Weeks 1-3 History Of The United States To 1865 Notes
Weeks 1-3 History Of The United States To 1865 Notes HIS 135
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Nick Miller on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIS 135 at Illinois State University taught by Dan Stump in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see History Of The United States To 1865 in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Colonization My Territorial possession of a home country Colonial Period Late 15th Century through the late 18th Century signing ofthe Declaration of Independence 3 Major Powers Colonized North America England East Coast Atlantic Seaboard France Canada amp Middle America Louisiana Area Spain Central and South America The First Americans in Came from Central Asia by the bering strait connecting Asia and Alaska Origin North and South America was inhabited by 100 Million Native Americans about 15000 20000 years ago 10 million stayed on North America 90 million want t South Amadoa Levels of CU u re frillsle went soutlllil and thrived tiresome more advanced culture 1 Archaic Hunting and GatheringVillages amp towns 2 Formative Sustained agriculture 3 Civilization Most Advanced Cities political amp religious organizations Arohitecture Science Math Adena Hopewell Mississippian gt Cahokia Both Achieved Civilization but Vanished South Was More Advanced More PeopleMore Can Get Done European Exploration amp Civilization Causes of Exploration and Expansion 0 Economic Commercial revolution Traded vvith China and explored other roots to the Indies Political Major povvers expand gt Exploration and colonization Based on competition Cultural 1 Renaissance led to curiosity gt many looked into their ovvn past 2 Reformation Religious vvar Protestants and Catholics made missionaries which led to expansion Religious refugees fled home country to gain religious freedom 0 Technological The invention of ships led to Europe conquering the ocean 0 Demographic Population grevv overpopulation gt Expansion Lots of poor people leave Europe to start a nevr The Atlantic Powers Portugal Holland The Netherlands The Dutch France Spain England Brief History 0 The Portuguese went East around to Africa amp established a trade empire with the Indies Asia gt Was driven out by the English and Dutch later 0 The Spanish made 4 voyages west gt Hit America but thought it was the Indies Amerigo Vespucci Challenged Columbus thought on the land being the Indies gt Spain established trade and colonized because of discovery of precious metals 0 French Dutch amp England Searching for Westward passage to Indies Why settle North Because the South was already dominated by the other powers The English Colonies Corporate Colonies Colonies made by Businesses They invested in exploration in order to find precious metals but established business in Staple Crops Gifted ColoniesProprietorships Colonies that were given to important politicians in thanks William Penn Roval Colonies Owned by the crown gt Slowly takes control of all the colonies then Revolution English colonies thrive while the other colonies do not Why did they succeed Staple Crops more specifically Tobacco Independence was a religious haven A new start for the poor Lack of government control Until England tries to take control again REVOLUTION Colonial Society and Culture The Silent Revolution Creation of unique American Society They became independent and willing to rebel o Upwardly Mobile You come to America poor and work your way to being richAppealing ln old world there wasn39t much class movement 0 Population Growth Expanse of society There weren t many women so men married younger A more bountiful life expansion of population Also Lower Death Rate in America 0 Religious Freedom Many Protestants left England and came to the colonies to get away from the religious prosecution Relations with the Native Americans The Native Americans liked the French rather than the English 0 English colonies pushed Native Americans back by settling and expanding 0 While the French traded furs with the Native Americans Typical Pattern Native Americans welcomed the Europeans gt the Europeans created conflict by taking land and brought disease The Columbian Exchange 0 Native Americans were given tools firearms liquor and disease Smallpox and Typhoid o Europeans were given new crops tobacco potatoes corn Also syphilis The Colonial Economy Economy was divided into 3 sections New England Middle and Southern 0 Southern Warm weather climate great river system geography made it a great spot to make crops and the ability to have plantations gt gave rise to slave labor and ability to mass produce staple crops Middle Family farms were common good land Wheat was the main export crop New England Had very rocky land not good for farming Corn grew NOT export Alternate Economic Activitv Great for fishing shipping companies ship building and manufacturing Because of all of this England felt threatened by the Colonies gain in independence They boycotted all colony export and limited what the colonies could make grow and sell The Colonists Diverse o 60 came from England 75 poor Many would sign contract to be an indentured servant on a plantation 7 ScotsIrish 9 German 5 Dutch French Swedish 22 African Started as indentured servants and then were forced into slavery Why African Slavery Economic Interest for plantation owners 0 Free Labor 0 Falling Tobacco prices made it a necessity to cut costs Indentured Servant Rebellion Fear arose among this idea Many came with the strategy of aligning white low class and white upper class on racial prejudice lt To prevent an uprise Racial Prejudice Racism and thought that white was better encouraged slavery Some can even argue that slavery led to racism Culture 3 Major Influences 1 Religion Protestants Catholic You can achieve your own salvation Protestant Everyone is damned and the grace of god will save you 2 Science The Enlightenment 1620s1780s Many started to question the Church and emphasized reason analysis and individualism 3 Secularism Bountiful condition Wealth with religion creates a worldliness devoted to this world and its pursuits rather than to religion or spiritual affairs People were more interested in wealth rather than religion Religion Southern New England Middle Anglicanism Congressionalism Baptist Methodist Salem Witch Trials Some Witches were bad puritans Miele eeeereteel the Puritanism John Calvin Protestant Fled from France to elaehir ig ideee ef New Switzerland and began a movement known as England and Seuth Calvinism Many thought they were chosen and saved by god Major decline in 1692 during the salem witch trials Secularism and rise of science also had a hand in this This decline in religion led to The Great Awakening Intense religious spike in culture Emotional Many had intense sermons Doctrine of God god speaks to individuals Group of ministers toured up and down the colonies and gave incredibly entertaining sermons gt got people to listen England and the Colonies to 1763 Economic Administration 0 England tried to establish economic control over the colonies 0 General Pattern 2 Revolutions in England overthrowing 4 Stuarts 1 Johnl 2 Cha esl iTtli Century a 3 John 4 Cha esll The Revolution limited the power of England in controlling the colonies 1 CGHtUI39y gt Hanoverians from Hanover Inherited the country with all its problems These Kings The Georges George George II George III used Salutary Neglect avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws meant to keep American colonies obedient to England Mercantile System A strong country is a wealthy country To establish both wealth and strength the government obtained strict control over the economy They wanted a favorable balance of trade gt Colonies were used to gain wealth for England Machinery of Mercantilism 1634 The Laud Commission Establish control of colonies and restrict manufacturing Revolution broke out and Laud was killed along with James I so the commission came to nothing 1651 The Navigation Acts 1 Only the English ships will be used for trade 2 All colonial exports must go through England first to reexport England can make more money off the colonies 3 All colonial imports must go through England first Customs Commission Enforced these acts James II created the Dominion of New England Made M royal colony from Maine to New Jersey gt After the revolution of 1680 this went away Writs of Assistance Colonists assisting British officials enforce this Mercantile System Admiralty Courts Courts to enforce Navigation Acts 1760 George III come in and starts enforcing 3FlHzint Revelationl notyeo Colonial Government Each colony had a Governor from the Mother country and an Assembly Only 5 of the 13 colonies were corporate colonies much less than before England started gaining control of more colonies o Governors had the power of Veto and being able to appoint officials gt Had nominal power In name only 0 Assembly had the gal power Could create laws and had control of the money and tax Could drive out appointed officials and had ability over money to not pay the governor After 1763 England gained control of taxing Effect of Enlightenment Ideas Ideas of reasoning rationality and science John Locke 1689 Treatise systematic argument and plan of argument 1 Natural rights exist in the state of nature life liberty property 2 Government come into existence to protect these rights 3 If government violates these rights then it s just cause for REVOLUTION Colonial Wars Conflict between French and Colonists 1689 Fighting begins William takes the throne of England 1763 French and Indian War ends 17541763 French and Indian War gt Ohio River Valley Governor Dinwiddie sent George Washington to fight the French They beat the George until England brings out their Mint and take it up to and invade Quebec Treaty of Paris Made French give up all North American possessions gt The major west was given to Spain and colonies gained from Louisiana east After 1763 George III gets incredibly interested in the colonies Toward Independence 176374 Change of British Policy What it Was British takes Policies Taxes Trade Regulations Land Policy and Currency Restrictions much more seriously and they become more demanding gt This quick change in policy led to Revolution Finally Why More Demanding 1 Creation of North American Empire Proving this by defeating the French 2 War Debt gt Taxes colonies to pay their debt gt Took away Assembly s ability to tax took away power 3 New King King George III acceded the throne in 1761 British Viewpoint 0 Viewed the colonists as British Subjects and treated them as such 0 The policies we created really aren t that bad Its the colonies job to serve their counhy American Viewpoint 0 Americans were alarmed by the sudden change in British policy 0 Americans see themselves as AMERICANS gt Ready to be independent 0 Fear of tyranny from Britain European style of tyranny was brutal British Policies amp Colonial Resistance General Pattern 0 British established new taxes Ledto 0 Fear began that colonists will resist the changes Ledto 0 British backing off temporarily Ledto 0 British becoming more stubborn amp enact stricter policies Policies New Taxes 0 Colonies weren t represented at all while enacting these taxes Trade Regulations Navigation Acts 0 Custom Commissioners British Officials 0 Writs of Assistance Colonists must assist these officials in search 0 Admiralty Courts Coastal courts to try colonists going against British Laws Land Policy British tried to prevent Western Expansion 0 Why 1 Pontiac Revolution 0 Uprising Against the British and Colonists because of expansion 2 Wants to keep colonists hooked on British goods gtProclamation of 1763 Colonists began to resent Currency Restrictions Won t use American Currency I British creditors wanted hard money when investing in colonies and don t want America Currency Paper money can depreciate Resistance 0 Where Assemblies Legislatures gt Represent the people Town Halls amp Town Meetings gt Outlawed o Rhetoric Argument because of Enlightenment Discussing Natural Rights 0 Methods 0 Verbal Protest o Boycotts o Destruction of Property Brief History 0 British Prime Ministers a Western Land Policy 0 Pontiac was an Ottowan Chief gt Started attacking people in the Ohio River Valley gt British speculators wanted to move Proclamation of 1763 was never enforced Grenville s Acts I Sugar Tax 0 Colonists protested boycotted and smuggled sugar I Currency 0 No more paper currency so how will they pay for these taxed goods I Stamp Act 0 All printed products must have a stamp o Colonists destroyed offices and protested the act it 9 Colonies banded together to protest and boycott the Stamp Act I Quartery o Colonists must house British Officials Declaratory Act Repealed the Grenville Acts but affirmed British control over colonies Townshend Acts 0 Revenue Acts Taxed 0 Glass 0 Lead 0 Paint 0 Paper 0 Colonists protested and boycotted all items and Smuodlino was rampant Boston Massacre As result of tension from Townshend Acts 0 After the protest and Boycott repealed all taxes of Townshend MTea 0 Britain lowered the tax so much that Americans might consider buying again 0 Hope was to ease America into the taxing of Britain As a result of this Boston Tea Party V Coercive Acts Intolerable Acts 1 Closed all ports in Boston until the tea was paid for 2 Banned Boston Town Meetings 3 New Quartering Act Must supply and house gt Britain stocked up on troops for possible rebellion 4 British Officials tried for breaking the law will be tried in Britain for obvious reasons Continental Congress All colonies come together in Massachusetts and come up with and declare Coercive Acts are Null and Void Declared rights as Colonists Ordered each colony to train a militia Boycotted each good until Coercive Acts were repealed The American Revolution The Revolution and the American Ideal The Ideal The Reality Exceptionalism America is the land of Victory in revolution confirms this ideal liberty happiness and virtue 1 Most Americans during the Revolution didn39t want to sacrifice for this ideal 2 Americans have been plagued with this reality but haven39t really lived up to it ie slaves The Revolution was the supreme test for the birth of a new and different country Whigs Hardcore revolutionaries The War Background Coercive Acts 1774 began the Continental Congress gt the de facto national government Articles of Confederation gt de jure Early Phase 0 Lexington and Concord gt beginning of fighting militiamen came to Boston forming the Continental Army 0 Olive Branch Petition gt Letter sent to King George asking not to fight Battle of Bunker Hill lt gt Beginning of the fighting o Prohibitory Act Blockaded American ports gt This was an Act of War Americans still reluctant to declare independence until Dec 1775 Thomas Paine Common Sense and Enlightenment View of independence that established the national ideal I l gt Everyone read it or had it read to them Changed view of Americans July 1776 Declaration of Independence 177678 Northern Phase Britain wanted to cut off the source of the rebellion Boston Massachusetts 3 Uncoordinated Generals Led 3 Points of Invasion on Massachusetts Howe Goes south for some ungodly reason To try and take out the Continental Congress Makes a cat and mouse game with Washington Burgoyne Defeated at Saratoga St Leger Beaten back 0 Alliance with France Sent supplies to the rebels since Declaration of Independence Later sent troops 0 Carlisle Commission repeal all taxes if the rebels surrender and become colonists again 177883 Southern Phase Began focussing on the Southern Colonies because of potential Tories in the south gt Monarch Supporters Why would the South have more monarch suoporters 0 Trade Staple Crops Britain is a big buyer 0 Anglicanism Loyalty because of religion British Invasion Took Charleston and Savannah 0 Clinton Went North to fight Washington 0 Cornwallis Stayed south to cut off southern supplies vs Greene taunted Cornwallis 1783 Treaty of Paris Independence recognition from Britain and gave up territory to the Mississippi River gt Sets the border between America and Spain 0 Compensated Tories to make sure they re treated well 0 Pay off the debts to creditors on either side Why the Americans Won 0 The Superiority of Defense 1 North American Terrain Heavily Forested completely different from Britain gt Rebels were good at guerrilla warfare Hid in trees Ambushed 2 Changes in military technology Bayoneted Musket 3 Because of great defense Britain began logistics strategy Cut off supplies BUT gt Didn39t have enough soldiers to make this strategy realistic and viable Americans and the Revolutionary Ideal 3 Rhetorical Sources 1 Spirits of our ancestors demand we win this war 2 We owe it to the next generation posterity Can t let them down 3 We owe it to God for letting us establish this republic Why So Dramatic 1 Pressure of war threat of Britain 2 Pressure of History Republic s tend not to have a good record in the past They needed psychological support The Ideal vs Reality Whigs people for revolution ran the continental congress Tories people for the monarch British supporterssympathizers Neutrals the majority of people Revolutionaries but didn t want to sacrifice or die for independence The Army and Beginning of Federalism This ragtag army shouldn39t have won Whigs began politicizing and made a federalist movement
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