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Policing lecture notes

by: Lizzie Enright

Policing lecture notes CJ 335

Lizzie Enright

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About this Document

Notes from the first half of the semester
Gregory Drake
Criminal Justice
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Lizzie Enright on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CJ 335 at Michigan State University taught by Gregory Drake in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Policing in Criminal Justice at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
Core Police Functions Typical Police Mission(s) - Enforce law - Investigate crimes - Prevent Crime - Domestic peace - Community services Common Police Practices - Patrol & CFS Response o Law Enforcement Orientation - PeaceKeeping & Order Maintenance o Order Maintenance Orientation - Investigation (Vice) o Law Enforcement Orientation Types of Patrol - Policing is largely a-theoretical o But most practices rest on deterrence theory - Preventative/ Random Patrol - Directed Patrol o Distribution of Crime? Efficacy of Patrol - Random Patrol o KC Patrol experiment o Why? - Directed / Hot Spot Policing o Michigan State Police and Others o Why? Types of patrol - Vehicle - Foot - Bicycle - Horse - K-9 o Air/ water/ ATV Calls for Service & Response - Routine Response (CFS) o Response Time & Citizen Satisfaction  Clearance probability curve - Emergency response o Girl in washer o Why?  Police are public face Traffic Enforcement Function - Moving violations - Code Enforcement - Pretext stops o Officer discretion - Stop-n-frisk o NYC findings - Accident Investigation & Prevention o Leading cause of Death for 4- 34 years old o Public face - Traffic pursuits o 2 Conflicting objectives  Apprehension of “bad guy”  Officer & Public safety  (Fun & Exciting) o Some agencies have restrictive policies  Which can be effective Peacekeeping & Order Maintenance - Managing Disorder - Quality of life offenses o Petty crimes o Broken windows model  Physical Disorder  Fear  Social Withdrawal  Crime Fiscal and Social Cost of QOL Policing - Fiscal Cost - Racial tension - Cost to personal liberties o Gang ordinances Investigations - Romanticized aspects of Policing - Evidence Collection o Discretion & chain of Custody o Steven Avery Case? - Close relationship with DA’s - Undercover Work o Further limited oversight o Restriction on Entrapment Early American Policing  First department near NYC circa 1844  Early departments characterized by: o Decentralized and local orientation, rather than centralized and national o Tremendous variation across agencies o Heavy influence from local politics o General willingness to use force  General Eras of Policing o Political Era: (1840-1930) o Reform Era: (1930-1970) o Community Era: (1970-2000) o Modern Era: (2000-Now) Political Era  Large jurisdictions o Few officers  Widespread corruption  Regulation rather than Enforcement  Patronage o Tammany Hall o “Boss” Tweed  Crime Commissions (Wickersham Commission (~1930) Reform/ Professionalization Era (1930~1970)  August Vollmer & Others o Professionalism o Education o Training o Divorce from politics o Civil service standards  O.W. Wilson o Firings o Increased standards o Limits in officer discretion Community Era (1970-2000)  Consequences of Reform o Professionalization and interaction with the community o Limited officer discretion o Proliferation of police technology  Civil Rights Movement o Enforcing Jim Crow  Segregation  Inter-racial marriage  Limits on right to assemble  Service & “client” orientation  Policing “designed to ensure citizen satisfaction”  John Angell & Others o Increase connection to communities o Increase officer discretion and problem solving o Focus on quality of life offenses o Increase foot patrols  Many defined political era Modern Era  9/11/2001 o Development of DHS  Intelligence led policing  Evidence based policing  Smart policing  Collaborative efforts  Emergence of more new technologies o Crime mapping o Less lethal force Consequences of Federalism  Federal and State laws and law enforcement  Overlap and Redundancy o Potential for conflict o Necessity of cooperation Government Agencies  Legislative influence o Laws/codes to be enforced o Funding  Judicial influence o Case-law o Overturned arrests and convictions  Executive influence o Presidents, governors, mayors/councils o MSP as example Criminal Justice Organizations  Professional organizations o Standard setters  Prosecutors and the courts o Interpretation of Legal code o Evidence collection o Testifying  Probation and parole o Information o Altered Expectations of Privacy o Collaborative efforts Media  Media portrayals of policing and the police o Glorify investigation o Overstate risk of injury o Overstate risk of Victimization  “If it bleeds it leads..”  Potential for  Police portrayals- Public information officers o Balances media o But skewed favorably  Accurate picture falls between Community  Support for police varies o Age o Race o Gender o Prior Contact  Sovereign and Organizational Legitimacy Police Discretion - What is it? o 2 primary aspects  - American Bar Association Survey (~1950) o At behest of the Supreme Court   “Breakdown, delay, and ineffectiveness of American Law  enforcement”  Main points on Discretion - Discretion is necessary and inevitable in the criminal justice system o Discretion is incredibly difficult to eliminate  Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment - Discretion (Behavior) is learned o Interactions key o A la our discussion of culture Why Have Discretion? - Michael Lipski (1980) o Goal Conflict and Situational Variables o Resource Deprivation  Public Resources “Demand and Supply” - S-LB Autonomy o Street level bureaucrat have limited oversight o Administrators have limited tools for censure - Leads to Typification/Routinization o Other authors talk about moral worthiness Lipski Summary - End point: o Officers have discretion o Discretion is needed o Discretion is difficult to eliminate but, - A lack of resources limits discretion o Routine help efficient use of limited resources  Profiling?  Moral evaluations help explain breaks from routines  Van Maanen & others Pros and Cons of Discretion Pros: o Job satisfaction o Autonomy o Efficiency Cons: o Abuse o Corruption o Inequity Influences on Discretion - Organizational Factors - Neighborhood Factors - Officer Characteristics Organization Factors - Formal Rules and Policy o Lipski says these are weaker than we think  Limited Oversight  Resources are more important  Leads to “Policy Absorption” o i.e. ignoring policy - Large Beats o Resources spread thin o Less time for each contact  Influences behavior Neighborhood Factors - Racial Composition - SES (i.e. Concentrated poverty) - High crime Officer Characteristics - Individual Differences o E.g. Muir (1977)  Officer “culture”/values/orientation – behavior - Gender o Female officers less aggressive on average - Race o Mixed findings  Added “perspective”  “Double Marginality”: Minority officers treat minority suspects harsher than other suspects Offender/ Victim Characteristics - Race o Boston “driving while black” study o Disentangle from Neighborhood effects? - Gender o Chivalry vs. Paternalistic vs. opportunity hypothesis - Age o Young vs. old - Social class/ Income o Low/poor vs. Middle vs. High/Rich Situational Factors - Offense Seriousness - Victim Offender Relationships - Location/Bystanders - CFS vs. Officer Initiated - Suspect Attitude: o Van Maanen Van Maanen (1978) - Language? o Crispy-Critters - Officers Develop “types” of citizens o Why? (Lipski & Danger)  Suspicious Persons  Assholes  Know-nothings Van Maanen’s Types of Citizens - Suspicious persons: o Officers believes have committed offense - Assholes: o Do not accept officer’s definition of events - Know-Nothing’s o Others, who officers deem lack intimate knowledge of police work 3 Stages of Interactions with Assholes - Affront (Challenge to authority/ control) - Clarification (By the officer, of the situation) o Did she/ he mean to offend? o Could have acted Differently? - Remedy Police Subculture - Culture: o Shared set of customs, Attitudes, values, norms, & behaviors that form a particular way of life  Values:  Aspects of Importance  Standards of Good & Bad  Norms: Rules and Expectations - Social Institution: o Organizations that communicates Values & Norms - Subculture: o Patterns of Culture within a segment of society that distinguish it  Sub meaning within - Police Subculture: o All of the above themes in the context of the institution of policing Elements of (Sub) Culture - Each has a set of themes o Us vs. them o Social Isolation - Aspects are institutionalized o Irrational ways of doing things  “That’s the way its always been done” - Emotional Expression o How culture is passed on  Stories  FTO training Sources of Police Subculture - Organizational Factors - Street Environment - Administration - Other CJ or Police Agencies - Media - Organizational Factors (interactions w/ officers) o Platoon/ Squad Structure o Shift Schedules  Social Isolation  Officer Bonding  Cultural Transmissions/ Reification - Street Environment (Interactions w/ citizens) o Frustration o Routinization  Common Crimes (traffic stops) o Powerlessness - Administration (interaction w/ Leadership) o Hierarchical Structure of Power  Different goals for leaders and officers  Produces frustrating interactions o Cultural Divide  Interactions with leadership shapes culture  Organization Policy shapes culture  Often developed to protect the organization and protect citizens, not officers needs or desires o Us vs. Them also between leadership & officers - Other Agencies (Interactions w/ external peers) o Case Processing (DA)  Disillusionment  Frustration  Dropped cases  Stress  Testifying o Conferences  Sharing stories with other officers about interactions with leadership  Cultural Diffusion - Media o “Inner Circle” (trusted Media Members)  Help with image management o Negative Reporting  Purposeful or Otherwise  Lack of Understanding of police behavior  Houston Taser Example o Taser cameras o Reinforces “us vs. them”  And isolation Control Solidarity Territoriality Common sense Use of force (passion) Masculinity Danger Us vs. Them Unpredictability Secrecy Suspicion Social isolation Split- Second Syndrome Bravery Moral Superiority Deception Facets of Police Subculture - Control o Given Power to Actively Restrict Rights o Direct Control o Indirect control  Through presence - Territoriality o Dominion - Use of Force o Active Constriction of rights o Right to end life o Referred to as “Passion” o “War on_” metaphors o Availability of firearms o All contribute to a very unique working environment  Use of higher degrees of force is rare - Danger + Unpredictability  Suspicion o Bedrock aspects of Police Culture o “Police work is hours of sheer boredom punctuated by moments of sheer terror”  Unpredictable but routine? - A constant state of suspicion results o Split-Second Syndrome o Suspicion carries over to social life Paradox of Policing - Perception of Danger is Most Important o National worker rate (3.7 per 100,000) o 21 per 100,000 rate of fatality for police (~5x avg.)  Taxi/ truck drivers  Roofers  Farmers  Loggers  Fishers  Homicide rate? - Social Isolation & Officer Solidarity o Aspects of policing produce isolation  Scheduling  Also enhances solidarity with other officers  “Thin blue line”  Subcultural aspects of solidarity o Moral Superiority o Common Sense o Masculinity o Us vs. Them o Secrecy - Solidarity o Moral superiority  May regard citizens as inferior o Common Sense  Skill based in intuitiveness and experience  Sometimes a distain for book knowledge/ Science  Tension with modern era? o Masculinity  85% male officers  Policing has many “masculine” qualities ingrained within  Physicality  Fighting  Bravery  Weaponry  Distain of “feminine” qualities o Communication o Empathy o Us vs. Them Mentality  Brotherhood in Blue  Stems in part from negative community attention, and a perceived lack of understanding in policing o Secrecy  “Don’t give up another cop”  Watch for partner first  Don’t implicate other officers  Perjury & Corruption Paoline (2004) - Two Competing Conceptions of Police Subculture o “Monolithic” o Varied/differences focused  Use Typologies  Not all officers share the same values, attitudes, behaviors  Composition of departments have changed over time  Females and Minorities and the infusion of “their” behavior Muir’s (1977) Typology of Officers Passion (Morality of Coercion) Perspectiv Conflicted Integrated e Tragic Reciprocators Professionals Cynic Avoiders Enforcers Paoline Findings - 5 Subgroups of Officers: o Tough cops (9%) o Clean-Beat-Crime-Fighters (22%) o Avoiders (14%) o Problem Solvers (10%) o Professionals (23%) - 2 new subgroups: o Anti-Organization Street-cops (9%)  Lay-lows/ Traditionalists  Very negative attitudes towards department administrators  Very positive attitude toward citizens o “Dirty-Harry” Enforcers (13%)  Tough cops  No issue with civil violations  Expanded police role  Ok with administrators


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