Psych 108 FINAL study guide
Psych 108 FINAL study guide
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6814 727 PM Psych 108 final review Chapter 1 Cognitive neuroscience Combines the research techniques of cognitive psychology with a variety of methods for assessing the brain39s structure and function brain lesion an area of the brain that has been destroyed by strokes and other damage difficult to interpret the relationship between brain lesions and cognitive deficits PET scan Researchers inject a small dose of radioactive chemical to see what parts of the brain are activated when a person is working on a cognitive task fMRI tracks oxygen rich blood to see what parts of the brain are active when a person is working on a cognitive task chapter 2 perception uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses ex interpret the letters on the page The visual system Distal stimulus The actual object that is out there in the environment Ex the pen on your desk Proximal stimulus The information registered on your sensory receptors Ex the image that your pen creates on your retina Re na Covers the inside back portion of your eye It contains millions of neurons that register and transmit visual information from the outside world Sensory memory Large capacity storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy 0 Iconic memory visual memory preserves an image of a visual stimulus for a brief period after the stimulus has disappeared Primary visual cortex Located in occipital lobe Portion of vertebral cortex that is concerned with basic processing of visual stimuli The first place where information from your two eyes is combined Gestalt psychology Humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see Without any effort we see patterns rather than randomness Ambiguous figureground relationship The figure and the ground reverse from time to time They switch page 39 Do you see a face or do you see a vase Illusory contours Aka subjective contours We see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus Seeing a triangle because your brain automatically draws the connecting lines page 40 Templates Specific patterns that you have stored in memory Feature analysis theory Flexible approach Visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristics or components Each visual characteristic is a distinctive feature Recognition by components theory A specific view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3D shapes called geons Section summary Perception uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses in object recognition we identify a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Visual information from the retina is transmitted to the primary visual cortex other regions of the cortex are active when we recognize complex objects According to gestalt ppl organize their perceptions even when they encounter ambiguous figure ground stimuli and even in illusory contour stimuli when no boundary actually separates the figure from the background Feature anaysis theory is one theory of object recognition it is supported by research showing that people require more time to make a decision about 2 letters of the alphabet when those letters share many critical features This theory is also supported by neuroscience The recognition by components theory argues that objects are represented in terms of an arrangement of simple 3D shapes called geons We store info about these shapes at different angles Bottom up processing The stimulus characteristics are important when you recognize an object The physical stimuli from the environment are registered on the sensory receptors Top down processing Emphasizes how a persons concepts expectations and memory can influence object recognition Word superiority effect We identify a single letter more accurately and quicker when it appears in a meaningful word than when it appears alone Change blindness We fail to detect a change in an object or a scene Innatentional blindness Overusing top down processing can lead to this We are paying attention to some events in a scene we may fail to notice when an unexpected but completely visible object appears Ecological validity If the conditions in which the research is conducted are similar to the natural setting where the results will be applied You don39t see a gorilla strolling through a basketball game Summary Bottom up processing emphasized the importance of the stimulus in object recognition in contrast top down processing emphasizes how a person39s concepts expectations and memory influence object recognition Both processes work together to allow us to recognize objects When we read context facilitates recognition 0 Ex the word superiority effect shows that we can identify a single letter more accurately and rapidly when it appears in a meaningful word than when it appears by itself or in a meaningless string of letters During reading the context of a sentence influences how we identify a word in that sentence Overactive top down processing can also encourage us to make two kinds of errors 0 Change blindness errors in recognizing that an object has changed a man carrying the door 0 Inattentional blindness failing to notice that a new object appeared the gorilla appearing in a basketball game Face perception Ppl are quick to recognize faces they know fMRI shows that cells in the infer temporal cortex play a role in perceiving faces ppl are not accurate in judging whether a photo matches the face of the cardholder Ppl are not accurate in judging whether a photo of an unfamiliar person matches a person in a video they saw earlier speech perception phoneme basic unit of spoken language a k th coarticulation your mouth remains in the shape it was your mouth is preparing to pronounce the next phoneme phonemic restoration they can fill in a missing phoneme using contextual meaning as a cue ex it was found that the eel was on the axle special mechanism approach humans are born with a specialized device that allows us to decode speech stimuli we process speech sounds more quickly and accurately than other auditory stimuli such as instrumental music chapter 3 divided attention task try to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages responding appropriately to each message when ppl multitask then try to accomplish two or more tasks at the same time multitasking strains the limits of attention selective attention task requires people to pat attention to certain kinds of information while ignoring other ongoing information dichotic listening studied by asking people to wear earphones one message is presented to the left ear and a different message is presented to the right ear working memory is brief immediate memory for material that we are currently processing students with high working memory capacity noticed their name only 20 of the time people with low capacity have difficulty blocking out the irrelevant information such as their name they are easily distracted form the task they are supposed to be completing the Stroop Effect ppl take a long time to the ink color when that color is used in printing is incongruent with the word Emotional Stroop task ppl are instructed to name the ink of words that could have strong emotional significance to them these ppl took longer to name the color because they have trouble ignoring their emotional reactions to the words themselves ex when ppl have a phobic disorder fear of spiders when they are asked to name the color of the words such as hairy or crawl they are slower on these anxiety arousing words attentional bias the situation in which ppl pay extra attention to some stimuli or some features visual search the observer must find a target in a visual display that has numerous distractors seeing a target more helps you identify it easier isolatedfeaturecombinedfeature effect ppl can typically locate an isolated feature more quickly than a combined feature featurepresentfeatureabsent effect ppl can typically locate a feature that is present more quickly than when it is absent circles on page 79 saccadic eye movement during reading is to bring venter of your retina into position over the words you want to read a small region in the center of the retina is the fovea and has better acuity than other regions perceptual span the number of letters and spaces that we perceive during a fixation orienting attention network generally responsible for the kind of attention required for visual search in which you must shift your attention around to various locations unilateral spatial neglect when a person ignores pert of his or her visual field PET scan look at blood flow in the brain by injecting radioactive chemical just before performing a cognitive task Executive attention network responsible for the kind of attention we use when a task focuses on conflict ex on the stroop task you need to inhibit your automatic response of reading a word so that you can name the color of the ink theories of attention bottleneck theories propose a similar narrow passageway in human information processing bottleneck limits the quantity of information to which we can pay attention if one message is flowing through the bottleneck others may be left behind feature inteqration theory we sometimes look at a scene using distributed attention and we process all parts of the scene at the same time for other scenes we process things one step at a time illusory conjunction is kalan inappropriate combination for features perhaps combining one object39s shape with a nearby object39s color binding problem not representing the important features consciousness means the awareness that ppl have about the outside world and their perceptions images thoughts and memories chapter 4 working memory brief immediate memory for the limited amount of material that you are currently processing short term memory same as working memory onq term memory large capacity and contains your memory for experience and info that have been accumulated thorough your life BrownPeterson our memory is fragile for material stored for just a few seconds Recency effect with better recall for items at the end of the list Primacy effect remembering the items at the beginning of the list Semantics The meanings of words and sentences Influences short term memory Proactive interference People have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with new learning Control process Intentional strategies such as rehearsal that ppl may use to improve their memory Summary Working memory is what we are currently processing brief We an hold 7 chunks in shortterm mem BrownPeterson and Peterson technique prevents rehearsal shows that ppl have limited recall for items after a brief delay Word meaning can influence the of items we store in short term mem When semantic category changes we recall new material better Atkinson Shiffrin model items that we store in short term mem Can be lost in 30 secs unless they are repeated Ppl can use rehearsal and other control processes to improve short term memory Workinq memory approach Our immediate memory is a multipart system that temporarily holds and manipulates information while we perform cognitive tasks Central executive Visuospatial sketchpad Episodic buffer Phonological loop 9 long term memory phonological loop can process a limited of sounds over a short period of time active during subvocalization when you silently pronounce words you are reading storage items stored here can be confused with other simiar sounding items used for long term mem self instruction learning new words producing language amp solving problems phonological tasks activate the left hemi o Frontal lobe rehearsal and parietal lobe storage Visuospatial sketchpad Process both visual and spatial information Allows you to look at complex scenes and gather visual information about objectslandmarks Allows you to navigate from one location to another Stores the visual appearance and the location of objects Storage Limited capacity Visuospatial tasks will interfere with each other if performed simultaneously Central executive Integrates information from the phonological loop visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer and long term memory Plays a role in focusing attention strategizing transforming information and coordinating behavior Does NOT store information just coordinates and plans Cannot perform two tasks simultaneously Daydreaming interferes with generating random number sequence Activates various regions of the frontal lobe Children with ADHD have trouble with central executive tasks Episodic buffer A temporary storehouse that can hold and combine information form phonological loop visuospatial sketchpad and long term mem Actively manipulates information so you can interpret earlier experiences solve new problems and plan future activities Summary Working memory is like a workbench where material is continuously being combined and transformed Ppl could perform a verbal task and a spatial task simultaneously with minimum reduction in speed and accuracy on either task Chapter 5 Longterm memory Workinq memory brief immediate memory for material we are currently processing Long term memory large capacity contains memory experiences ad info you have accumulated Separated into 3 categories episodic semantic procedural Episodic memory memories for events that happened to you personally Semantic memory organized knowledge about the world words and facts Procedural memory knowledge about how to do something Encoding process information and represent it in your memory Levels of processing approach deep meaningful information leads to more accurate recall than shallow sensory processing Distinctiveness a stimulus is different form other memory traces Self reference effect remember info that relates to you Representative Encodinq specificity principle recall is better if the context during retrieval is similar to the context during encoding Pollyanna Principle we process pleasant items better than non pleasant Explicit memory task a researcher directly asks you if you remember some information depth of processing has a major impact on explicit memory Implicit memory task you see the material and later during the test you are asked to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask you to recall information no major impact with depth of processing Repetition priminq task recent exposure to a word increases likelihood that you will think of that word when given a cue Amnesia Have severe deficits in their episodic memory Retrograde amnesia loss of memory for events that occurred prior to the brain damage Anterograde amnesia cannot form memories after the injury o On implicit memory they perform normally o Recall nothing in ecplicit memory Hippocampus a structure underneath the cortex that is important in many learning and memory tasks expertise impressive memory abilities in a particular area schema consists of general knowledge or expectations from past expe ences consistency bias we tend to exaggerate the consistency between our past feelings and beliefs with our current viewpoint source monitoring trying to identify the origin of a particular memory where did I learn that reality monitorinq did the event really occur or did I imagine it Recovered memory perspective Some ppl who experience sexual abuse during childhood manage to forget the memory for years Later on it comes back to them False memory perspective Most of these recovered memories are incorrect Constructed about events that never occurred Chapter 6 memory strategies and metacognition Ecoloqical validity Research is conducted are similar to the natural setting o which the results will be applied Memory strateqy perform mental activities that help you improve your encoding and retrieval Levels of processing we recall information more accurately if you process it at a deep level rather than shallow Elaboration concentrate on the specific meaning of a particular concept try to relate it to your prior knowledge Rehearsal repeating information you want to learn Foresiqht bias occurs when ppl feel they have been studying for a future exam and they are overconfident Total time hypothesis amount that you learn depends on the total time you devote to learning Retrieva practice effect you try to recall important concepts from memory and if it is hard and you succeed your learning is enhanced Distributed practice effect you remember more material if you spread you learning out over time Spaced learning Mnemonic devices Mental strategies designed to improve your memory See pages 179182 for specifics Retrospective memory remembering information you required in the past Prospective remembering something you need to do in the future Metacoqnition refers to knowledge and control of your cognitive process 3 components of metacognition metamemory tip of the tongue phenomenon metacomprehension Metamemory people39s knowledge monitoring and control of their memory More accurate when judging individual items More accurate when judging is delayed ADHD ppl are the same in judgments Tip of the tongue effect describes your subjective experience of knowing the target word for which you are searching yet you cannot recall it right now Feeinq of knowinq effect describes the subjective experience of knowing some info but you cannot recall it right now Chapter 7 Mental Imagery and Cognitive Maps Imagery mental representation of stimuli when they are not present Perception uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses Requires you to register info through the receptors in your sensory organs eyes and ears Imaqery debate Do our mental images resemble perception or language When judging the shapes of mental images or visual images ppl take longer to make decisions when the two stimuli have very similar physical shapes Analoq code representation that closely resembles the physical object Propositional code abstract anguage ike representation storage is neither visual nor spatial and does not physically resemble the original stimulus Prosopaqnosia cannot recognize human faces visually though they perceive other objects relatively normally Demand characteristics are all the cues that might convey the experimenter s hypothesis to the participant Meta anaysis method for combining numerous studies on a single topic Summary Visual images can interfere with visual perception This conclusion applies to the perception of figures such as trees as well as line segments Visual imagery activates about 70 to 90 of the same brain regions that are activated during visual perception 0 ppl with prosopagnosia cannot recognize human faces visually and they also cannot create a mental image of a face j3i cch a characteristic of a sound stimulus that can be arranged on a scale from low to high timbre the sound quality of a tone spatial coqnition refers to 3 cognitive activities our thoughts about cognitive maps how we remember the world we navigate how we keep track of objects in a spatial array heu s c general problem solving strategy that creates a solution but not always Boarder bias ppl estimate that the distance between two specific locations is larger if they are on different sides of a geographic border compared to two locations on the same border Landmark effect the general tendency to provide shorter estimates when traveling to a landmark an important geographical location rather than a nonlandmark Symmetry heuristic we remember figures as being more symmetrical and regular than they truly are Rotation heuristic a figure that is tilted we remember it being more horizontal or vertical than it really is Aliqnment heuristic series of separate geographic structures will be remembered as being more lined up than they really are Coqnitive maps mental rep of geographical information including the environment that surrounds us Individual differences in spatial cognition are large and they are correlated with menta rotation ability You can make judgments about spatial cognition more easily if your cognitive map matches the orientation of the physical map Things can be distorted in our maps and we often see things as being more regular than they really are We make north south decisions easier than eastwest Spatial framework model the above beow spatial dimension is especially important in our thinking the front back dimension is moderately important and the right left dimension is least important Chapter 8 general knowledge Semantic memory our organized knowledge about the world Episodic memory contains information about events that happen to us Category set of objects that belong together Concept your mental representations of a category Situated coqnition approach we make use of information in the immediate environment or situation Our knowledge depends on what is around us Prototype item that is best most typical example of a category Ideal representation of a category Prototype approach compare objects to a prototype and see what category it belongs to Prototypically the degree to which members of a category are representative of their category Graded structure begins with the most representative or prototypical members and it continues through the category s nonprototypical members Typicality effect occurs when ppl judge typical items prototypes faster than items that are not typical Semantic priminq ppl respond faster to an item if it was preceded by an item with similar meaning Family resemblance no single attribute is shared by all examples of a concept however each example has at least one attribute in common with another example of the concept Superordinate eve cateqories higher eve or more general categories ilevel categories moderately specific Subordinate eve cateqories refer to ower eve or more specific categories Exemplar approach we first learn information about some specific examples of a concept We classify each new stimulus by deciding how closely it resembles all of those specific examples Network model of semantic memory propose netlike organization of concepts in memory with numerous interconnections Nojde one unit located within a network Spreadinq activation a process where when you see or hear the name of a concept the node representing that concept is activated Adaptive control of thoughts ACTR attempts to account for a wide variety oftasks Declarative knowledqe knowledge of facts and things Propositional network a pattern of interconnected propositions Propositions the smallest unit of knowledge that ppl can judge to either be true or false Parallel distributed processing PDP proposes that cognitive processes can be represented by a model in which activation flows through networks that link together a large number of simple neuron ike units Explains how it allows us to explain how human memory can help us when some information is missing 9 Spontaneous generalization using individual cases to draw inferences about general information default assiqnment based on information from other similar people or objects Lipt simple we structured sequence of events in a specified order boundary extension our tendency to remember having viewed a greater portion of a scene than was actually shown abstraction a memory process that stores the meaning of a message rather than the exact words verbatim memory people have poor word for word recall after a few minutes after the passage has been presented constructive model of memory people integrate information from individual sentences in order to construct larger ideas praqmatic view of memory people pay attention to the aspect of a message that is most relevant to their goals Recalling the gist of a sentence Memory inteqration background knowledge encourages us to take in new information in a schema consistent fashion Event related potential technique records tiny fluctuations in the brains electrical activity in response to a stimulus Chapter 9 language I introduction to language and language comprehension Psycholinquistics field that examines how people use language to communicate ideas Phoneme basic unit of spoken language A k th Morpheme basic unit of meaning Ex the word reactivated contains 4 morphemes re active ate ed Each segment contains a meaning Morphology The study of morphemes morphology examines how we create words by combining morphemes Syntax grammatical rules that govern how we organize words into sentences Grammar examines word structure and sentence structure Pragmatics refers to our knowledge of the social rules that underlie language use Psycholinguistics is English centered Chomsky s approach He proposed there is more to a sentence than you think Argued that impressive language abilities must be explained Thought humans have innate language learning skills Said language is modular people have a set of specific linguistic abilities that is separated from other cognitive processes such as memory and decision making Surface structure represented by the words that are actually spoken or written Deep structure the underlying abstract meaning of a sentence Transformational rules convert deep structure into surface structure so you can speak or write 0 Ex Sara threw the ball and the ball was thrown by Sara 0 Different surface structures but same deep structure Ambiguous sentences two sentences with identical surface structures but different deep structures Coqnitive functional approach emphasizes the function of human language in everyday life is to communicate meaning to other individuals Factors affecting comprehension If they contain negatives such as not If they are in passive rather than active voice If they have complex syntax If they are ambiguous The good enough approach We only process part of a sentence Can lead to errors Neurolinquistics Examines how the brain processes language Aphasia difficulty communicating caused by damage to speech areas 0 Broca s area meaning without grammar Trouble producing language 0 Wernicke s area serious difficulties understanding language comprehension Grammar is right but often meaningless Lateralization Each hemisphere of the brain has different functions fMRI measures oxygen rich blood as an index of brain activity superior to a PET scan because It can detect changes that occur quickly disadvantage can be inaccurate when ppl move PET requires injection of radioactive material Lanquaqe Iocalizer task compensates for the problem of individual differences Researcher gathers fMRI data Summary Central concepts phoneme morpheme morphology syntax grammar semantics semantic memory pragmatics Linguistics focuses on English because of simple grammar and more variable pronunciation than other languages 0 We do not know if findings are applied to other languages Chomsky language is innate language is modular deep structure of a sentence captures its core meaning Sentences are difficult to understand if there are negatives use passive voice use complex syntax and are ambiguous Ppl read rapidly good enough heuristic usually but not always leads to accurate comprehension Left hemisphere performs most components of language processing such as speech perception and understanding meaning right hemisphere performs abstract language task such as creative a cohesive story fMRIs highlight some specific brain regions in the left hemisphere that are responsible for we defined language tasks such as distinguishing between sentences and non words 0 proves right hemisphere processes subtle distinctions in meaning recent research on mirror neurons in the motor cortex provides information about some nonverbal aspects communication written vs spoken languages reading is visual spread across space speech auditory and spread across time readers control rate of input listeners cannot adults learn new words better when they are written not spoken Dualroute approach to reading Skilled readers employ both a direct access route recognize word from vision and an indirect access route recognize word by sounding out the word Flexible the characteristics of the reading material determine if it is direct or indirect Also characteristics of the reader beginning vs advanced readers Consistent w brain imaging research Wholeword approach direct access Children should not emphasize the way a word sounds Emphasizes context Problem only 25 of adults recognize a missing word in incomplete sentences Phonics approach Sound it out Speech is necessary for reading Phonics helps children who have reading problems Children who learn to read Spanish German they have almost perfect reading accuracy in contrast to only 34 of English children Discourse Interrelated language units larger than a sentence Frederick Bartlett39s Research People recall stories that are more consistent with their schemas after a long delay Importance of context general background knowledge expertise scripts and schemas Interaction of bottom up and top down processing Inferences Forming an integrated representation of the text How do we gather information together and remember the various concepts to form a cohesive and memorable message Theory of mind ppl try to figure out the mental state of other ppl in their lives Skilled readers frequently organize information into a cohesive story 0 use mental models during reading mental map of locations described in writing make inferences going beyond the information drawing inferences during reading factors that encourage inferences 0 working memory capacity 0 expertise o metacomprehension skills teaching metacomprehension skills contemplate own reading strategies 0 reading every sentence or skimming 0 monitor your understanding 0 notice when you mind wander teach students to 0 think out loud o summarize 0 make predictions 0 describe puzzling sections conclusion different languages influences how we think to some degree how language is produced can affect our understanding variety of brain regions contribute to processing language learning to read better phonetics developing meta comprehension strategies better comprehension Chapter 11 problem solving and creativity Problem solving when you want to reach a specified goal but the solution is not immediately obvious because you are missing important information Two types welldefined 51 or illdefined solve word hunger 3 components initial state goal state obstacles representing the problem identify the most relevant information read description carefully pay attention to inconsistencies methods of representing the problem finding a way to characterize the problem to give it an effective solution factors that influence representation success workingmemory capacity expertise sources of error translating into symbols oversimplification matrix show all possible combinations most useful for complex stable categorical info diagrams represent abstract information reduce complicated information ex instructions for assembling objects origami more accurate with verbal and step by step diagram rather than just by verbal solve problems with analogy use previously solved problem to help with another analogy superficial features are different but same deep level analogies are missed unless given clues they are related ppl are too influenced by superficial similarities heu s cs strategies for choosing operator to apply not guaranteed correct but generally helpful means end analysis divide into subprobs identify the ends you want and the means to meat them one of the most effectiveflexible problem solving strategies hill climbing choose a step that moves closest to the goal get stuck in the local maxima states that are closer to the goal than neighboring states but still not the goal leave local maxima by back tracking or adding randomness ex the dog needs to move away from the bone before it can get closer to it hill climbing strategy fails here ex local maxima dog trying to get food leash is caught around the tree and he needs to go all the way back and around experts developed towndown processing so they perform well on many different components of problem solving in their particular area more likely to use means end heuristic effectively on a novel problem factors that influence problem solving mental set 0 using same solution form previous probs even tho the problem could be solved by a different easier method 0 close mind prematurely stop thinking 0 overactive top down processing functional fixedness o assign stable uses to an object o fail to think about the features of the object that might be useful to help solving a problem 0 overactive top down processing 0 we rely to heavily on our previous concepts expectations and memory 0 in the candle problem use the objects in different ways than they would normally be insight vs noninsight probs noninsight gradual solution 0 warmth ratings increase 0 thinking out loud does not impair o enhance insight step back and gain perspective right hemi Associated insight seems impossible but suddenly solve it light bulb 0 goat problem 0 warmth does NOT increase for insight problems 0 thinking out loud impairs insight o insight problems thought to be composed in a distant research institute were solved more accurately than if they were thought to be in a nearby one Beemans theory of asymmetry of dynamic semantic fields Left hemi o Finer coding 0 Better selection 0 Better at detecting building close connections Right hemi Coarser coding Weaker activation Better at detecting building distant unusual connections Takes stepping back perspective Associated with greater sensitivity to insight probs Increased right temporal lobe activation w prob solving OOOOOO Creativity Finding solutions that are novel and useful 0 Disagreements if creativity involves ordinary thinking or exceptional people Two types of creativity Divergent many possible solutions 0 Unsual uses test 0 Name as many uses for a brick you can think of Build a house grind up for makeup Convergent single solution 0 Remote associates Provide a single best response 3 components of creativity expertise motivation creative thinking skills ppl are more likely to be creative on intrinsic motivated tasks entrenchment exposure to others thoughts similarly constrains creativity 0 mental sets for design of a spilless cup reduces alternatives chapter 12 decision making and reasoning deductive reasoning begin with specific premises that are true and you judge whether those premises allow you to draw conclusions based on logic a deductive reasoning task provides you with all the information you need to draw a conclusion use rules of logic to determine T or F 2 valid deductive inferences modus ponens affirming the antecedent modus tollens denying the consequence belief bias effect when ppl make judgments on prior beliefs an general knowledge rather than rules of logic 0 ppl tend to make errors when the logic of a reasoning problem conflicts with background knowledge Wason selection task A 2 X 3 Must turn over A modus ponens affirming antecedent Must turn over 3 modus tollens denying consequence People try to confirm or support a hypothesis rather than disprove it Ppl are eager to affirm the antecedent Reluctant to deny the consequent by searching for counterexamples Inductive reasoning The premises seek to supply evidence for the truth of the conclusion Not absolute proof Decision making assessing info and choosing among two or more alternatives Compared to deductive reasoning Induc veis Ambiguous No est rules No correct decision 2 types of decision making prescriptive models models describing he best way to make a decision descriptive models describes the way decisions are actually made cognitive psychologist are interested in how ppl actually make decisions subjective utility theory goal seek pleasure avoid pain two components subjective utility based on the individuals judged weights of utility rather than objective criteria subjective probability based on individuals estimates of likelihood rather than on objective statistical computations summary deductive reasoninq conditional reasoning focus ifthen relationships accuracy higher on positive statements and for concrete probs belief bias effect encourages ppl to trust their prior knowledge rather than logic overactive top down processing 9 errors confirmation bias try to confirm hypothesis not deny it Wason selection task confirmation bias 0 Also found in medical political situations Individual differences decision making amp psychological well being Maximizers examine all options can lead to decision overload o Regret their choice more than satisficers o Experience more depression than satisficers o More choices don39t make a person happier Satisficers tend to settle for something satisfactory Examine careers of college students o Maximizers made most money 0 Satisficers were happier with jobs Elimination by aspects Begin with many options Determine most important attribute and limit it All alternatives with values below the cutoff are eliminated Continue process until only 1 alternative remains Heuristics influencinq decision making Representativeness ppl judge that a sample is likely if it is similar to the population from which the sample was selected 0 it is so persuasive that ppl ignore statistical information can be accurate but also lead to errors ppl over use it a large sample is more likely to reflect the population small sample fallacy assume a small sample is rep of a population ppl believe random ooking outcomes are more likely than orderly outcomes gamber s fallacy think a random event is affected by past events 0 your turn to win 0 it is still the same probability ppl ignore base rates availability heuristic higher murder rate for Michigan then Detroit making judgments based on how easily it comes to mind chapter 13 cognitive development false belief test 3 year olds do not know the difference 5 year olds know how to think in other s shoes older wiser Future intentions older ppl better than younger more likely to call experimenter back Meaningless associations young ppl better remembering random associations Meaningful associations older individuals comparable remembering meaningful situations Memory for prices Specific prices 0 When items are market value 0 When they are not market value General price category 0 Whether or not items were market value Study 0 Older adults to worse than younger in remembering arbitrary associations Poorer recall for non market value prices 0 Older adults comparable to younger for meaningful associations recall for market val Prices 0 older adults betteryounger in remembering price category good keeping big pic remembering the gist how to help memory w old ppl socialize Engage mind read social games clubs walks Meditate Reduce stress Enhance mindfulness Improve memory performance Increase longevity in elderly OOOO Summary Infants have surprising cognitive strengths ability to appreciate basic principles of physics categorization Kids have some surprising cognitive weaknesses incl a failure to appreciate conservation amp alternative perspective Aging declines though inevitable often spare ability to remember the important stuff esp for those who remain mentally active What we perceive remember is influenced by our beliefs and expectations Many cognitive processes that are useful can lead to errors
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