Module 3; Chapter 8, 9, + 10.
Module 3; Chapter 8, 9, + 10. Nursing 200
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Early Childhood: Biosocial Development Body Changes: ● Growth Patterns: ○ Children become slimmer as the lower body lengthens. ○ Each year from age 2 through 6, wellnourished children add almost 3 inches in height and gain about 4 ½ pounds in weight. ○ Center of gravity moves from the breastbone down to the belly button. ● Nutrition: ○ Children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight than infants do. ○ Obesity is more frequent problem than malnutrition. ○ Overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illnesses associated with obesity, such as heart disease and diabetes. ○ Children in lowincome families are especially vulnerable to obesity. ● Nutritional Deficiencies: ○ Most children in developed nations consume more than enough calories. ○ Many customs entice children to eat sweets which are a poor substitute for balanced, varied diet. ○ Gender, ethnicity, and income correlate with body fat. ○ Estimated 3 to 8& of all young children are allergic to a specific foodalmost always a common, healthy one. ● Oral Health: ○ Too much sugar and too little fiber cause tooth decay, which affects more than onethird of all young U.S. children. ○ Severe early decay harms the formation of permanent teeth and the jaw and may affect speech. ○ Parent childhood experiences and habits, income, and access create barriers to good dental care for many lowincome children. Obsessions and Allergies: ● Hazards Of “Just Right”: ○ Some children insist on eating only certain foods, prepared and presented in a particular way. ○ This rigidity, known as the “justright” phenomenon, would be pathological in adults but is normal in children under age 6. ○ Among young children, a wish for continuity and sameness is normal and widespread. ○ Indulgence and patience for “justright” becomes destructive if the result is an overweight child. Brain Development: ● Size: ○ By age 2, a child’s brain weights 75% of what it will in adulthood. ○ Extensive sprouting and then pruning of dendrites has already taken place. ○ The brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6. ○ Social understanding develops as prefrontal cortex matures and emotional control improves. ● Prefrontal Cortex (outer layer: performs brain’s “executive functions” planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts. ● Auditory Cortex (on temporal lobe: conscious processing of sounds. ● Amygdala: neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotions. ● Hippocampus : a structure in the limbic system linked to memory. ● Corpus Callosum: axon fibers connecting two cerebral hemispheres. ● Thalamus: relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex. ● Hypothalamus : controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and rewards. ● Pituitar: master endocrine gland. ● Visual Cortex (on occipital lob: conscious processing of sights. ● Spinal Cord: pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes. ● Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movement and balance. ● Cerebral Cortex (outer layer: ultimate control and informationprocessing center. ● Speed Of Thought: ○ Primary reason for faster thinking is new and exteyelination. ○ Myelin is a fatty coating on the axons that speeds signals between neurons. ○ A gradual increase in myelination makes 5 yearolds much quicker than 3 yearolds, who are quicker than toddlers. Brain Development Connecting The Hemispheres: ● Corpus Callosum: long, thick band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them. ● Lateralizatio: specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. Left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice verse. ● LeftHanded Child: ○ Handedness partly genetic. ○ 1 in 10 children prefers left hand. ○ Many cultures support righthandedness (differenceequalsdeficit error). ● Contemporary Views On LeftRight Distinction: ○ Distinction exaggerated. ○ No exclusive sidedness in healthy people. ○ Both sides of brain involved in almost every skill. ○ Brain is flexible, especially in early life. Brain Development Planning And Analyzing: ● Maturation Of Prefrontal Cortex: ○ Prefrontal cortex is very limited in infancy and continues to develop at least until early adulthood. ○ Between ages 2 and 6, neurological increases are especially notable in the areas of the cortex where planning, thinking, social awareness, and language occur. ○ Neurological immaturity is another reason adults need to prevent childhood injury. ● Impulsiveness and Preservation: ○ Maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually facilitates focused attention and curbs impulsiveness. ○ Before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet. ○ Others act in the opposite way: In a phenomenon called perseveration, some children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit. ● From ages 2 to 6, maturation of the prefrontal cortex has several notable benefits. ○ Sleep becomes more regular. ○ Emotions become more nuanced and responsive. ○ Temper tantrums decrease or subside. ○ Uncontrollable laughter and tears are less common. ○ Gender: girls mature earlier than boys. ○ Experience. ○ Social Context. Emotions And The Brain: ● Three Brain Parts: ○ Amygdala : tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. ○ Hippocampus: brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations. ○ Hypothalamus : brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. ● Early Traumatic Or Stressful Events: ○ Increased Risk: ■ Permanent learning and memory deficits. ■ Later major depression, PTSD, and ADHD. ○ Benefits ■ Cognitive and memory growth with reassuring adults. ■ Context and duration important. Improving Motor Skills: ● Improved Motor Skills: ○ Children develop all their motor skills spontaneously and diligently as they play. ○ By age 6, most North Americans ride tricycles; climb ladders; pump their legs on swings; and throw, catch, and kick balls. ○ Muscle growth, brain maturation, and guided practice advance every gross motor skill. ○ Practice improves dexterity and advances fine motor skills, which involve small body movements. Gross Motor Skills Ages 26: ● 2 Years: ○ Skill or achievement. ○ Run for pleasure without falling (but bumping into things). ○ Climb chairs, tables, beds, out of cribs. ○ Walk up stairs. ○ Feed self with spoon. ○ Draw lines, spirals. ● 3 Years: ○ Kick and throw a ball. ○ Jump with both feet on the floor. ○ Pedal a tricycle. ○ Copy simple shapes. ○ Walk down stairs. ○ Climb ladders. ● 4 Years: ○ Catch a ball. ○ Use scissors to cut. ○ Hop on either foot. ○ Feed self with fork. ○ Dress self. ○ Copy most letter. ○ Pour juice without spilling. ○ Brush teeth. ● 5 Years: ○ Skip and gallop in rhythm. ○ Clap, bang, sing in rhythm. ○ Copy difficult shapes and letters. ○ Climb trees, jump over things. ○ Use knife to cut. ○ Tie a bow. ○ Throw a ball. ○ Wash face, comb hair. ● 6 Years: ○ Draw and paint with preferred hand. ○ Write simple words. ○ Scan a page of print, moving the eyes systematically in the appropriate direction. ○ Ride a bicycle. ○ Do a cartwheel. ○ Tie shoes. ○ Catch a ball. Gross Motor Skills: ● Specific Skills: ○ Brain maturation, motivation, and guided practice make gross motor skills possible. ○ Influence of culture and locale important. Environmental Hazards: ● Environmental Pollutants: Air. ○ Harm young, growing brains and bodies more than older, developed ones. ○ Particular concerns for urban, lowSES children. ○ Asthma and other respiratory problems. ● Proven Harmful Pollutants: ○ Lead in the water and air. ○ Pesticides in the soil or on clothing. ○ Bisphenol A (BPA) in plastic. ○ Secondhand cigarette smoke. Fine Motor Skills: ● Are more difficult to master. ● Involve small hand and finger movements. ● Often involve both sides of brain. ● Influenced by practice and maturation. ● On average, mature 6 months earlier in females. Artistic Expression: ● Bliss For Boys: ○ But not for moms. ○ Finger painting develops fine motor skills, which is part of the preschool curriculum in early childhood. Injuries And Abuse: ● Avoidable Injury: ○ In almost all families of every income, ethnicity, and nation, parents want to protect their children while fostering their growth. ○ In every nation, more young children die from accidents than from any other specific cause. ○ The 2 to 6 yearolds in the U.S. are at greater risk than slightly older children. ● AgeRelated Dangers: ○ Falls. ○ Motorvehicle deaths. ○ Poison. ○ Fire. ○ Drowning. ● Injury Control (Harm Reduction): ○ Safety surfaces. ○ Car seats. ○ Bike helmets. ○ Safety containers for medications. ○ Pool monitoring. Levels Of Injury Prevention: ● Two Types Of Analysis To Predict Danger And Prevent It: ○ Accident autopsy. ○ Statistical analysis. ● Levels Of Injury Prevention: ○ Primary prevention. ○ Secondary prevention. ○ Tertiary prevention (golden hour). Child Maltreatment: ● Maltreatment Noticed And Defined: ○ Child Maltreatment: ■ Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age. ○ Child Abuse: ■ Deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical emotional, or sexual wellbeing. ○ Child Neglect: ■ Failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs. ○ Maltreatment Noticed And Defined: ■ Reported Maltreatment harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities. ■ Substantiated Maltreatment harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified. Frequency Of Maltreatment: ● Reports of sustained maltreatment increased from 1950 to 1990 but decreased thereafter. ● Physical abuse declined, but sexual abuse did not. ● Why?: ○ Fewer homes with many small children. ○ Variation in level of professional scrutiny related to abuse. ○ Few children report their own abuse. ○ Maltreatment may be underreported. PostTraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): ● PTSD : anxiety disorder that develops as a delayed reaction to having experienced or witnessed a profoundly shocking or frightening event. ● Symptoms : may include flashbacks to the event, hyperactivity and hypervigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, nightmares between fantasy and reality. Consequences Of Maltreatment: ● Effects of maltreatment are devastating and longlasting. ○ Mistreated And Neglected Children: ■ Regard people as hostile and exploitative. ■ Are less friendly, more aggressive, and more isolated than other children. ■ Experience greater social deficits. ■ May experience large and enduring economic consequences. Child Maltreatment: ● Three Levels Of Prevention: ○ Primary Prevention focus on macrosystem and exosystem; stable neighborhood, family cohesion, decreasing financial instability, family isolation, and teenage parenthood. ○ Secondary Prevention focus on identifying and intervening; insecure attachment. ○ Tertiary Preventio focus on limiting harm after maltreatment. ■ Tertiary Prevention And Placement: ● Permanency planning. ● Foster care. ● Kinship care. ● Adoption. Early Childhood: Cognitive Development Thinking During Early Childhood: ● Piaget: ○ Preoperational Intelligence: ■ Cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6. ■ Includes language and imagination. ■ Suggest logical, operational thinking it not yet possible at this stage. ○ Symbolic Thought: ■ Major accomplishment of preoperational intelligence. ■ Allows a child to think symbolically, including understanding that words can refer to things not seen and that an item, can symbolize something else. ■ Helps explain animism. ○ Preoperational Thought: ■ Animism: ● Involves belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive. ● Is related to egocentric reasoning. ● May be involved with rational as well as irrational ideas. ■ Piaget described four limitations of preoperational thought that make logic difficult until about age 6. ● Centration ○ Includes characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others; may include egocentrism. ● Focus On Appearance: ○ Characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent. ■ Static Reasoning characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be. ■ Irreversibil: characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred. ■ Conversation And Logic: ● Conversation: ○ Principle that the amount of a substance remains the same when its appearance changes. ■ Limitations Of Piaget’s Research: ● Piagetian conservation tasks require words. ● Modification of tasks resulted in better performance of younger children. ● Piaget underestimated cognition during early childhood. Vygotsky Social Learning: ● Vygotsky Social Learning: ○ Every aspect of children’s cognitive development is embedded in the social context. ● Apprentice In Thinking: ○ Someone whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society. ● Mentors: ○ Present challenges. ○ Offer assistance (without taking over). ○ Add crucial information. ○ Encourage motivation. ● Guided Participation ○ Process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations. ● Zone Of Proximal Development (ZPD): ○ Skills that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently. ● Scaffolding: ○ Temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process. ● Overimitation: ○ Tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned. ○ Common among 2 to 6 yearolds when they imitate adult actions that are irrelevant and inefficient. ● Words are the mediator between brain potential and comprehension: ○ Language Advances Thinking: ■ Internal dialogue or private speech. ■ Social mediation. ○ Words enable many children between 2 and 6: ■ Using onetoone correspondence. ■ Remembering time and dates. ■ Understanding sequence. Cognitive Understanding: ● Words, Don’t Fail Me Now: ○ Could you describe how to tie shoes? ○ The limitations of verbal tests of cognitive understanding are apparent in many skills. Children’s Theories: ● TheoryTheory: ○ Children attempt to explain everything they see and hear. ○ Children develop theories about intentions before they employ their impressive ability to imitate. ● Theory Of Mind: ○ Involves person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. ○ Is slow to develop but typically beginning in most children at about age 4. ○ Can be seen when young children try to escape punishment by lying. ○ A person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. ○ In order to have a theory of mind, child must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. ○ The realization seldom occurs before age 4. Brain And Context: ● What strengthens theory of mind in young children? ○ Child’s ability to develop theories correlates with the maturity of the prefrontal cortex and with advances in executive processing. ○ Context and experience are relevant. ○ Context and culture matter. Language In Early Childhood: ● Approximate Age: ○ 2 Years: ■ Vocab: 1002,000 words. ■ Sentence Length: 26 words. ■ Grammar: Plurals; pronouns; many nouns, verbs adjectives. ■ Questions: Many “what’s that?” questions. ○ 3 Years: ■ Vocab: 1,0005,000 words. ■ Sentence Length: 38 words. ■ Grammar: Conjunctions, adverbs, articles. ■ Questions: Many “why?” questions. ○ 4 Years: ■ Vocab: 3,00010,000 words. ■ Sentence Length: 520 words. ■ Grammar: Dependent clauses, tags at sentence end (“...didn’t I?” “...won’t you?”). ■ Questions: Peak of “Why?” questions; many “How?” and “When?” questions. ○ 6 Years: ■ 5,00030,000 words. ■ Sentence Length: Some seem unending (“...and...who...and...that...and…”) ■ Grammar: Complex; depending on what the child has heard. Some children correctly use the passive voice (“man bitten my dog”) and subjunctive (“if I were…”). ■ Questions: Some about social differences (malefemale, oldyoung, richpoor) and many other issues. Language Learning: ● Language is pivotal to every kind of cognition in early childhood. ● Early childhood is a sensitive period or best time to master vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. ● The average child knows about 500 words at age 2 and more than 10,000 at age 6. ● Vocabulary Explosion: ○ Vocabulary builds quickly and comprehension greater that production. ○ Verbs, adjective, adverbs, conjunctions, and many nouns mastered. ● FastMapping: ○ Speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning. Words And The Limits Of Logic: ● Logical Extension: ○ Closely related to fastmapping. ○ Occurs when children use words to describe other objects in same category. Listening And Talking: ● Strategies and experiences to support literacy learning: ○ Codefocused teaching. ○ Book reading. ○ Parent education. ○ Language enhancement. ○ Preschool programs. Language Learning: ● Acquiring Grammar: ○ Grammar Of A Language: ■ Structures, techniques, and rules that communicate meaning. ■ Word order and word repetition, prefixes and suffixes, intonation and emphasis. ○ Overregularization: ■ Application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur. ■ Makes language seem more “regular” than it actually is. Language: ● Learning Two Languages: ○ Lower school achievement, diminished selfesteem, and inadequate employment if child not English proficient. ○ Young bilingual children site both languages in the same areas of their brains. ○ Adult second language learners usually show different activation sites for each language and are slowed down. ● How And Why: ○ Position One: young children who are taught two languages might become semilingual, not bilingual, at risk for delayed, incomplete, and possibly even impaired language development. ○ Position Two: soon after the vocabulary explosion, children who have heard two languages since birth usually master two distinct sets of words and grammar, along with each language’s pauses, pronunciations, intonations, and gestures. Proficiency is directly related to how much language they hear. ● Language Losses And Gains: ○ Language Shifts: ■ Becoming more fluent in the school language than in their home language. ○ Balanced Bilingual: ■ Being fluent in two language, not favoring one over the other. ■ Occurs if adults talk frequently, listen carefully, and value both languages. Early Childhood Education: ● Homes And Schools: ○ Quality matters. ○ If the home educational environment is poor, a good preschool program aids health, cognition, and social skills. ○ If a family provides extensive learning opportunities and encouragement, the quality of the preschool is less crucial. ● ChildCentered Programs: ○ Stress children’s natural inclination to learn through play rather than by following adult directions. ○ Encourage selfpaced exploration and artistic expression. ○ Show the influence of Vygotsky, who thought that children learn through play with other children and through cultural practices that structure life. ● Montessori Schools: emphasize individual pride and accomplishment, presenting literacyrelated tasks (such as outlining letter and looking at books). ● Reggio Emilia: approach involves a famous program of earlychildhood education that originated in the town of Reggio Emilia, Italy; it encourages each child’s creativity in a carefully designed setting. ● TeacherDirected Programs: ○ Stress academic subjects taught by a teacher to an entire class. ○ Help children learn letters, numbers, shapes, and colors as well as how to listen to the teacher and sit quietly. ○ Make a clear distinction between work and play. ○ Are much less expensive, since the child/adult ratio can be higher. ● Intervention Programs Head Start: ○ Most widespread earlychildhood education program in the United States. ○ Begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government. ○ Initially, the program was thought to be highly successful at raising children’s intelligence; ten years later, early gains were found to fade. ● Bilingual Education: ○ Successful strategies vary depending on child, home background, and national values. ○ Programs containing English and Spanish instruction are more successful that immersion. ● LongTerm Gains: ○ Early intervention is effective if it is sufficiently intense with effective teachers. ● Evidence: ○ Perry (High/Scope). ○ Abecedarian. ○ ChildParent Center. ● LongTerm Program Effectiveness: ○ States Programs: ■ 40 states sponsor public education for young childrenalthough usually only for lowincome 4 yearolds. ■ Leading state is Oklahoma. ■ Only four states have highquality programs (Alabama, Alaska, North Carolina, Rhode Island). Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Emotional Development: ● Emotional Regulation: ○ Ability to control when and how emotions are expressed. ○ Possibly due to connections between limbic system and prefrontal cortex. ○ Most important psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6. ● Effortful Control: ○ Ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination. ● Initiative Versus Guilt: ○ Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis. ○ Children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them. ● Guil: ○ Selfblame that people experience when they do something wrong. ● Shame : ○ People’s feeling that other blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them. ● SelfConcept: ○ Person’s understanding of who he or she is, incorporating selfesteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits. ○ Connected to parental confirmation. ● Protective Optimism: ○ Young children are not realistic (Erikson). ○ They believe they are strong, smart, attractive, and able to achieve any goals. ○ Confidence in self helps young children to persist. ○ Consists of positivity bias that helps young child try new things. ○ Begins around age 3. ○ Belief about child self worth tied to parental confirmation. Brain Maturation: ● Neurological Advances: ○ Growth of prefrontal cortex at about 4 or 5. ○ Myelination of the limbic system. ● Improved Behaviors And Abilities: ○ Longer attention span. ○ Improved capacity for selfcontrol. ○ Social awareness and selfconcept become stronger. Emotional Development Motivation: ● Motivation (the impulse that propels someone to act) comes either from a person’s own desires or from the social context. ● Intrinsic Motivation: ○ Drive, or reason to pursue a goal. ○ Comes from inside a person (ex: need to feel smart or competent). ○ Seen when children invent imaginary friends. ● Extrinsic Motivation: ○ Drive, or reason to pursue a goal. ○ Arises from the need to have achievements rewarded from outside (ex: by receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem). ● Imaginary Friends: ○ Makebelieve friends who exist only in a child’s imagination. ○ Increasingly common from age 3 through 7. ○ They combat loneliness and aid emotional regulation. ○ Example of intrinsic motivation. Culture And Emotional Control: ● Goals For Emotional Regulation Appear To Be Important In Certain Cultures: ○ Overcome fear (United States). ○ Modify anger (Puerto Rico). ○ Temper pride (China). ○ Control selfishness (Japan). ○ Overcome impatience (Native American communities). ○ Modify defiance (Mexico). ○ Control moodiness (Netherlands). Seeking Emotional Balance: ● Psychopathology : ○ Literally, an illness of the mind, or psyche. ○ Various cultures and groups within cultures have different concepts of a specific psychopathology. ○ Recent compendium of symptoms and disorders in the U.S. is in that DSM5. ○ Many other nations use an international set of categories, the ICD10. Seeking Emotional Balance: ● Lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of psychopathology: ○ Externalizing Problems: ■ Involves expressing powerful feeling through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things. ○ Internalizing Problems: ■ Involves turning one’s emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless. Sex Differences In Emotional Regulation: ● Neurological And Hormonal Effects: ○ Boys tend to be aggressive (externalizing). ○ Girls tend to be anxious (internalizing). Psychopathology Is Not Typical: ● Children of both sexes usually learn to regulate their emotions as their brains mature and their parents nurture them. Play: ● Play Is Universal And Timeless: ○ Play is the most productive and enjoyable activity the children undertake. ○ Increasingly complex social play is due to brain maturation coupled with many hours of social play. ○ Form of play changes with age and culture. ● Species vary, but play with peers is one of the most important areas in which children develop positive social skills. ○ Playmates are people of about the same age and social status. ○ Playmates provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding. ○ Playmates are preferred play partners over parent. Culture And Cohort: ● Cultural Differences In Play: ○ Play varies by culture, gender, and age. ○ Some specifics are experiencedependent reflecting culture and SES. ○ Before the electronic age. ■ Young children played outside with other children, often of both sexes and several ages. ○ Today: ■ Many North American children still engage in parallel play at age 6. Types Of Social Play Parten (1932): ● Solitary Play: A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby. ● Onlooker Play : A child watches other children play. ● Parallel Play: Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together. ● Associative Play: Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal. ● Cooperative Play : Children play together creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns. Active Play: ● RoughAndTumble Play: ○ Mimics aggression with no intention to harm. ○ Contains expressions and gestures signifying that the child is “just pretending.” ○ Is particularly common among young males. ○ Advances children’s social understanding but increases likelihood of injury. ○ May positively affect prefrontal cortex development. ● Drama And Pretending: ○ Sociodramatic Play Enables Children To: ■ Explore and rehearse the social roles. ■ Test their ability to explain. ■ Practice regulating their emotions. ■ Develop a selfconcept. ■ Create genderrelated play themes. ● Media And Play: ○ Some children learn from television and educational videos, especially if adults watch with them and reinforce the lessons. ○ Children on their own rarely select educational programs over fastpaced cartoons, in which characters hit, shoot, and kick. Challenges For Caregivers: ● Caregiving Styles Dimensions (Baumrind): ○ Expressions of warmth. ○ Strategies for discipline. ○ Communication. ○ Expectations for maturity. Baumrind’s Styles Of Caregiving: ● Authoritarian Parentin High behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication. ● Permissive Parenting High nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control. ● Authoritative Parentin Parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children. Styles Of Caregiving: ● A fourth style is sometimes mistaken for the permissive style but is actually quite different. ○ Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting Parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives (Sternberg). LongTerm Effects Of Parenting Style: ● Children OAuthoritarian Parents: ○ Become conscientious, obedient, and quiet but not especially happy. ○ Feel guilty or depressed and blame themselves when things do not go well. ○ Revel as adolescents and leave home before age 20. ● Children O ermissive Parents: ○ Are unhappy and lack selfcontrol, especially in peer relationships. ○ Suffer from inadequate emotional regulation. ○ Are immature and lack friendships. ○ Continue to live at home, still dependent, in early adulthood ● Children OAuthoritative Parents: Are successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous with others. ● Are wellliked by teachers and peers, especially in societies in which individual initiative is valued. Cultural Variations: ● Parental Influence: ○ Threeway interaction influence outcome of any parenting style. ■ Child’s temperament. ■ Parent’s personality. ■ Social context. ○ Given a multicultural and multicontextual perspective, developmentalists hesitate to recommend any particular parenting style. Teaching Children To Be Boys And Girls: ● Biology determines whether a child is male or female. ● During early childhood, sex patterns and preferences become important to children and apparent to adults. ● At age 2, children apply gender labels. ● By age 4, children are convinced that certain toys and roles are “best suited” for one sex or the other. ● In the U.S., sexual stereotypes are obvious and rigid between ages 3 and 6. ● Dynamic Systems Theory: ○ Suggests that concepts of male and female behavior are affected by many developmental aspects of biology and culture, changing as humans grow older. ● Sex And Gender: ○ Sex Differences: Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type. ○ Gender Differences: Differences in the role and behaviors of males and females. ● Acceptance Of Sexual Diversity: ○ Many preschoolers become rigid in their ideas of male and female. ○ Most older children consider ethnic discrimination immoral, but they accept some sex discrimination. Theories Of SexRole Development: ● Psychoanalytic Theory: ○ Phallic Stag Freud’s third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure. ○ Oedipus Complex: Unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers’ exclusive love. ○ Superego: Judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents. ○ Electra Complex Unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers’ exclusive love. ○ Identificati: Attempt to defend one’s selfconcept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else. Theories Of Gender Development: ● Behaviorism: ○ Gender Differences: ■ Product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment. ■ Are learned through all roles, values, and morals. ○ “GenderAppropriate”: ■ Rewarded more frequently thangenderinappropriate behavior. ● Social Learning Theory: ○ Children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe. Theories Of SexRole Development: ● Cognitive Theories: ○ Cognitive Theory: ■ Offers an alternative explanation for the strong gender identity that becomes apparent at about age 5. ○ Gender Schema: ■ Child’s cognitive concept of general belief about sex differences. ■ Based on his or her observations and experiences. ■ Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female, and then they think and behave accordingly. ○ Sociocultural Theory: ■ Stresses the importance of cultural values and customs. ■ Some cultural aspects are transmitted through the parents, as explained with behaviorism, but much more arises from the larger community. ○ Humanism: ■ Stresses the hierarchy of needs, beginning with survival, then safety, then love and belonging. ■ Helps children increasingly strive for admiration from their peers. ■ Suggest children increasingly prefers to play with boys or girls because humans are social beings who want to be validated for who they are. ○ Evolutionary Theory: ■ Holds that sexual attraction is crucial for humankind’s most basic urge, to reproduce. ■ Suggests young boys and girls practice becoming attractive to the other sex so they will be ready after puberty to find each other and ensure extension of the next generation. Moral Development: ● Morality is multifaceted and includes affective cognitive, and behavioral components. ○ Children develop increasingly complex moral values, judgements, and behaviors as they mature. ○ Social bonds and theory of mind provide the foundation for more advanced moral action. Nature And Nurture: ● Nature Perspective: ○ Suggests that morality is genetic, an outgrowth of natural bonding, attachment, and cognitive maturation. ● Nurture Perspective: ○ Contends that culture is crucial to the development of morality. Moral Development: ● Prosocial Behavior: ○ Extending helpfulness and kindness without any obvious benefit to oneself: Increases from age 3 to 6. ● Empathy: ○ Understanding the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one’s own. ● Antisocial Behavior: ○ Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person; declines beginning at age 2. ● Researchers recognize four general types of aggression, all of which are evident in early childhood. ○ 1.nstrumental Aggression: Hurtful behavior intended to get something that another person has and to keep it. ○ 2. Reactive Aggression An impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action, verbal, or physical. ○ 3.Relational Aggression: Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people. ○ 4. ullying Aggression Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves. Discipline ● Adults’ values, temperament, experiences, and culture affect their responses when their children misbehave. ● Corporal Punishment: Punishment that physically hurts the body, such as slapping, spanking. ○ Physical punishment increases obedience temporarily, but increase the possibility of layer bullying, delinquency, and abusive behavior. ○ Physical punishment correlates with delayed theory of mind and increases aggression. ● Physical Punishment: ○ Some researchers believe that physical punishment is harmless; some do not. ○ Physical punishment increases obedience temporarily, but increases the possibility of later aggression. ○ Many children who are spanked do not become violent adults; other factors (poverty, temperament) are stronger influences. ● Other Forms Of Discipline: ○ Psychological Control: ■ Disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents. ○ Psychological Control Correlations: ■ Higher parent control; lower child math scores. ■ Depressed child achievement, creativity, social acceptance. ■ Increased relational aggression. ○ TimeOut: ■ Disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time. ■ For some children in some cultures, sitting alone is an effective form of punishment. ■ Sometimes it produces an angry child without changing the child’s behavior. ■ Evaluation of effectiveness confounded by different styles/uses of timeout. Parental Discipline: 1. Remember theory of mind. Young children gradually come to understand things from other viewpoints. 2. Remember emerging selfconcept. When the sense of self is developing, sharing becomes more difficult. 3. Remember fastmapping. Young children are eager to talk and think, but they say more than they really understand. Explanations and discussion before and after misbehavior help children learn. 4. Remember that young children are not logical. Children may disconnect a misdeed from the punishment. No Simple Answer: ● Methods of discipline vary in consequences of effectiveness, depending on temperament, culture, and the adultchild relationship.
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