ARTHI 6B/6C: Midterm 1 Study Guide
ARTHI 6B/6C: Midterm 1 Study Guide
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Date Created: 06/07/14
ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez I ARTISTS SORTED CHRONOLOGICALLY Dante Alighieri 12651321 0 La Vita Nuova 0 The Divine Comedy Bonaventura Berlighieri 12341244 0 Saint Francis Altarpiece Church of San Francesco in Pescia Italy Tempera on wood Nicola Pisano 12581278 0 Pulpit of Pisa Cathedral baptistery Pisa Cathedral in Pisa Italy Marble 0 The Annunciation and the Nativity Pisa Cathedral in Pisa Italy Marble relief Giovanni Pisano 12501320 0 The Annunciation and the Nativity Church of Sant Andrea in Pistoia Italy Marble relief Pietro Cavallini 12731308 0 Seated Apostles of Last Judgment Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere Rome Italy Cimabue 12401302 0 Madonna Enthroned with Angles and Prophets Galleria degli Uffizi Florence Tempera on Wood Vasari 15111574 0 The Lives Giotto 12651337 0 Madonna Enthroned Galleria degli Uffizi Florence Tempera on wood 0 Interior ofArena Chapel Scrovegni Chapel Padua Italy o Lamentation Arena Chapel in Padua Italy Fresco Duccio 12781318 0 Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints of Maesta Altarpiece Siena Cathedral of Siena Italy Tempera on Wood 0 Betrayal ofJesus of back of Maesta Altarpiece Siena Cathedral of Siena Italy Tempera on Wood Simone Martini 12851344 0 Annunciation Galleria degli Uffizi Florence Tempera and gold leaf on wood Lorenzetti Brothers 13201348 0 The Birth of the Virgin from the Altar of Saint Savinus Siena Cathedral of Siena Italy Tempera on wood 0 Peaceful City from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country Sala della Pace Palazzo Pubblico of Siena Italy Fresco 0 Peaceful Country from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country Salla della Pace Palazzo Pubblico Siena Italy Fresco ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 2 Orcagna 13431368 0 Tabernacle of Or San Michele Church of Or San Michele of Florence Italy Mosaic gold marble Iapis lazuli Bernardo Daddi 12901348 0 Madonna and Child with Saints Church of Or San Michele of Florence Italy painted panel insert Francesco Traini 13211363 amp Buffalmacco 13201336 0 Triumph of Death Camposanto Pisa Cathedral Pisa Fresco Limbourg Brothers 0 January from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Musee Conde Chantilly Ink on vellum 0 October from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry Musee Conde Chantilly Ink on vellum Claus Sluter 13801406 0 Well of Moses Chartreuse de Champmol Dijon France Limestone with paint Melchior Broederlam 13871409 0 Annunciation and Visitation from Retable de Champmol Chapel of Chartreuse de Champmol Dijon France Tempera on wood 0 Presentation and Flight into Egypt from Retable de Champmol Chapel of Chartreuse de Champmol Dijon France Tempera on wood Jan Van Eyck 13901441 0 Ghent Altarpiece Saint Bavo Cathedral Ghent Belgium Oil on wood o Patron Jodocus Vyd and Isabel Borluut 0 Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride Oil on wood 0 Man in a Red Turban Oil on wood Rogier Van Der Weyden 14001464 0 Deposition NotreDamehorsIesmurs Louvain Belgium Oil on wood o Patron Archer39s Guild 0 Last Judgment Altarpiece H telDieu Beaun France Oil on wood o Patron Nicholas Rolin 0 Portrait ofa Lady Oil on wood Dirk Bouts 14151475 0 Last Supper from Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament Saint Peter39s Louvain Belgium Oil on wood Hugo Van Der Goes 14401482 0 PortinariAltarpiece Sant Egidio Florence Italy Tempera and oil on wood Hans Memling 14301494 0 Virgins with Saints and Angels of Saint John Altarpiece Hospitaal Sin Jan Bruges Belgium Oil on wood ART 113F ARTHI 6B6C Jaime Perez 3 Robert Campin 13781444 0 Merode Altarpiece and The Annunciation Merode family house Oil on wood o Patron Peter Inghelbrecht Petrus Christus 14101472 0 A Goldsmith in His Shop Possibly Saint Eligius Oil on wood Hieronymus Bosch 14501516 0 Garden of Earthly Delights Creation of Eve amp Hell Oil on wood Jean Fouquet 14201481 0 Melun Diptych E Stephen Lochner 14001451 Konrad Witz 14001446 Veit Stoss 14471533 Riemenschneider 14601531 Michel Wolgemut 14341519 Martin Schongauer 14301491 14TH CENTURY ITALIAN ART 0 Renaissance o Characterized by a growing concern with the natural world the individual and humanity39s worldly existence o The rebirth of art and culture o A revived interest in classical cultures The CityStates Politics and Economics 0 CityStates o Each consisted of a geographic region varying in size dominated by a major city o Most of which were republics governed by executive bodies o The separate economies determined independence Port cities expanded maritime trade o Guilds protected members common economic interest against taxation and provided them with means to regulate worIlt quality and membership training The Black Death 0 Stimulated religious bequests and encourage commissioning of devotional images The Great Schism 0 The College of Cardinals elected French pope Clement V who settled in Avignon instead of Rome 0 One French pope Clement VII and one Italian pope Urban VI were elected ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 4 0 Resolved when Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund elected a neutral Roman pope Martin V Vernacular Literature 0 The development of a commonly spoken literature 0 Expanded the audience for philosophical and intellectual concepts Reviving Classical Values 0 Humanism human values and interests distinct from but not opposed to religious values 0 The study of Latin classics and emulation of Roman civic virtues o Service to the state o Participation in government o Defense of state institutions 0 Recovery of Greek and Roman literature and philosophy An Artistic Transition 0 Late Gothic of late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries also referred to as Early Renaissance Maniera Greca 0 Bonaventura Berlinghieri and the Francis Atarpiece displayed maniera greca Greek style emotion 0 The shallow space and the linear flatness of the Byzantine tradition was still present Mendicant Orders and Confraternities 0 The pope39s absence from Italy Avignon papacy was compensated with mendicants begging friars o Renounced all worldly goods and committed themselves to spreading God39s word performing good deeds and ministering to the sick and dying 0 Confraternities were organizations of laypersons nonmember of church dedicated to strict religious observance Commissions and Patronage 0 Patrons religious entities or guilds would subsidize the building and decoration of numerous churches and hospitals 0 Art was commission for propagandistic philanthropic or commemorative purposes The Influence of Classical Art 0 Nicola Pisano exhibited an unprecedented interest in classical forms o Marble reliefs and ornament for large pulpits Pisa Cathedral 0 The Annunciation and the Nativity the Virgin Mary reclines in a pose similar to that of classical art ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 5 A Son39s Sculptural Response 0 Giovanni Pisano s version of The Annunciation and the Nativity contrasts his father39s thick carving and placid presentation with dynamic figures and deep spaces to represent motion Sculptural Form in Painting 0 Piertro Cavalini s Seated Apostles fresco uses light to illuminate figures and drapery to enhance three dimensionality A Summary of Byzantine Style 0 The formality of Cimabue s Madonna Enthroned with angels and Prophets is modeled on Byzantine examples o careful structure and symmetry o gold leaf to enhance three dimensionality of drapery 0 Nevertheless Cimabue constructed deeper space and the piece worked as a transition from Byzantine style An Empirical Art 0 Giotto made a much more radical break with the past 0 Regardless of other influences his true teacher was nature 0 In his version of Madonna Enthroned it is apparent that he contributed sculptural solidity and weight o The Virgin Mary is presented as a voluminous woman and the throne has a new dimensionality Chronicling the Lives of the Virgin and Christ 0 Scrovegni a wealthy Paduan merchant contracted Giotto to fresco the interior of the Arena Chapel Cappella Scrovegni 0 With 38 pictures Giotto document the lives of the Virgin Joachim and Ann top level the life and mission of Christ middle and his Passion Crucifixion and Resurrection bottom 0 The Last Judgment covers the west wall of the chapel s entrance 0 Lamentation illustrates compositional complexity and emotional resonance not seen before o Chiaroscuro use of dramatic contrasts of dark and light to produce modeling 0 Giotto s art synthesized dramatic narrative holy lesson and truth to human experience in a visual idiom of his own invention Fresco Painting 0 Applying permanent limeproof pigments on freshly laid lime plaster Useful because of longevity 0 Buon fresco gt arricio brown coat of plaster gt sinopia transfer of drawing with brown orange pigment gt cartoon full sized prepared trace gt intonaco painting coat see notes ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 6 The Republic of Siena 0 Florence and Siena were urban centers of bankers and merchants with widespread international contacts Mary In Majesty 0 Siena defeat Florence in the battle of Monteperti in 1260 o Believed the Virgin Mary sponsored their victory 0 Duccio s Maesta was a celebration of the Virgin Mary o Prayer for himself Siena Siena Cathedral and its churches o Follows Byzantine tradition but relaxes strict frontality and rigidity o In the numerous panels on the back he experimented with the illustration of the later life of Christ narrative painter 0 In The Betray ofJesus Duccio gave the characters mass and modeled them with a range from light to dark o Displays range of emotions An quotnternational Stylequot 0 Simone Martini pupil of Duccio acquainted northern French late Gothic painters with the Sienese style International Style o Appealed to the aristocratic taste with brilliant colors lavish costumes intricate ornamentation 0 In the Annunciation the winged Gabriel visits an uncomfortable Virgin Mary with Saint Margaret pregnancy in the background o A Late Gothic frame composed primarily of gold leaf with the new Sienese dimensionality and emotion o Martini might have had his assistant Lippo Memmi paint the border saints Mastering a Craft 0 ltalians perceived art as a trade therefore they expected artists to train as with any other profession 0 The guilds supervised to ensure quality and to control the number of accepted artists 0 Training consisted of working as an apprentice for a master 0 Assistants were allowed to paint less important figures under a master39s close supervision Concern for Spatial Illusion 0 The Lorenzetti brothers students of Duccio achieved success in creating spatial illusions in The Birth of the Virgin o Painted for Siena Cathedral to honor Virgin Mary A Bastion of Power 0 The Palazzo Pubblico of Siena inspired respect for the city39s power and success ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 7 0 It was built as a defense post for external conflict as well as internal conflict common in republics 0 Lorenzetti produced three frescoes to give a visual form to Sienese civic concerns o Allegoiy of Good Government o Bad Government and the Effects of Bad Government in the City o Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country Peaceful City is a panoramic view of Siena Peaceful Country is a bird39s eye view of the countryside Combined the analytical powers of Giotto with Duccio s narrative talent The quotMost Beautifulquot Tuscan Church 0 The Florence Cathedral had emphasis on horizontal elements of the design and the building rests firmly on the ground A Tower of Building Blocks 0 Giotto designed the Florence campanile stands apart from the cathedral 0 Each component of the campanile could stand on its own this reflects the Romanesque style and forecasts the Renaissance concept of self sufficient works that could exist in complete independence Accommodating the Faithful 0 Increased importance of mendicant orders led to construction of large churches by Franciscans and Dominicans A Memorial to the Black Death 0 Orcagna and Bernardo Daddi were commissioned to work on the tabernacle of the Or San Michele cathedral of Florence o A memorial to the dead of the Black Plague o Orcagna finished the tabernacle and Daddi painted Madonna and Child with Saints o Giotteschis followers of Giotto 0 Lavish ornamentation and costly materials recall medieval association of precious material with holy things Pisa 0 A major port city that held death as a significant theme in art before and after the plague Dealing with Death 0 Triumph of Death by Traini or Buffalmacco was painted on the wall of the Camposanto holy field the burial ground adjacent to the Pisa Cathedral 0 Angels and demons struggle for the souls of the corpses heaped in the middle foreground ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 8 0 Intended to warn against greed and lust the wealthy were unprepared for death and unlikely to see salvation 15quot CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN 0 The Great Schism Italy and France the Black Death the Hundred Years War France and England Consolidating Political Power 0 Structured bureaucracies royal courts and parliamentary assemblies were becoming the norm 0 Eventually by the late 15 century kings began to consolidate their authority over their respective countries Emerging Capitalism 0 Capitalism grew to respond to the financial requirements of trade new credit and exchange systems 0 First international commercial stock exchange established in Antwerp in 1460 Flourishing of Art 0 Northern European art focuses on piety devotion to religion and political power and the relationship between the two French Manuscript Illumination A New Vision of Space 0 Rather than illuminations simply appearing as images on flat surfaces they were conceived by artists and viewers as illusory three dimensional images o Influenced by the Italian revival of humanism classical antiquity Very Sumptuous Hours 0 The Limbourg Brothers expanded the illusionistic capabilities of illumination o Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry The Very Sumptuous Hours of the Duke of Berry for Jean the duke of Berry and brother of King Charles V of France A book used for reciting prayers The calendar pictures are most famous in history of manuscript illumination The peasants are happy propaganda 15TH CENTURY FLEMISH ART THE BURGUNDIAN NETHERLANDS Burgundian Expansion 0 Philip the Good nephew of the duke of Burgundy was the duke of Burgundy 0 Moved the capital to Bruges because of its power in banking 0 The death of Charles the Bold at the Battle of Nancy brought an end to the Burgundian kingdom ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 9 o France reabsorbed southern Burgundian lands and the Holy Roman Empire received the Netherlands Piety and Politics 0 Philip the Bold used the church to increase his power aside from his own salvation and setting a pious example o Used the Great Schism to politically advance himself by endorsing Clement VII in Avignon closer o The duke of Burgundy appointed upper level papacy This lead to neglect of clerical function and pursuit of material gain o The people increased devotional practices to compensate Commission of object to accompany religious exercises Subsidizing a Monastery 0 The dukes of Burgundy understood how art could support political goals o Philip the Bold one of greatest art patrons of northern Europe o The Chartreuse de Champmol Carthusian monastery was Philip39s largest artistic enterprise 0 The Carthusian order was developed by Saint Bruno and consisted of monks who devoted their lives to solitary living and prayer A Symbolic Fountain of Life 0 Claus Sluter a sculptor designed a sculpture fountain in a well that served as a water source for the monastery 0 The Well of Moses Moses David Daniel Isaiah Jeremiah and Zachariah represented the promise of everlasting life o The blood from the cross above would spill on the prophets and wash away their sins o Extremely realistic volume and emotional expression o Painted by Jean Malouel uncle of the Limbourg brothers o Realistic but static Panels that Preface the Passion 0 Philip the Bold commissioned an altarpiece in the chapel of the Chartreuse 0 Altarpiece carved by Jacques de Baerze and painted by Melchior Broederlam o The Annunciation and Visitation on the left o Presentation and Flight into Egypt on the right Juxtaposition of architecture the dome building from the Old Testament and the Gothic porch from the New Testament lllusionistic attempt but static treatment and gold leaf Public Devotional Imagery Altarpieces 0 Altarpieces served as baclltdrops for the Mass often didactic ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 10 Redemption and Salvation 0 Ghent Atarpiece by Jan Van Eyck was one of the largest altarpieces located in Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent 0 The commissioners husband and wife Joducus Vyd and Isabel Borluut are depicted piously on the exterior panels 0 The inside of the altarpiece depicts Humanity s Redemption even though humans Adam and Eve are sinful they will be saved because God will sacrifice his own son the Lamb of God Oil Paints and Glazes 0 Flemish painters built up their pictures by putting translucent paint layers glazes on top of a layer of underpainting o Richer colors created an intense tonality glowing light etc The Drama of Christ39s Death 0 Rogier van der Weyden created fluid and dynamic compositions stressing human action and drama in Deposition o Commissioned by the Archers Guild crossbows in the corners o Claustrophobic setting to concentrated the observer39s attention Saving Lives and Souls 0 Rogier van der Weyden and the Last Judgment Atarpiece for Hotel Dieu hospital in Beaune o Saint Anthony and Sebastian both are plague saints o Served as reminder of larger issue beyond earthly life and death o Utilization of hierarchy and scale to emphasize importance of figures A Flemish Last Supper 0 Dirk Bouts and The Last Supper was one of the first northern paintings to demonstrate use of a single vanishing point 0 First Flemish depiction of the Last Supper From Flanders to Florence 0 Flemish Hugo van der Goes painting PortinariAtarpiece ended up in a family chapel in Florence o The triptych was commissioned by Portinari an Italian ship owner and agent for the Medici family 0 Center panel Adoration of the Shepherds Celebrating a Mystic Marriage 0 Hans Hemling and the Saint John Atarpiece with center panel Virgin with Saints and Angels o Celebrated the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria virgin saint and Christ ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 11 Private Devotional Imagery In the Privacy of the Home 0 The Flemish relied increasingly on private devotional practices 0 Expanding use of prayer books and Books of Hours o Lay patrons outnumbered clerical patrons two to one The Symbolic and the Secular 0 The Merod Altarpiece by Rober Campin Master of Flemalle contains the Annunciation in the setting of a middle class Flemish home in the central panel 0 The left panel has the patron Peter lnghelbrecht and his wife as witnesses 0 The right panel has Joseph in the woodshop For Better For Worse 0 Jan van Eyck s double portrait Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride o Dog and fidelity Saint Margaret bedpost and fertility oranges and wealth all seeing eye of God and mirrorsingle flame Saint or Goldsmith 0 Petrus Christus and A Goldsmith in His shop Posssibly Saint Eligius references both religious and secular realms 0 Could be Saint Eligius patron saint of gold silvermiths etc orjust a vocational painting Portraiture Meeting the Viewer s Gaze 0 Emerging capitalism led to urban prosperity and interest in secular art 0 Jan van Eyck s Man in a Red Turban is completely secular Capturing Class and Character 0 Rogier van der Weyden s Portrait ofa Lady revealed likeness of her features but also revealed her character o Lowered eyes tightly locllted thin fingers meant pious demeanor o He captured her social status with the detail of her attire An Enigmatic Flemish Painter Love and Marriage or Sex and Sin 0 Hieronymus Bosch s Garden of Earthly Delights o Left panel Creation of Eve central panel Garden of Earthly Delights right panel Hell o Satire or stern religious condemnation 15quot CENTURY FRENCH ART 0 The Hundred Years War crippled French stability in unity therefore power was formed in duchies Duchy of Burgundy ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 12 Portraying the Pious 0 Jean Fouquet s Melun Diptych with Etienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen left panel depicts its patron treasurer of France and Saint Stephen gazing towards the Virgin and Christ child in the right panel Virgin and Child o The Virgin Mary takes on characteristics of King Charles Vll s mistress thus it serves as a personal narratives as well as a religious one 15quot CENTURY GERMAN ART 0 Lack of strong centralized power in Holy Roman Empire led to separate provincial art styles 0 HRE didn39t participate in Hundred Years War so its economy was stable German Piety A Rose Among Thorns 0 Stephen Lochner s Madonna in the Rose Garden depicts the Virgin Mary and Christ Child in a rose arbor holiness and purity o Increasing interest in Rosary devotion Fishing in Lake Geneva 0 Konrad Witz s Altarpiece of Saint Peter was painted for the chapel of Notre Dame des Maccabees in the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Geneva o Exterior wing Miraculous Draught of Fish depicted the shores of Lake Geneva with extreme detail Witnessing the Virgin39s Assumption 0 Veit Stoss s The Death and Assumption of the Virgin for the church of Saint Mary in Krakow Poland depicts Mary39s death on the central panel and her life on the side panels An Ornate Spiritual Vision 0 Tilman Riemenschneider s Creglingen Altarpiece had the central piece The Assumption of the Virgin in a parish church in Creglingen o Late Gothic especially in the intricate canopy Graphic Art Going Against the Grain 0 German invention of the letterpress and the use of woodcut essentially stamps 0 The Nurember Chronicle and Michel Wolgemut Drawing on Metal 0 Technique of engraving proved much more flexible than woodcut 0 Metal engraving produces intaglio incised surface for printing o The incised lines hollows of the design take the ink o Reverse of woodcut relief rilievo 0 Martin Schongauer s Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons used hatching to describe forms ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 13 15quot CENTURY SPANISH ART 0 The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon worked to strength royal control of the Spanish government SilverworkInspired Architecture 0 Late Gothic style of architecture Plateresque delicate execution of silver 15 Century Italian Art 0 The spread of humanism political and economic change and artistic talent lead to the inevitable Renaissance The Spread of Humanism 0 Emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge 0 The writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans vernacular and Johannes Gutenberg s word press Recognizing Achievement 0 Belief in individual potential and encouraged individual achievement along with civic responsibility Of Wealth and Power 0 Constant fluctuations of power in political and economic spheres consequently power struggles amongst city states o Condottieri military leaders small armies of city states 0 Intersection of art with humanist doctrines seen in depiction of characters from classical history or mythology in art 0 The Medici family were the biggest patrons of art during the Renaissance Florence Sculpture and Civic Pride in the Early Renaissance 0 Early characteristics of the Renaissance include illusionism patronage as civic imperative and self promotion and the treatment of artists as celebrities 0 Arte di Calimala wool merchants guild sponsored the Quatrefoil Competition depiction of Isaac39s sacrifice on bronze relief o Lorenzo Ghiberti winner and Fillippo Brunelleschi loser Abraham39s Sacrifice 0 In Brunelleschi s panel both Abraham and the angel appear to be in rapid motion Emulating Antique Models 0 Ghiberti s panel emphasized grace and smoothness Abraham in contemplation o Uses antiquity in nudity and Roman altars ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 14 0 Ghiberti s panel only required two bronze pieces while Brunelleschi s panel required several Cheaper A Feast in Perspective 0 DontateIIo s Feast of Herod depicts the presentation of Saint John the Baptist s decapitated head to King Herod o Illusion provided by low and high relief Keeping Perspective 0 Brunelleschi s linear perspective and measureable objects on flat surfaces The quotGates of Paradisequot 0 Ghiberti s east doors Gates of Paradise depicts scenes from the old testament in gold reliefs o Individual panel Isaac and his Sons depicted great sense of depth o Three separate scenes in one panel Birth of Jacob and Esau Isaac telling Esau to hunt and Jacob being blessed by Isaac while Rebecca watches StatueFilled Niches 0 The Or San Michele had 14 niches to be filled with sculptures 0 Nine of which were filled by Donatello Ghiberti and Nanni di Banco after being sponsored by guilds o After King Ladislaus of Naples died conqueror the guilds used the sculptures to present a political artistic and economic message Four Martyred Sculptors 0 Nanni di Banco sculpted Four Crowned Saints modeled after four Christian sculptors that refused to make a statue of a pagan deity o United the characters with psychological cross references Suggesting Motion in Stone 0 DonateIIo s Saint Mark incorporated Classical Greek and Roman principles o Depicted motion in human figure by recognizing weight shift contrapposto Elevated Figures 0 Donatello was commissioned to make five statues for niches on the campanile thirty feet high o He acknowledge the need to make anatomic exaggerations to compensate for the distance from its audience 0 DonateIIo s Habbakuk Zuccone was one of statues Painting Perspective and Patronage Inspired by the Gothic 0 Gentile da Fabriano used the International Style in the Adoration of the Magi ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 15 o Gothic frame and extensive use of gold leaf however realism was used in foreshortening and modern architecture depictions Revolutionizing Representation 0 Masaccio s fresco Tribute Money in the Branacci Chapel of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence o From the Gospel of Matthew Christ directs Saint Peter to get a tribute from the mouth of a fish in Lake Galilee to pay a tax Sinner39s Anguish 0 Massacio s Expulsion ofAdam and Eve from Eden in Branacci Chapel of Santa Maria del Carmine Father Son and Holy Spirit 0 Massacio s Holy Trinity fresco in Santa Maria Novella Boccaccio uses realism based on observation and application of mathematics to pictorial organization perspective Pictorial lllusionism EARLY 15 CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Roman Architectural Appeal 0 Brunelleschi s ability to codify linear perspective came from his skill as an architect first Renaissance architect o Visits to Rome A Crowning of Achievement 0 Brunelleschi discarded old building methods devised new ones and invented much of the necessary machinery when commissioned to construct the dome of the Florence Cathedral A Modular Design 0 Brunelleschi built two basilican churches in Florence San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito o Santo Spirito was a cruciform building built with mathematical intent A CentralPlan Chapel 0 Brunelleschi lillted compact and self contained central plan buildings Roman Pantheon 0 The Pazzi Chapel of Santa Croce in Florence with its focus on the central dome o Pazzi s families gift to ensure the well being of their souls and promote their image in society The Medici as Patrons A Palace For for a Medici 0 Proliferation of palazzo testified to stability of Florentine economy 0 Brunelleschi decline to model the palace for Cosimo Medici ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 16 0 Cosimo learned the important of maintaining a low profile to wield power more effectively from behind the scenes 0 Michelozzo di Barolommeo was commission to build the Palazzo Medici Riccardi The Medici Cultivated Humanists 0 Cosimo began the first public library since the ancient world 0 Lorenzo the Magnificent grandson expanded what his grandfather started Both Chaotic and Ordered 0 Paolo Uccello of Florence trained in the International Style seen in Battle of San Romano placed in Lorenzo s room A Classically Inspired David 0 Donatello s bronze David posses the relaxed contrapposto and sensuous beauty of Greek gods o First freestanding nude since ancient times o Young slayer of Goliath synonymous to independent Florentine republic Celebrating Family and City 0 Andrea del Verrocchio s bronze David had clothes and was not as sensuous A Mythic Wrestling Match 0 Antonio Pollaiuolo s Hercules and Antaeus was commissioned by the Medici family o Departs from conventional frontality and exhibits the strain of human figure in violent action Battling Nudes 0 Antonio Pollaiuolo s engraving Battle of the Ten Nudes o He developed figures so lean and muscular that it appears ecorche as if without skin Visual Poetry 0 Sandro Botticelli s Birth of Venus allowed him to be the best known artist commissioned by the Medici family o Based off of poem by Angelo Poliziano o Zephyr blows Venus to her sacred island Cyprus after being born at sea while the nymph Pomona runs to dress her The Rise of Portraiture 0 Emphasis on individual achievement lead to rise in portraiture A Psychological Profile 0 Botticelli s use of the pose in the Portrait ofa Youth permitted greater exploration of the subject39s character o Student of Lipppi ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 17 A Cat on a Horse fox 0 Donatello was commissioned by the Republic of Venice to create a memorial of Gattamelata on horseback Gattemeata A Dominating Military Leader lion 0 Verrocchio was commissioned by another condottiere of Venice Colleoni in his will Bartoommeo Coeoni o Placed on a pedestal higher than Donatello s o The horse is prancing while the equestrian shifts his weight pridefully to one side exaggerated brute strength A Woman of Culture 0 Domenico Ghirlandaio produced a portrait of an aristocratic young woman Giovanna Tornabuoni Summarizing Florentine Art 0 Ghirlandaio s Birth of the Virgin depicts Ludovica Giovanni Tornabuoni s patron daughter in the middle of the scene o Secularization of sacred themes Further Developments in Architecture 0 Leon Battista Alberti was the first Renaissance architect to understand Roman architecture in depth 0 Wrote the De re aedificatoria which essentially put down the use of columns with arches Building on Classicism 0 The Palazzo Rucellai of Florence Italy Of Rations and Rationality 0 The Rucellai family also commissioned Alberti to design the face of the Santa Maria Novella in Florence Images of Piety and Devotion AVisual Call to Prayer 0 Fra Angelico s Annunciation focused on serving the Roman Catholic Church not humanism 0 The Dominican monastery of San Marco in Florence by the friars cells to remind them to say their Hail Mary The Last Supper in Perspective 0 Andrea del Castagno s Last Supper in the dining hall of Sant Apollonia in Florence o Ceiling and floor are visible and side walls aren39t parallel o Marble panels on wall Cancerous one above Judas ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 18 A Facility with Line 0 Filippo Lippi39s Madonna and Child with Angels shows skill in manipulating line Relief Sculpture for the Masses 0 Luca dell Robbia s Madonna and Child reflected his discovery of a way to produce Madonna images so that persons of modest means could by them o Terracotta with polychrome glaze The Establishment of Papal Authority 0 Perugino s Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter displays skill in emotion in character and linear perspective in background architecture The Princely Courts 0 Naples Urbino Milan Ferrara and Mantua Princes and their desire for recognition fame and power resulted in major art commissions Mantua 0 Gonzaga was determined to make the best city in Italy after a visit from Pope Pius II An Expansive Mantuan Church 0 Alberti was commissioned to create a facade for the church Sant Andrea in Mantua o Temple front and the triumphal arch o Tremendous vaults in the interior Painting Away the Walls 0 Andrea Mantegna s Camera degi Sposi in the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua o The first completely consistent illusionistic decoration of an entire room o Trompe l oeil trick of the eye with the first di sotto in su from below upwards A Saint Viewed from Below 0 Mantegna s Saint James Led to Martyrdom in the Ovetari Chapel of the Church of the Eremitani is a fresco that depicts the saint stopping to bless a man from the crowd before his death o Perspective from the ground Examining Christ39s Wounds 0 Mantegna s Dead Christ tempera is realistic in its use of foreshortening Urbino 0 Federico da Montefeltro a patron comparable to Cosimo 0 Piero della Francesca believed that beauty resided in forms with clarity and purity of geometric figures A Legendary Fresco Style ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 19 0 Piero s Finding of the True Cross and Proving of the True Cross depicts two scenes o The crosses being unearthed and the True Cross bringing a dead man nude back to life A Pious Patron 0 Piero s Enthroned Madonna and Saints Adored by Federico da Montefetro Brera Atarpiece depicts Federico ironclad in front of Saint John the Evangelist Turmoil at the End of the Century 0 Girolamo Savonarola denounced the paganism of the Medici and their artists philosophers and poets o Bonfire of Vanities o Condemned humanism as heretical nonsense and banished Medici Tornabouni and other wealth patrons A Vision of the Damned 0 Luca Signorelli s Damned Cast into Hell is the visual equal to Savonarola
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