutbacks -the quest for ratings -cost of entry into the marketplace -advertiser pressure -source pressure The Hutchins commission -Commission on freedom of the press -Commissioned by Time publisher Henry Luce to investigate condition of press freedom in the US, 1942 Yellow Journalism- attract the most readers, uss maine sunk in Cuba, accusing Spanish of sinking ship, no evidence Spanish were responsible but published outrageous headlines. Dangers of yellow journalism -The Commission argued that press freedom was in danger, but because of press performance rights come with responsibilities Freedom from vs. freedom to (pos vs. negative liberty) pos- certain things the government should provide for you. Adequate judgment about public policies -Enshrined idea that journalism is a public service and ought to be conducted professionally Social responsibility theory of the press Freedom of press/speech are essentially to all the other freedoms The recommendations “A truthful, comprehensive, and intelligent account of the days events in a context which gives them meaning” -take care in reporting -get authentic sources -avoid hearsay -know what questions to ask -clearly separate fact and opinion -isolated facts are useless-context is king “A forum for the exchange of comment and criticism” -promote freedom of expression -represent “important viewpoints” and promote alternative thought -Avoid anonymous sources whenever possible (bc they cant be held accountable bc they don’t know who loss of credibility) “The projection of a represenitive picture of the constituent groups in the society” -Challenge stereotypes by promoting fact -pay close attention to words and images -remember our shared humanity -Build respect and understanding for all groups “The representation and clarification of the goals and values of the society” -Educational role -US values? Democracy, Freedom, etc. (How do we achieve those things with different values) - “Full access of the day’s intelligence” -make info available to as many people as possible -write for broad based audiences Can Journalism provide what Democracy needs? Lippmann and Dewey Lippmann was pessimistic about the founder’s vision 1. world is too complex for the ordinary person to take in 2. Factors limiting us: -Limitations of social contact -Comparatively meager time in a day for paying attention to public affairs -Distortion arising bc events have to be compressed into very short messages -Difficulty of making a small vocabulary express a complicated world -Fear of change and the unknown The business of government should be left to elites (experts, intellectuals etc) Dewey was much more optimistic about the founders’ vision -democracy about much more than info -conversation is the root of democracy- through conversation we get community -Democracy as a process, not an outcome -So as long as we keep talking with one another, we will be ok *need both essentially They’re both right-they are simply addressing different aspects of democracy and different roles of journalism Lippmann saw democracy as an outcome Dewey saw democracy as a process Must journalism provide what democracy needs Other important institutions play a role in democratic society -schools/universities -political parties -social groups -civic organization Economic pressures often impede journalism public service Other types of news besides political reporting can serve democracy function What is Journalism? Dividing lines -Information vs. advocacy problem: is there anything journalists shouldn’t be neutral about? Another problem: Wouldn’t opinion columnists call themselves journalists Information vs. Entertainment -problem: does this mean journalism can’t be entertaining? Hard news vs. Soft news” -problem: Where’s the dividing line? -problem: What if soft news is popular Hard news- crime/gov Professionals vs. Citizens Citizen- don’t receive a paycheck Ideals vs. Realities -Surveys indicate the daily show is a primary source of news for milineials -They also indicate that those who name the daily show as a primary source of news are more well informed on matters of public policies than those who name other sources does this make trever noah a journalist? What about Jon Oliver? - They’re comedians but does that matter? Blurred boundaries Focus on journalistic process and not the people doing it Why does this matter? Should you be required to have a journalism degree to be a journalist? Is it necessary to distinguish journalists from non journalists -to emphasize the credibility of journalists -to help audiences navigate the media system -increasingly, a legal question shield laws protect journalists from revealing confidential sources or info in a court of law-don’t have a federal shield law today shield laws vary by states Delaware -must be employed 20 hours a week Florida -A salaried employee North Dakota -Any organization engaged in publishing or broadcasting news Rhode Island -Employed at an “accredited” news organization-- doesn’t make sense The difficulty of legal definitions Why should newspaper writers be afforded more protection than the author of a winning Pulitzer prize Who is a journalist Some journalists have argued that defining journalists is a dangerous activity -Defining to narrow opposing on the first amendment others believe its unnecessary to define Leonard Pitts -if guy had a wrench does that make them a mechanic? Other perspectives -were not all journalists. Longer answer.. if the term covers everyone with a pulse it has no meaning. Is journalism a profession? Profession Traditionally-religion medicine and law Characteristics -full time occupation -standard education system -membership in local and national association -enforceable codes of professional ethics -license to practice -monopoly over its field how do you become a profession? -role of British medical association the development of formal qualifications based upon education, apprenticeship, and examinations, the emergence of regulatory bodies with powers to admit and discipline members, and some degree of monopoly rights. Journalists have long exerted a monopoly over their field How? -Larger organizations= more resources more people -Cost of entry into the market -No other means of mass dissemination of information Journalism enjoyed the privileges of a profession without baggage Not being a strict profession does not mean we abandon professionalism (can still act professional) Citizen journalism People with no journalism background education or training are breaking down journalisms monopoly How? technology -shoot, edit, and share video -blogs -disseminate info via social media -fact-checking journalists -open conversation (journalist keeping citizens) Wikipedia, collective intelligence model “crowdsourcing” the news covering what mainstream journalism misses from limited time/resources First American newspaper: Publick Occurences both Foreign and Domestick 4-page newspaper-readers could comment on the last page then pass it along citizen journalism not necessarily new Eric Burns (just commented about^) Not dominated by a large organization Wikileaks -responsible for disclosing millions classified documents -Some argue that Wikileaks actions are illegal and that assange should be prosecuted -Leaking classified information Other consider it an admirable example of citizen journalism -news organizations do this all the time (leak classified info) -whatever one believes, wikileaks shows the ability of non journalists to expose official -------corruption and criminality (watchdog effect) example) Oscar Grant-capturing a tragedy -footage of his killing captured by passengers on their cellphones other examples (of citizen journalisms) -cnn ireport -Demotix other criticisms economic -citizen journalism labor model is explotive -could to lead to staff cuts (but journ need to verify it) where does that leave us Craft and Davis argument: are they journalists? is what they’re doing journalism what’s the difference “journalism is a set of transparent, independent procedures aimed at gathering, verifying and reporting truthful info of consequences to citizens in a democracy our definition -Transparency -Independence(free of external influences(threats like the state or gov)) -The process(adopted across the border. Is the same always. Doesn’t change w/dif pple -gathering info -verifying it -reporting it -Truthful information -…that is of consequence Transparency Show the reporting and sources that support your work Collaborate with the audience Curate and attribute info responsibly Offer disclosures and statements of values Correct website and social media errors effectively Independence Goal: Maintain independence from those you cover(or perhaps could cover) Can you.. Vote?.. yes Have a bumper sticker for a candidate/party on your car Be a member of the NRA or PETA Appearance of conflict of interest can be as damaging as a conflict itself- damages public trust in journalism The process -Gather -Verify root word of verify is verity which means truth involves confirming and est jour akin to the scientic method -report -truth is more than just facts -placing facts into context, giving facts meaning The Scientific Method and journ Principles of scientific method -observe the world and identify problem or phenomena of interest -form hypothesis or research question -devise ways to test the hypothesis or answer the research question -analyze results -verify the def provides a yardstick measure journalism if you’re following journalisms definition yes you are a journalist News making What is news? Information, news and journalism aren’t synonyms Through the journalistic process, raw info is transformed into news Journalism must organize, synthesize, and digest raw info The internet produces a lot of info but without journalism it is untested, unveted and without context Gatekeeping -“Gatekeeping is the process of culling and crafting countless bits of information into the limited number of messages that reach people every day” information channels -routine-public records, press conference, public stage relation events. We know about them. regular -informal- journalists talk to other journalists -enterprise-created by journalist by asking questions. Journalist have to go get info. Investigative journ once news passes through the gates... its news -so normal, automatic, journalists don’t think about it the gatekeeping process what is news “well, news is anything that’s interesting that relates to what’s happening in the world, what’s happening in areas of the culture that would be of interest to your audiences” “for most folks no news is good news, for the press good news is not news” bad things happen is good news, otherwise boring “when a dog bites a man its not news, but when a man bites a dog that is news” out of the blue or out of the norm happens News Values -Timeliness-recently, past 24 hours -Impact-on public, # of audience members interested, -Currency- issue that has high public interest it has currency -Conflict-interesting -Novelty-unusually, out of the ordinary, people dress weird -Prominence- celebrities -Proximity- news events that are close to the audience, geographic -Subjective process-only people can decide what they think is newsworthiness Timeliness -Often happened in the past 24 hours -This is largely a product of the structure of news media(operating on a 24 hour news cycle) -Often ignores events/processes that unfold over longer periods of time(ex climate change) Impact -Involves the number of people affected by a news event -The more affected and the greater the effect, the more likely it is to make the news Currency -ongoing event or issue people are paying attention to (ex. Clinton scandal & Simpson trial) Conflict -News story adopt a conflict frame -Stories of conflict are naturally compelling -Political reporting is dominated by conflict stories citizens can become cynical to politics, they just see debates and not behind the scenes -conflicts are sometime portrayed where there are none(climate change) Novelty -Human interest items are often selected because of their novelty -Novel stories are often deviant in the sense that they fall outside the norm -People are naturally attracted to the stories about strange or “out of the ordinary” things Prominence -They do and say things most people would never do(names) -Element of fantasism, escapism, and relaxation -Real news gets pacified by celebrity news Proximity -News events in areas closer to the audience are considered to be more relevant to the audience -Geographic(physical distance) -Cultural proximity(symbolic distance)cultural ties w/ france more than kenya. We know more about France. We relate more with France. Newsworthy? Ex) State senator accused of corruption. Conflict. Prominent (member of the senate) Impact(actions affect other people) novelty(deviant behavior outside of the norm) Ex) Business opens in town and having an opening event. Proximity impact create jobs. Ex) A newly discovered virus has killed more than 20 children in Southern India. Novelty. Conflict-because its compelling. Currency impact other communities. +Values behind the values How do we define impact? When do we define these values based on what an audience wants? When do we define them by what the audience needs? Journalism turns raw info into news Gatekeeping theory-the process of culling --3 channels:routine,informal-convos between other journalist, enterprise news Values: Timeliness, impact, currency, conflict, prominence, proximity. Values behind the values How do we define impact? o When do we define these values based on what an audience wants? When do we define them by what the audience needs? When do news organizations financial concerns define these values? When do journalists conventional practices define these values? Pew study Gov sources 60 15 were enterprise where journ went out and got the story 71 percent of stories were triggered by gov statements Competition of Information gatekeepers choose which info becomes news info competes to convince gatekeepers that it should be turned into news PR practitioners provide “information subsidies” Not natural process of making news* What does news Look like? Types of reporting Beat stories [generally assigned] - “cop’s n courts” Local gov, school - Allows them to gain expertise and build contacts in that field. Soft news [generally assigned] - human interests, sports, more narrative, feature stories, analysis of event after the fact Enterprise stories - Freelance reporting, investigative reporting, explanatory reporting *Generally reporters move fluidly among these types of reporting How is news made? Roles Reporter-gather write news Editor-oversees reporting process Sub-editor-oversees specific division/beat Copy editor-proofreading, tone, AP style Design editor- directs presentation, where things placed Producer- broadcast-specific editorial supervisor News director-oversees entire editorial process Publisher-business/editorial side. Ultimate boss Editor-Highest authority in the news room Technological strengths and constraints of reporting with various media Newspapers Strengths: Space> Time for depth, context Constraints: space is finite TV -strengths: visual audio constraints: Time (broadcast, not cable) Radio strength- audio, imaginative visuals constraint-time, actual visuals online strengths- space depth, context, interactivity, multimedia constraints-band witch How is news made? Inverted pyramid style Most important Less important Least important Lead is first line to say what the stories about in as little as possible Nut Graph-Very important-who what when where why, supporting info, quotes Important-additional facts info and quotes Not important Boring Dull Broadcasts Variation on the inverted pyramid -The lead -Key facts in inverted pyramid form -Chronology of events -Kicker Benefits of inverted Pyramid Model -recognizable structure for audiences -standardized practice -forces reporters to craft strong leads and “nut graphs” -helps hone jour acumen (what’s most news worthy) Criticism of inverted pyramid -Antiquated model -Product of a very specific medium -Only really works well for breaking news -Assumes that scarce attention requires front loading information Alternatives -Infographics -Data visualization -Timelines Storytelling in bite sized chunks Q a The kabob -also called wall street journal formula, the focus lead or the circle use for trends events where you want to show actual page anecdote nut Graf meat meat meat anecdote (kicker anecdote) seen in magazines too various gatekeeper’s now Key points -Making news involves time honored formula as well as risk taking with new modes of delivery -Making news is a negotiatory process involving many actors -Individuals and non professional jour are involved in the news making process more than ever -Journalist must understand their role in the news making process as well as understand its always changing Patterson and Knowledge- based on Journalism Chapter 1 “The information problem” Patterson’s book is full of abridged accounts of cases -ranging from excellent journalism to awful -concerning relationship between journalism and democracy we will build on theses cases by -tying them to key theory and research in journalism and mass communication -connecting them to the key concepts discussed in craft and Davis -comparing them with other cases Patterson addresses both directly and indirectly Arguments -Americans have become increasingly misinformed about a number of important issues -the news media are primarily to blame for this; partisanship, systemic biases, and soft news -democracy is underserved by modern journalism “the information problem” do most scientists believe global warming occurring? Americans getting a distorted picture—coverage distorts perception The fairness Doctrine if you were going to talk about politics need to present both sides. -administrative law(est by FCC) -oversees broadcast context: Broadcast and licensing should broadcast media play a social role in educating citizens tricky position of the first amendment. Which is better? …An unregulated marketplace of ideas? …A guided marketplace of ideas? (Neg lib- freedom from.. gov regulation) pos lib- freedom to.. access information Hutchison was making this same argument Patterson: revoking the fairness doctrine led to the rise of one-sided political talk radio Revoking the fd was not the only factor in changing media landscape. Part of a broader cultural shift in role reg in media Stifler innovation market Media fragmentation -The simultaneous increase in the number of available media outlets and the shift in audience’s behavior to consume products from multiple media. Implication: once isolated forms of news media must now fiercely compete with other media, not merely within their own media. Effects of media doctrine Media fragmentation Info consumes the attention of its recipients hence a wealth of info creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention effic Media fragmentation and the Diversity Paradox The greater the fierce the competition in the marketplace the greater the incentive to produce goods and service similar to you competitors Therefor marketplace producing diverse content decreases News media market can be characterized as fiercely competitive Ex) patch.com and the Hyperlocal movement Pattersons ex) stories about crime(crime reporting, depends on coverage) Journalists aren’t giving citizens what they need Market forces have contributed to this problem Gov regulation isn’t necessarily the way to solve this problem What options do we have Patterson-change the culture of journ. Specialize into journalism Question: Is inaccuracy in the name of speed forgivable Some journalist believes the publics interest in getting timely updates outweighs the few errors that result. The safeguard is that errors will get spotted and then corrected in follow-up stories. Patterson doesn’t think you should sacrifice accuracy for speed. Changing Journalism Culture: Bias Reexamined Bias reexamined For pat it is too simplistic to allege that news media are inherently liberal or inherently conservative -any political biases that news media appear to exhibit are byproducts of other, more complicated “biases” that come from systemic, cultural or market forces within the news media. Bias reexamined -Bias toward novelty ex) Barack Obama in 2008, black v 2012 politicians transgressions become novel implication for journalism: sustained thematic reporting on one topic or issues become difficult bc it competes with the newest story around the corner Bias Reexamined Bias toward negativity -positive=Soft” Criem=hardest of the hard news Solution: following an objective method will help journalists determine the appropriate tone and level of criticism Bias Reexamined Bias against government Journ are predisposed to a watchdog role. Not interested when gov functions effectively Problem: fairness and criticism are not mutually exclusive Anti gov bias reinforces conservative arguments But: objective method of reporting Bias Reexamined “Big Story” Bias Ex) Mad Cow disease story Ex) James Holmes V Jim Holmes in Aurora Ex) Guuilty until proven innocenet” stories -----Gary Condit – Chandra Levy. Right before 911 Biases interact with one another Anti gov, neg, novelty, big story How Should Journalism Conceive Harm? Saved a life of two but scared Americans. Lost 3.2 billion to 4.7 billion from the scare Forces such as media fragmentation and the changing culture toward media regulation have contributed to shortcomings in reporting the news Bias in news media is more complicated and nuanced than it seems Journ must be aware of other sources of bias that could hurt reporting Follow objective method can help mange these sources of bias Source dependence Journalistic accuracy is compromised by dependence on sources Public officials are the primary source of news News flows from the top down Administration Other elites(congress members, ex officials, other elites) Media(journalists Public “Cascading” model administration other elites media news frames(framing words framing images) public Why do journalist use sources? credibility -official sources lend authority to a story Predictability -public officials are a consistent source for news Accessibility -its relatively cheap and easy to attend a press briefing Objectivity -journalist can’t offer their own opinion in the news so they require credible sources The Problem -Journalist became more “adversarial” during the Vietnam/Watergate era -Journalist willing to challenge high-ranking officials The barriers to adversarial journalism: -journalistic norms -Risks losing access -Time and financial constraints He said, she said” Journalism -“you go shopping for a quote Well-adapted for a 30 minute picture based newscasts -Added elements of fiction to the news Drama, conflict, narrative structure Shifted control of the story from newsmaker to journalist The response - Politicians adopted a defensive posture -spiro Agnew: boss involved in water gate. Took bribes forced to resign -By the 1990s, politicians had adapted to the new attack journ “The cure for propaganda is more propaganda” Political wordplay -Death tax(estate tax) -Obamacare (affordable care act -Bailout(tarp fund) The waterboarding case -2010 Harvard study examined references to waterboarding in 4 major newspapers -newspapers called waterboarding torture in 80 percent of stories before 2001 after 2002, less than 5 percent of stories used term as torture the consequences policy statements are largely ignored, attacks are highlighted cooperative effort are sidelined -stem cell research(controversy made it news worthy. Partisan issue) overwhelming emphasis on conflict over substance -climate change -healthcare reform -teaching evolution in public records The “memogate” case During the 2004 presidential election, Cbs news aired several allegation regarding Bush’s Air National Guard service. Bush received special treatment Disobeyed orders Allegations were based on memos allegedly from bush’s former commander Several sources questioned authenticity of doc Cbs was unable to verify the original source of the doc or their authenticity The seduction of power “Power rather than truthfulness, is the operative standard” “indexing” aligning coverage to the range of elite political debate ex)2003 Iraq War coverage v. 2006-2007 coverage The democratization of truth “Motivated reasoning” people process info in a way that allows them to believe what they want -2010 found a sig number People are more likely to believe something if it is endorsed by a source they trust He said she said journ can lead to people choosing to believe their preferred side The problem with Objectivity -Objectivity was once considered a rigorous process of verification -Objectivity had become synonymous with power -Balance can lead to false equivalencies” climate change debate -“Stenography” journalism difficult to verify classified info can jour be too critical? magnifying factual inaccuracies leads to increased public mistrust of both politicians and journ -can lead to cynancism and apathy torwards political system when important inaccuracies occur the public is less inclined to pay attention normative disputes are factually unimpeachable -abortion -the role of gov -capital punishment The way forward Cant be found in the practices of the pasts Journ operates under a set of contradict Neutrality v investigation Fair mindedness critical edge Disengaged v impactful “Journalism needs a new paradigm, one that involves a different wat od thinking what constitutes a reliable source” Exam Craft and davis Patterson ½ Supplemental reading John miltons ideas His idea of rational man and whats it have to do with democracy Journ definition Shield laws- are function, so difficult to agree 7 news values and their meaning gatekeeping process pattersons article about media fragmentation and disinformation American are disinformed, fairness doctrine Pattersons structural bias” big story, negative bias Hutchins commission-what, why it was formed, what it said, 5 recommendation
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