Chapters 1-4 notes
Chapters 1-4 notes Life 102
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Date Created: 09/09/15
8312015 LIFE 102 NOTES First quiz in lab Wednesday night STUDY EXERCISE 1 Exam sept let on chaps 17 Study groups also available on canvas Molecular mass is the sum of all masses of all atoms in a molecule Numbers of molecules are ususally measures in moles where 1 mole 602 x 10quot23 molecules Avogadros number and the unit dalton were de ned such that 602 X 10623 daltons lg Molarity is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution A hydrogen atom in a hydrogen bone between two water molecules can shift from one to the other the hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind and is transferred as a proton or hydrogen ion The molecule with the extra proton is now a hydronium ion though it is often represented as a H The molecule that lost the proton is now a hydroxide ion Concentrations of H and OH are equal in pure water Adding certian solutes called acids and bases modi es the concentrations of H and OH Biologists use something called the pH scale to describe whether a solution is acidic or basic An acid is any substance that increases the H concentration of a solution Abase is any substance that reduces the H concentration of a solution In any aqueous solution at 25 degrees C the product of H and OH is constant and can be written as HOH10quot14 The pH of a solution is de ned by the negative logarithm of H concentration written as pHlogh For a neutral aqueous solution H is 10quot7 77 Acidic solutions have a pH value less than 7 Basic solutions have pH values above 7 The internal pH of most living cells must repain close to pH7 Buffers are substances that minimize changes in concentrations of h and OH in a solution Most buffers consist of an acidbase pair that reversibly combines with H Acid percipitation refers to rain snow or fog with ph lower than 56 Acid precipitation is caused mainly by the mixing of different pollutants BE SURE TO JOURNAL BEFORE YOU TAKE EXAMS Chap4 Although cells are 7095 water at rest consists mostly of carbon based compounds Carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form large complex and diverse molecules Protienes DNA carbs and other molecules are big molecules Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon Organic compounds range from simple molecules to coossa ones Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms in addition to carbon atoms With four valence electrons carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety ot atoms This tetravaence makes large complex molecules possible Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Many organic molecules such as fats have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy 8262015 LIFE 102 In ten years the will be and encyclopedia with every one point eight million species of animals we have discovered on earth today Chapter 2 8262015 The chemical context of Life About 2025 of the 92 elements are essential for life These are essential elements Carbonhydrogenoxygen and nitrogen make up 96 of living matter Most of the remaining 4 consists of calcium phosphorus potassium and su un Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities Nitrogen De ciency Didnt grow as well Iodine De ciency Needed to keep Thyroid running properly Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Relevent subatomic particles include Neutrons No electrical charge Large mass Protons Positive charge Large mass Electrons Negative charge Small mass Neutrons and protons form the atomic nucleus Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and are measured in daltons First chemist to propose the existance of atoms is John Dalton Atoms of the various elements differ in number of substomic particles An elements atomic number is the number of protins in its nucleus An elements mass number is the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus Atomic mass the atoms total mass can be approximated by the mass number Harry Moseley discovered atomic number in 1913 A special xray frequency was emitted by each element Nuclei that spontaniously degrade after 92 are refered to as radioactive All atoms of an element have the same number of protons but may differ in the number of neutrons Isotopes are two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons Radioactive isotopes decay spontaneously giving off particles and energy about 1 of carbon has a extra neutron Some applications of radioactive isotopes in biological research are Dating fossils Tracing atoms through metabollic process Diagnosing medical disorders 37 degrees centigrade if the bodies temperature making it very easy to create DNA Valence electrons are those in the outermost shell or valence shell The chemical behavior of an atom is mostly determined by the valence electrons Elements with a full valence shell are chemically inert Neon for example is a chemically inert atom A covalent bond is the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms In a covalent bond the shared electrons count as part of each atom39s valence shell Covalent bonds are one of the strongest bonds A molecule consists of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds A single covalent bond or a single bond is the sharing of one pair of valence electrons A double covalent bond or double bond is the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons It takes more energy to break a single bond then a double bond Electronegativity is an atom39s attraction for the electron in a covalent bond The more electronegative an atom the more strongly it pulls shared electrons toward itself In biology the delta symbols explain everything that goes in inside of your body Atoms sometimes strip electrons from their bonding partners An example is the transfer of an electron from sodium to chlorine After the transfer of an electron both atoms have charges a charged atom is called a ion 8262016 LIFE 102 LAB Plant sci C28 Alyx Shaagenaga Of ce hours 12pm TuesThurs ams1898humboldtedu or alexandrashigenagacolostateedu Kelly Davis contact kellydavramscoostateedu Attendance is mandatory if you miss 2 labs you will get a automatic 0 percent on your overall lab grade Lab portion is worth 25 perfect of your LIFE 102 grade We are responsible for cleaning up out lab areans Quizzes will be provided weekly they are 20 minutes long will be quizzed on what we studied the week before Lab reports and oral presentations will occur as well Make sure if they do not sign off or see your lab paperwork they are not allowed to grade your quiz DONT MISS ORAL PRESENTATION OR GENETIC TRANSFORMATION LABS Microscopes allow scientists to see things far smaller then what is visible with the naked eye Magni cation it the ability to enlarge the image of an object Resolution is the ability to distinguish two or more closely spaced objects electron microscopes which use beams of electrons to veiw images allow scientists to observe tiny specimens The dissecting microscope is used to observe andor dissect specimens at low magni cations and in three dimensions whereas a compound microscope can be used to observe at much higher magni cations and is used to observe thin specimens mounted on glass slides These are called Light Microscopes Ocular lens 1OX Low lens 10X times 4x 40X Med lens 10X times 10X 100x High lens 10X times 40X 4OOX Rules of microscopy Always start on low power Always look from the side at your objective lens when changing from one power to another Use only the ne focus abjustment knob when using the longest objective lens Prokaryotic cells have circular Chromosones while Eukaryotic cells have Linear Chromosones Plant cells have a cell wall while animal cells do not plant cells also have chlorophast while animals so not Plant cells also have a central vacude 942015 LIFE 102 NOTES A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage Starch is a storage polysaccharice in plants Pants store surplus starch as granules within chloroplasts and other plastids The polysaccharide cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells Like starch cellulose is a polymer of glucose but the glycosidic linkages differ The difference is based on two ring forms of glucose Alpha a and Beta B Polymers with a glucose are coiled Polymers with b glucose are straight ln straight structures H atoms on one strand can bond with OH groups on other strands Parallel cellulose molecules held together this way are grouped in mocro biris Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing a linkages cant hydrolyze B linkages in cellulose Cellulose in human food passes trough the digestive tract as insoluble ber Some microbes use enzymes to digest cellulose Many herbivores from cows to termites have symbiotic relationships with these microbes Chitin is a structural polysaccharide in the exoskeleton of arthropods in the cell walls of many fungi Lipids are the one class of large biological molecules that are not usually regarded as polymers Lipids are not very soluble in water and are therefore called hydrophobic The most biologically important lipids fats steroids Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acids To tell if a molecule is a sugar Looks for a carbon with one oxygen molecule attached to it Fats separate from water because water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other but not with fats Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and locations of double bonds Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds A cis double bond causes bending in the molecule The major function of fats is energy storage A diet rich in saturated fats contribute to cardiovascular disease through plaque deposits Fats with trans double bonds also contribute to cardiovascular disease when phospholipids are added to water they self assemble into a bilayer with the hydrophobic tails pointing towards the interior Steroids are lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Cholesterol an important steroid is a component in animal cell membrances Although cholesterol is essential in animals high levels in the blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease Proteins account for more than 50 of the dry mass of most cells Normal red blood cells are full of hemoglobin Polypeptides are polymers built from the same set of 20 animo acids A protein consists of one or more polypeptides Amino acids differ in their properties due to differing side chains called R groups 20 common amino acids 922015 LIFE 102 Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hybrogen Many organic molecules such as fats have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reaction that release a large amount of energy lsomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Geometric isomers have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of eachother Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry Two enantiomets of a drug may have different effects Differing effects of enentiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules Functional groups are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule its unique properties ATP is the primary energy transferring molecule in the cell The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life Hydroxyl group Carbonyl group Carboxyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group Chap5 Macromolecules are large bilogical molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Protiens Nuciec acids Atoms connect to build small organic molecules and the small organic molecules connect further to form A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small buildingblock molecules are called monomers Connecting monomers to form a macromolecule is often accomplished with a series of condensation reactions In a condensation reaction also called a dehydration reaction the bonding of two monomers is accompanied by the loss of one water molecule Condensation reactions often include enzymes which are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugers The simplest carbohydrates are called monosaccharides or single sugars Carbohydrate macromolecules are called polysaccharides polymers built from many monosaccharides Monosaccarides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH20 Each carbon atom therefore has one oxygen atom attached to it Glucose is the most common monosaccharide 8282015 LIFE 102 Notes Exam 1 is Sept 21 Monday 50 questions chapters 17 atoms sometimes strip electrons from their bonding partners An example is the transfer of an electron from sodium to chlorine After the transfer of an electron both atoms have charges A charged atom or molecule is called an ion A hydrogen bond forms when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one eectronegative atom is also attracted to another eectronegative atom n living cells the eectronegative partners are usually oxygen and nitrogen atoms f electrons are disturbed assymetricay in molecules or atoms they can result in 39hot spots39 or positive or negative charge Van der Waals interactions are attractions between molecules that are close together as a result of these charges It39s actually the attraction of electrons in one atom toward the nucleus of an abjacent atom Biological moecues recognize and interact with each other with a speci city based on moecue shape arrangement of positive and negative charges Molecules with similar shapes and charge distribution can have similar biological effects Chemical reactions are the making and breaking of chemical bonds The starting molecules of a chemical reaction are called reactants The nal molecules of a chemical reaction are called products The water molecule is a polar molecule the opposite ends have opposite charges Polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other Four of waters properties that facilitate an enviroment for life are Cohesive behavior Ability to mederate temperatire Expansion upon freezing Versitiity as a solvent Collectively hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together a phenomenon called cohesion Cohesion helps the transport of water against gravity in plants Adhesion is an attraction between different substances Causing them to stick to something Emergent properties cohesion and adhesion are good examples of this Surface tension is a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid Surface tension is related to cohesion The speci c heat of a substance is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degrees cecius The speci c heat of water is 1cagC It takes 1 calorie to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 C Water resists changing its temperature because of its high speci c heat The Celsius scale is a measure of temperature using Celsius degrees A calorie cal is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1C The 39caories39 of food packages are actually kiocaories where 1kca1000 cal The joule J is another unit of energy where 1 0239 cal or 1 cal 4184 J Waters high speci c heat can be traced to hydrogen bonding Evaporation is transformation of a substance from liquid to gas lce oats in liquid water because hydrogen bonds in ice are more 39ordered39 making ice less dense Water reaches its greatest density at 4 degrees C If ice sank all bodies of water would eventually freeze solid making life impossible to survive in the winter A solution is a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of substances A solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution The solute is the substance that is dissolved An aqueous solution is one in which water is the solvent When an ionic compound is dissolved in water each ion is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules called a hydration shell Water can dissolve compounds made of nonionic polar molecules Even large polar molecules such as proteins can dissolve in water if thet have ionic and polar regions A hydrophilic substance is one that has an af nity for water A hydrophobic substance is one that does not have an af nity for water Oil molecules are hydrophobic because they have reletively nonpolar bonds A colloid is a stable suspension of ne particles in a liquid
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