ARTHI 6B/6C: Midterm 2 Study Guide
ARTHI 6B/6C: Midterm 2 Study Guide
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Date Created: 06/07/14
ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez I THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM 0 Early Renaissance for the 15 century 0 High Renaissance for the 16 century 0 The status of artists escalated after 16 century masters created a new profession The Transition from Early Renaissance to High Renaissance From Anatomy to Zoology Leonardo Da Vinci 14521519 o reality in an absolute sense is inaccessible and humans can know it only through its changing images o Ludovico Sforza duke of Milan and the concept of a resume Painting the Soul39s Intention T o Important use of gestures to depict sou s intention A Majestic Cartoon A Dramatic Betra al 0 A Smile for the Ages O o Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini the wife of Francesco del Giocondo a wealthy Florentine o chiaroscuro and sfumato smokiness Anatomical Drawing o cutaway and exploded views important to anatomy Julius II A WarriorPope39s Quest for Authority 0 An avid art patron that understood its uses in propaganda o New design for Saint Peter39s basilica and painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling o Financed by increasing sale of indulgences thus his papacy contributed to the rise of the Reformation ReCreating thee Caesars Rome 0 Julius commissioned Donato Bramante to design the new Saint Peter39s basilica in Rome Italy 0 The original design consisted of a cross of equal arms with each terminated by an apse Christoforo Caradosso designed a medal showing what Bramante s design for the Saint Peter39s basilica would have looked like ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 2 o The commission was passed to Michelangelo by Pope Paul III A Sculptured Monument Julius felts Bramante had the architectural vocab to convey his vision of a temporal humanist authoriti I o The look of a small pagan temple from antiquity o Commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to mark the location of Saint Peter39s crucifixion Novel and Lofty Things 0 Julius deemed Michelangelo best able to convey his message 0 Michelangelo saw sculpting as being superior to painting 0 Michelangelo mistrusted mathematical methods as guarantees of beauty in proportion o Disregarded Virtuvius Alberti and Leonardo39s striving of perfect measure and asserted that the artist39s inspired judgment could identify other pleasing proportions The Giantquot o Commissioned by the Florence Cathedral building committee o Served as a political symbol Protect and govern justly o Depicts David just before the battle as opposed to after In Memory of a WarriorPope Juius s tomb had to be scaled down greatly for funding the rebuildin of Saint Peter39s Representin O ression A Grand Biblical Drama amp Depicting Man39s Creation o A blend of Olympian pagan thoughts and Christianity without obscuring the essential Christian message A Congregation of Great Thinkers Julius commissioned Raphael to decorate the papal apartments in the Vatican o Stanza della Segnatura Room of the Signature or Library Four walls Theology Law Poetry and Philosophy U Theology and Philosophy frescoes face each other to reflect the image of the Pope Julius II a congregation of philosophers from ancient world o Stanza d Eiodoro Room of Heliodorus ART 113F ARTHI 6B6C Jaime Perez 3 Synthesizing the Period39s Excellence High Renaissance Ideals Unifying Devotion and Beauty o Pyramidal composition and chiaroscuro of Leonardo and Perugino ike landscape A Monumental Myth 0 Leonardo was aloof mysterious and Michelangelo was tormented Raphael was even tempered generous and high minded Po e Leo X son of Lorenzo Medici succeeded Julius II 0 Based on Metamorphoses by ancient Roman poet Ovid Galatea flees from her lover Cyclops Polyphemus 0 Commission by Agostino Chigi a wealthy banker who managed the papal state39s financial affairs Counting Gentility Count Baldassare Castiglione wrote Book of the Courtier enumerating the attributes of the perfect courtier impeccable character noble birth military achievement classical education noble birth and knowledge of the arts Michelangelo in the Service of the Medici 0 Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII commissioned him to build the New Sacristy funerary chapel in San Lorenzo Florence Two Dukes Facing Off 0 Female night and male day represent passing of time to death 0 Figura serpentinata twisting of body in contrary directions 0 Tombs of Giuliano duke of Nemours and Lorenzo duke of Urbino face each other and act together to form a single art piece 0 The contemplative man Lorenzo and the active man Giuliano reflect the two ways human beings might achieve union with God THE PAPACY OF POPE PAUL III A Palace Fit for a Pope Pope Paul III commissioned Antonio da Sangallo the Younger to design the Palazzo Farnese in Rome Italy ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 4 o More commissions for military architecture thus he contributed to the modern method of constructing bastioned fortifications Christ on Judgment Day 0 Paul III s commissioned many pieces as a campaign to restore the prominence of the Catholic Church in wake of Protestant Reformation o Sale of indulgences nepotism relative positions wealth o Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent Capitalizing on Roman History 0 Paul III commissioned Michelangelo to reorganize Capitoline Hill Campidogio in Rome o Michelangelo39s obsession with human form became apparent in his architectural design o Two medieval buildings Palazzo dei Senatori and Palazzo dei Conservatori o Incorporation of Marcus Aureius s ancient Roman equestrian statue o Brought the oval into mainstream with central pavement design A Scuptor s Finishing Touch 0 Paul III commissioned Michelangelo to finish the rebuilding of Saint Peter39s Vatican City Rome Italy o Converted Bramante s cross with uniform arms to a quatrefoil o After Michelangelo39s death taken over by Giacomo della Porta EARLY 16 CENTURY VENETIAN ART 0 A Major Mediterranean coastal port and gateway to the Orient The Primaci of Color o Venetian Style evocative use of color A Mythological Picnic o Based on Ovid39s Fasti describing a banquet of the gods o Venetians used color while Florentines and Romans used sculpturesque form colorito versus disegno Poetry in Motion o Demonstrates poesia poetic manner of painting o Two young men and their muses ART 113F ARTHl 6B6C Jaime Perez 5 Stormy Weather o Poetic qualities of natural landscape inhabited by humans o The subject is unknown A Master of Color 0 Titian was a supreme colorist and most prolific Venetian painter o The universal adoption of canvas The Glorious Vir in Mar A Dazzling Display of Color o Commissioned by Bishop Jacob Pesaro for the church of the Frari Bacchanalian Revelry o duke of Ferrara d Este commissioned him to paint for his Camerino d Aabastro A Venetian Venus o Commissioned by Guidobaldo II duke of Urbino 0 He established the standard elements of the reclining female nude A Powerful Patroness o Portrait of most powerful woman of Renaissance Daughter of duke of Ferrara and married Francesco Gonzaga o Painted her at age 20 even though she was 60 at time of commission OTHER 16 CENTURY ITALIAN ARTISTS A Madonna with Sphinxes o Madonna standing on altar decorated with sphinxes not harpies A View of the Sk MANNERISM Manerist artists consciously revealed the constructed nature of their art less inclined to disguise the contrived nature of art production Mannerist Painting ART 113F ARTHl 6B6C Jaime Perez 6 A Paintin of Loss and Grief o Characters represented on a vertical axis o A void of hands created in the center of the piece representing loss and grief Mannerism39s Ele ance and Grace o Simile in medieval hymns that compared the Virgin39s neck to a great ivory column An Allegorical Love Scene o The masks symbolize deceit and the picture suggests that love with envy is foolish and lovers will discover its folly with time A Mannered Portrait o Asserts rank and station but not personality of subject Portrayin Familial Intimac Mannerist Sculpture Diana and Deer o Greco Roman goddess of the hunt and classical personification of a spring o Contrapposto is more apparent than real Spiraling Figures o Romans abducted wives for themselves from their neighbors the Sabines Mannerist Architecture A Mannerist Mantuan Mansion o Utilized classical elements in an unorthodox fashion with the specific aim of revealing the contrived nature of architectural design Deliberate flout of classical rules order stability and symmetry LATER 16 CENTURY ARCHITECTURE Anticipating the Baroque ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 7 0 Society of Jesus Jesuits and the Counter Reformation Ignatius of Loyola started to reassert the supremacy of the Catholic Church o Started numerous schools and carried Catholicism to the Americas Asia and Africa Needed a church a ro riate to its new o rominence O O LATE 16 CENTURY VENETIAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE Mannerist Drama and D namism o Titian s color and Michelangelo39s drawing A Visionary Last Supper A Problematic Painting of Christ o Originally a last supper piece but received criticism from church Venice Trium hant o view from below at a 45 degree angle Money and Manuscripts Jacopo Sansovino of Florentine introduced Venice to the High Renaissance st le of architecture Inspired by the Ancients Took over as chief architect of Venetian Republic after Sansovino s Shadow and Surface 0 Andrea Palladio San Giorgio Maggiore Venice Italy D D 9 Fl 339 ART 113F ARTHl 6B6C Jaime Perez 8 16 CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN The dissolution of the Burgundian Netherlands resulted in Spain becoming the dominant power in Europe by the end of the 16 century The Protestant Reformation Replacing Church Practices with Personal Faith 0 Dissatisfaction with Church leadership concern more with temporal power and material gain than salvation of Church members Ninetyfive Theses and Lutheranism Martin Luther of Wittenberg Germany and lead split of Christendom o The extensive structure needed to be casted out cause it had no place in the Bible o Only accepted Baptism and Sacrament because backed up in the Bible Achieving Salvation 0 Argued that good deeds didn39t get one into heave rather only absolute faith in Christ could justify sinners and ensure salvation He facilitated the lay pubic s access to biblical truths by translating the Bible into a vernacular language Catholicism Versus Protestantism O o depicted differences between Catholicism and Protestantism Divergent Reformation Ideas and Practices 0 Christians could differ in their interpretations of the sacred texts o emergences of Zwinglians Calvinists and Anabaptists 0 King of France Francis I Catholic persecuted Protestants Huguenots Christian Humanism Desiderius Erasmus philosophy of Christ emphasized education and scriptural knowledge o The Praise of Folly was a satire on the church and social classes 0 Thomas More and Francois Rabelais The Role of Visual Imagery during the Reformation Catholics used imagery as an didactic aid 0 Protestants felt that imagery could promote idolatry so there churches were kept relatively bare Holy Roman Empire Divergent Views on Religious Imagery Of Sickness and Salvation o monument that reflects pinnacles of Catholic beliefs ART 113F ARTHl 6B6C Jaime Perez 9 Widely Acclaimed Talent Emphasizing the Bible o Mark wasn39t an apostle rather he was an evangelist o Saint Peter put into background while John the Evangelist brought to foreground to emphasize important of Bible Classical Ideas in the North 0 D39Lirer made trek to Italy and considered the first northern artist to understand the aims of the Italian Renaissance o first distillation of Virtruvian theory studies human proportions Beauty in Nature 0 Like Leonardo D39Lirer felt observation yielded truth 0 Like Aristotle he felt si ht is the noblest sense of man Elevatin the Art of En ravin o One of three master engravings that carried the art of engraving to the highest degree of excellence Commenting on History and Politics Invoking a Historical Battle o Defeat of Darius in 333 BCE by Alexander the Great at town of Issus on Pinarus River o Patron duke of Bavaria Wilhelm IV An Elegant Di lomatic Portrait o anamorphic image skewed of skull in middle of portrait France 0 King Francis I and his attempt to glorify the state and himself meant the religious art dominating the Middle Ages no longer prevailed the king held the power not the church o Invited Italian artists to his court A Magnificent French Monarch O A Painted and Plastered Palace 0 Mannerism appealed to the personal tastes of Francis ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 10 From Castles to Chateaux Chateau de Chambord developed from old castles Redesigning the Louvre O Francois Mansart and Philibert de Orme credited with establishment of a unique French classical architectural style Lightness Ease and Grace The Netherlands Prosperous Provinces o Demise of Duchy of Burgundy and division of territory between France and Holy Roman Empire the Netherlands consisted of 17 provinces o Very wealthy because of quick access to Atlantic 0 Philip II controlled strictly Split into Union of Arras Catholic south provinces and Union of Utrecht Protestant Dutch Republic north Reinterpretin Classicism Both Secular and Spiritual o A balance between secular and spiritual Meeting S iritual Obli ations An Accomplished Woman Artist o The first known northern European sef portrait by a woman o maulstick a stick used to steady the hand while painting A Renowned Court Painter 0 Respected artist by Henry VIII and his successors Margaret of Austria and Mary of Hungary important female patrons A Good Landsca e Painter Awintr Landsca e o high horizoned cosmographica landscapes o interrelationship of human beings and nature o did not incorporate classical elements into his paintings Proverbial Wisdom ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 11 o reminiscent of topsy turvy scenes of Bosch o illustrates over a hundred proverbs Spain A Royal Classical Revival o appearance of Italianate classicism A Dynastic Pantheon o Charles V wanted a dynastic pantheon built for his family o Philip II followed his fathers wish and had the expansive complex built o Appreciated streamline clarity of Italian classicism but wanted something unique A Spanish Mannerist o distinguished the terrestrial realism and celestial spheres elongated exaggerated bodies ART 113F ARTH 6B6C Jaime Perez 12 Raphael Madonna in the Meadow oil on panel Raphael Galatea Sala di Galatea Villa Farnesina Rome Italy fresco Michelangelo Tomb of Giuliano de Medici New Sacristy Medici Chapel San Lorenzo Florence Italy Giovanni Bellini San Zaccaria Altarpiece San Zaccaria Venic Italy oil on wood Giorgione da Castelfranco andor Titian Pastoral Symphony oil on canvas Titian Isabella d Este oil on canvas Andrea del Sarto Madonna of the Harpies oil on wood Antonio Allegri da Correggio Assumption of the Virgin dome fresco of Parma Cathedral Parma Italy Bronzino Portrait ofa Young Man oil on wood Benevenuto Cellini Genius of Fontainebleau bronze Giulio Romano Palazzo del Te Mantua Italy Giacomo della Porta facade of II Gesu Rome Italy Giacomo da Vignola floorplan ofIl Gesu Rome Italy Tintoretto Last Supper Chancel San Giorgio Maggiore Italy oil on canvas Paolo Veronese Christ in the House of Levi oil on canvas Paolo Verones Triumph of Venice ceiling of Hall of the Grand Council Palazzo Ducale Venice Italy oil on canvas Jacopo Sansovino the Mint la Zecca Piazza San Marco Venice Jacopo Sansovino the State Library Piazza San Marco Venice Andrea Palladio Villa Rotonda near Vicenza Italy Andrea Palladio San Giorgio Maggiore Venice Italy
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