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GEOL 101 Earthquakes I &II

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101 Earthquakes I &II 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Earthquakes I II
Natalee Stanton

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These notes cover the PowerPoint, Professors lecture, and the answers to the sample exam questions from both lectures on Earthquakes.
Geology 101-017
Geology 101
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
GEOL 101 Earthquakes   Earthquake – vibration of earth produced by a rapid release of energy  Fault­ large fracture in the earth, locus of the earthquake movement o Faults come at all scales, from tiny fracture to plate boundaries   Stress – forces per unit area ­ Compression ( convergent ­ Tension (divergent) ­ Shear (strike – slip)  Strain – measure of the amount of deformation  ­ Any change in any change in original shape or size of an object in response to  stress acting on it I. Elastic rebound  ­ Stress builds up in rocks until it exceeds the strength of the rocks and the  rocks break ­ Elastic deformation is expressed in rocks between earthquakes ­ Elastic rebound – return of rocks to original shape after an earthquake  Focus – site of initial rupture, where the slip initiates during an earthquake  Epicenter­ point on surface above the focus   Foreshocks – small earthquakes that occur in the vicinity of, but before, a main  earthquake   Aftershocks – follow the main earthquake in sequences, and their foci are  distributed in and around the rupture  ­ The size of the aftershocks depends on the size of the initial large earthquake II. Seismology – study of the propagation of mechanical energy that is released by  earthquakes  ­ When energy is released, waves of motion move through the rocks  surrounding the focus   Seismic waves – vibrations form earthquakes that travel through the earth ­ Ground vibrations caused by rocks slipping along opposite sides of a fault ­ Instruments used to measure seismic waves are called seismographs  III. Two types of body waves  1. Body waves – travel through the earth a. P waves – primary/ compressional  ­ Travel as a series of contractions and expansion, pushing and  pulling particles in the direction of their path of travel  ­ Highest speeds b. S waves­ secondary/ shear  ­ Travel a little slower ­ Push material at right angles to their path of travel   Horizontal and vertical planes  Do not pass through liquids  2. Surface waves  ­ Travel along the earth’s surface  Retrograde elliptical motion  Transverse movement  a. Most devastating waves  GEOL 101 Earthquakes II IV. Seismographs – instruments that record the seismic waves generated by  earthquakes ­ Vertical and horizontal ground movements   Seismic waves form an earthquakes move out concentrically from the focus.  The difference between the arrival times of the P and S waves at a recording  station is a function of the distance from the epicenter V. Sizing up Earthquakes  ­ Duration of shaking  o Up to tens of second ­ Intensity scales (qualitative) o Based on damage and human perception ­ Magnitude scale (quantitative) o Based on amount of energy released   Modified Mercalli scale ­ Intensity measures the amount of destruction caused by an earthquake VI. Richter scale – magnitude ­ Measures of the amount of energy released by earthquakes  ­ Measures of wave amplitude )logarithm of amplitude ­ Largest earthquake – 9.5 ­ Micro earthquake = less than 2 VII. Damage due to earthquakes ­ Ground movement ­ Fire ­ Tidal waves (tsunami)  o Speeds up to 500­8—km/hr o Triggered by submarine earthquakes  ­ Landslides o All kids of mass waist o Liquefaction – sudden loss ­ Floods ­ Tsunamis – triggered by submarine earthquakes / landslides, and the  eruption of submarine volcanoes  o Are imperceptible in open ocean o Direct expression of the seismic energy traveling through water   Recurrence interval ­ the average time between large earthquakes on a fault  ­ Number of years required to accumulate the strain that will be released  by fault slip in a future earthquake  ­ Calculated form fault slip rate and size of the expected VIII. Earthquake predictions ­ Longer term – imprecise (but possible) ­ Short term – precise (very difficult) o Seismic risks can be reduced, but seismic hazards cannot   Seismic risk – describes the potential for earthquake damage over a  long term for a specific region  Seismic hazard – describes the intensity of seismic shaking and  ground disruption over a long time in a specific region  Sample Exam Questions  The amount of ground displacement is an earthquake is called a ___. a. Dip b. Epicenter c. Focus d. Slip   Which set of waves are most likely surface waves? a. Set a b. Set b c. Set c d. Set a, b, and c are all surface waves What is the maximum amount of slip on a fault during an earthquake? a. About 1 meter b. About 20 meters c. About 100 meters d. About 200 meters Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 10KM are associated with __ plate  boundaries. a. Convergent b. Divergent  c. Transform  d. Convergent, divergent, and transform The Mercalli intensity scale measures ___. a. The amount of destruction caused by an earthquakes b. The amount of slip on a fault plan caused by an earthquake c. The amplitude of the surface waves d. All of the above The average time between large earthquake events along a fault is known as the __  interval. a. Seismic b. Hazard c. Fault slip d. Recurrence 


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