Unit 1 Notes-Biological Molecules
Unit 1 Notes-Biological Molecules BIOL 121N
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Date Created: 09/09/15
General Biology Human Nutrition There are 4 types of biological molecules that interact to form all viruses singlecell species amp multicell species Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins 4 major groups of carbohydrates glucose quotosequot indicates the molecule is a carbohydrate 1 Monosaccharides molecular building blocks a Used to make i Other types of carbs ii Amino acids iii Lipids iv Nucleotides b The relative size facilitates transport throughout bloodstream and across the cell membrane 2 Disaccharides a Transported across the cell membrane b Transported in plants by phloem tissue taste buds enable us to evaluate food amp drink for caloric content and safety 0 Sweet sensors have receptors that recognize monosaccharides amp disaccharides Perception of sweet indicates food is 0 High in calories 0 Safe for consumption Polymers long molecules that consist of one or more units EX 0 Fatty acids 0 Nucleic acids DNA amp RNA Polysaccharides Proteins 3 Polysaccharides a Formed by linking many monosaccharides together b Glycogen animals amp starch plants are polysaccharides specialized to store excess energy c Some polysaccharides provide structural support General Biology Human Nutrition 4 Oligosaccharides a Consist of 320 monosaccharides b Provide a method of cell to cell communication TATE ETUT GUIE EEEETMHE DEEEHIEE EME EF THE IELHEEIEAL FLIHETIWHE EH 1 a Hill 1 IrlalllEE 39DIHWHEEWHE 1 i J w 15 5 LIlEl EiliIIEHEHIEE FELTEE39EEHJTHEEEE WHILEH EEEMF EFEAEEEHTEHLET IKE MEET EELEWTHT THEAHEEEE EIEEHEEJE DEEEEIEE THE EEF39EMLEHEEHF A MUTAHT 1 a Tilll lllillT39lll FLEET TlllhT ETHTHEEEIEEE EH Hlillll EELILLlIl it mama THET ETHTHEEEEEE E HEEEEL EHETEH HWEEH EHIMELE UEE EELLLI LEEE A5 A EMU EEEHF EHEEET Eli EH THWUEH THET EAHTT PHEEUEE THE EHETMEEELLULAEE WHT IE FEEEEHT IEH ELIE LEE m WHT IE ELIEHE EEEEEHTTH THEE FIlEILEll39I TIEELIE illF HHHJT FILEHllHE FLEHTE T WHl H FEEEEHT MLE llal lE THERE ELEWEMEH EEEEE lli EETHEEEE lllIlLE TilEM lIquotlllilll39l39lilii MHHET lEIIIEEE39ll T WHERE IE ELTEEE ETEE IH LIE EEIEE WHILEH EELTEAEEHEHIEE ETEEED IEH FLthT EEETIE MEHT EH THE EALEEIEE IN HERE EIETE General BiologyProteins What biological function do proteins perform Receptors that recognize signals Enzymes that catalyze biological reactions 0 Antibodies enzymes and complement system proteins that destroy foreign invaders o Filaments that form the cytoskeleton to provide cells with structural support 0 Membrane transport proteins that enable cells to import export substances 0 Enable cells to bind to one another to form tissues 0 Motor proteins that enable substance to move within cells Proteins should provide 1035 of our daily dietary energy What is a protein polypeptide A biologicallyactive molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides which can perform one or more biological functions 0 Our cells use 20 different types of amino acids to make proteins 0 Each of the 20 has a unique R group quotside chainquot Which can be 0 Hydrophobicwater hating o Hydrophilicwaterloving o Electricallycharged and hydrophilic Sickle Cell Disease 0 Due to a change in one amino acid 0 A glutamate amino acid in the normal betaglobin protein is changed to a valine amino acid in the sickle cell globin protein Our cells can t synthesize the I essential amino acids Many cultures combine grain seeds and legume seeds beans in their diets to obtain these essential nutrients Pellagra The quot3 D5quot results from insufficient intake Nature can make an unlimited variety of proteins 0 There are 20300 amino acid sequence possibilities for a protein that is 300 amino acids in length Every protein must be properly folded o A linear polypeptide must fold properly into a speci c 3D structure in order to become a biologicallyactive protein General BiologyProteins Some abnormally folded proteins cause disease Denaturation The process of a protein unfolding and losing its biological activity Can be caused by 0 pH 0 salt concentration temperature toxins natural poisons The function of a protein relates to structure 0 the structure of a protein determines its ability to interact with opther biological molecules The biolodical relevance of diffusion biological systems use the energy of diffusion to transport gases and nutrients across cell membranes 0 diffusionspontaneous movement of a substance from a higher concentration to lower concentration until the substance is evenly distributed in a de ned area General BiologyProteins TEEAHiEJ ETHEE GHiEE H39EETi HE EETEIHE EJLTEEE TI DEE AEE ENEMEE T LIHHIHEWHIIEH WEE HE MEHEMEEE TEEETHE 1 E F AEIE E EELLE TTFEEALLT iEEE Tquot Lu u Lu Lu q 1 TH E quotEEIEE EHAI quotEmil E ERINquot PE EIFFEE AHEHE THE E WEEE F AA I IHH HHT HE EET IHELE BE THE EEHTIAL AEEEE HHT E39EEEAEEH HALE F39E39TEHIEHTAEH ELL E THE EEHTIALAHIHHAEEEE WHAT IE A E i EFIHITIEH EH A EEHTEIH iHHAT AEE E39HE FUHETHE F EE39TEHE IIJEE THE Eli A FEETEFH EEEATE TE HE FHHETIEH LET EHHE FETEHEHUET ELE FEFEELE r HHIEH FEETEIHE ARE HEWEEED HIT EAHE PELTFEFHTIEE TI FEED WEEEETLT E WHIEH lawman HEE ARE EIATEEE mm AEHEMAL ETEIH ETELIETHHE WHAT HAPPENS TE THE FEETEIHE IH EEEE AH HEAT WHEH THEEE ENE AEE EEHEEAT HIEH TEEI FEEATLIEE EULE THE EEEEE EEFHE E THE FE39TEH THAT EHE UEE Tquot THEEET HE General Biology Lipids Lipids are molecules that cannot dissolve in water because they are non m 0 Their equal electrical charge distribution prevents lipids from forming temporary hydrogen bonds with water molecules 0 Water molecules are polar molecules with an uneven electrical charge distribution Lipids should provide 2035 of daily dietary energy caloric intake Mammals cannot synthesize the essential fatty acids 0 uJ3 omega 3 fatty acidalphalinolenic acid 0 uJ6 omega 6 fatty acid linolenic acid The Hydrophobic Effect o It drives the structure of many biological molecules and also the assembly of some biological structures lipid bilayer o Measurable repulsion between lipid and water molecules 0 Lipid and water molecules move to avoid interacting with one another Lipidsoluble Vitamins Vitamin A vision skin growth Vitamin D calcium absorption by the intestines Vitamin E antioxidant that reduces biological molecule damage Vitamin K blood clotting Biological Functions of Lipids lnsulation blubber reduces rate of heat loss Light interception photosynthesis Physical protection cushioning beneath the skin Waterproo ng feathers fur plant surfaces Triacylglycerols triglycerides Specialized to store excess energy in animals and plants 0 Enable a relatively large amount of energy to be stored in a small area 0 Reduces the size and weight of animals and consequently increases their agility Stored in adipose fat tissue 0 Excess fat is stored in lipocytes which expand in size until the fat is used for fuel General Biology Lipids o Specialized cells in adipose tissue that store triacylglycerols triglycerides fat storage organelles Fats and Oils are Triacylglycerols Eff Structural formula of a saturated fat molecule Saturated fatty acids pack together more tightly whereas unsaturated fatty acids pack together more loosely Stearic acid a saturated fatty aeidl 3 Saturated fat 39 a quot Structural f rmula H z c of an unsaturated tat memecule a DIleic aciidl an unsaturated fatty ac dl l as deulble 4 bound causes quot 39 f b L nsaturateo l fat bemd39ng COSVTUJVJG ECO Peaso ECUCSEIJH quot111 L39JLDIE SI II39 as Feastn B E39Yld quotmn Cumm quot95 Steroids Cell membrane structure and function cholesterol in humans Stimulating calcium absorption by the intestines vitamin D Regulating the development of reproductive organs Responding to stress and regulating the immune system Phospholipids Each phospholipid molecule has a hydrophilic portion and a hydrophobic portion 0 In the presence of water molecules the phospholipids interact to form the lipid bilayer o The lipid bilayer is the foundation of all cellular membranes Formation of Cell plasma Membrane Cell membrane formation requires that steroid molecules interact with the hydrophobic portions of the phospholipids Cholesterol is the steroid in the cell membranes of animals General Biology Lipids General Biology Lipids TET E ETUT GUTE HHEETIHHE I HHIEH FHEEEETT ET EEE EIEIIE EHEEE T a EEHT EITIEE THTEEEET HITH HETEE HEEEETEEE T HE EmuE EEEEEEEE HHEEEHEEE quota I THE HTH F HEJIH EFFEET EIIHITEE THE a TLETHE IEF HHTEH ElElE EL HEEEHIET HT WHIEH IHEIIEHE ETUETHEE I I THE IEE iLIFE HEHIHE HHHIF39HMIE TEEEIEET HEEEE LHLEE T I TJIEEE HIE EETHE FHHETIEHE HF THE EIF ITIE IH EHIHETE TH E FLEHTE I HHET IE THE FHHETTH HF THE THIFEETEEEIIEE TEIHETEEETEEHEIEETT m H EHE THET EEEEIELIEEE ETHE I HHIIMILE LIEE THEM ETHE TI39ITHET HF THEIR EI39EEEE TEHET T I HHIEH EHEHF HF TLIF ITIIE IHTEHEETE HH39HI E TH EHEEWEE T TEETH THE EIF ITII TEETEH T WHIEEH TTHH HHHLI HEHF LIHIEIE AHE TH HHHE ELI HEETIIIHHL HELL HEM HEHEEE m E FEHLEETEL HLEEULEEHTHHTE Tquot THE TEHETUHE FUHETIH F EHTHELEELL EETI I HHII EH HEHHEH EE EHE ETEHHIT I HHIEH ETTWEH IHE EHE EIFIIET General Biology Nucleic Acids DNA All singlecellmulticell species and some viruses store and transmit their genetic instructions in DNA The human genome 0 Both the nucleus and mitochondrion contain DNA Nucleus contains two sets of chromosomes 0 One from mother 0 One from father Mitochondrion has 210 copies of on circular DNA molecule 0 Some organelles are specialized to make and maintain DNA The nucleus contains the enzymes and proteins that 0 Make DNA DNA polymerases 0 Make 4 types of DNA nucleotides 0 Identify mutations in DNA 0 Repair mutations in DNA DNA is a polymer or quotpolynucleotide 0 DNA polymerase is the enzyme that links the 4 types of DNA nucleotides together to form DNA molecules 0 Adenine A is a purine o Guanine G is a purine o Cytosine C is a pyrimidine o Thymine T is a pyrimidine Basic structure of each DNA nucleotide One deoxyribose molecule more stable than ribose One phosphate group with a negative electrical charge 0 One nitrogencontaining base 0 Adenine amp Guanine purines o Cytosine ampThymine IDYrimidine 0 Th ymine increases stability in DNA enabling it to store genetic info more effectively If you cannot remember the structure of DNA effectively use this song to remember it The DNA Song to the tune of quotRow Row Row your Boat General Biology Nucleic Acids DNA quotWe love DNA made of nucleotides Sugar phosphate and a base bonded down one side Adenine and thymine make a lovely pair cytosine Without guanine would feel very bare OOOh deoxyribonuceic acid makes up DN DNA is a double strand molecule AKA Double helix or Duplex 0 Each end 5 and 3 of a single strand has a different structure and thus different chemical properties 0 Both strands must be in opposite orientation 5 3 amp 3 5 in order for them to interact through complementary base pairing and form the double helix Hydrogen bonding occurs between complementary base pairs 0 Hydrogen bonding temporary chemical bond that occurs between partially positivelycharged hydrogen atoms and partially negatively charged atoms h 0 These bonds do form great stability within the double helix Van Der Waals interactions 0 Van Dern Waals interaction weak temporary bonds that occur between the adjacent stacked base pairs in the double helix Additional bene ts of complementary base pairing Complementary base pairing makes it easy for cells to o Replicate DNA efficiently 0 Repair DNA effectively DNA Synthesis requires Folic Acid 0 Folic Acid 812 is necessary to make thymine which is necessary to making DNA Folic Acid de ciencies before and during pregnancy increase the risk of birth defects Some Viruses store genetic info in RNA 0 Human immunode ciency virus HIV 1 amp HIV 2 cause AIDS General Biology Nucleic Acids DNA 0 Human Tcell lymphotropic virus HTLV cause Tcell leukemia amp some lymphomas In uenza virus causes the u Tobacco mosaic viruses reduces crop yield Viroids are pathogenic DNA molecules Viroids circular single strand RNA molecules that cause infectious disease General Biology Nucleic Acids DNA TE AT E 51TH ELI E EIUEEEJTIHE WHIth WFEE F IHFHHMMI IEH ARE 5mm Iquot THE HUMAN EEHHIIIIE I39 I WEIquot y EL IHI LEEEWELL HIE HULT ELmLFEEIE TEETHEIE EEHETIE IHFHEI IIATIH IH DEE HETHEFI THEM HEM MEI m EEIIEIJHE DHIII IE HIRE HEBIE THIIHI HHIII I WHI H El nHEM EEE AEEJIHEE TEETHEE 1 EH FLW EEEETH FEM Him HHIIZH HI39IHIIEEHHLIE HES ATHE FIJLIHD III IHIJII E wglrllclan PEHITEE mm mane I5 IHI m 1 HEM EIIIIEE EH33 WEI HEEEWI WE IIIIIAFIEE quotI WHIIIH WEE HIJIELEMIDE ME iJ EEII W HERE HI I a WHEE IE Hm FILIIMEMLEE mayij m1 LI mm IHI mm mm HHEEIE 11 i L g f EH1 39Li ELLE EH FEET ELLE I EIHIEH TIE TTF EEHF TEE39HQIET EmmHEIIIIIEAL EH DE IHE THE ETEEHEI F TH E HIE NJ ELE HELIE TEETHEE 1 IIIIIHIT HTTDFIIEIIEEHIH IIIHE WHHED HE TWEEH EIIIIIEHI WHF LEHEHMW EEEIE HIKE III THE IEIHLII LILE IIEIELIII I39 IIIIIIISHI FHHF E HW HF THE HMSLE HE LIE EHIIILEE LIH EEE HIE W HEPMH MID HE FLIEIIIII E DHII EFFEIEHTH I I nHgIEgHEnEQQHQQULEHELEHQAHLIQLgTIQEEEQErmaE anginarggfggs mwr aag WHH g5 IHEEEEHQEFTHE EMFLEM EITIEEEE ETEEHLIIiH LLmE THE E T i T T EIEHT TlEH EH ELIE HAVE MULTIPLE DHAH EPMH E IIE II EIIIIE I I39II THEIR quotLIKELEI EHE II IIilIIIEH TAKE FHLI E MEI EUFFLEIIIITE HEFHII39E AH ELIEIHE PHEEHAHE I E General Biology Enzymes Enzyme a protein or RNA molecule that increases the rate of a speci c chemical reaction o It is also a biological catalyst that is not consumed by the chemical reaction they perform A substrate ie reactant or reagent is converted into a product in the active si e which only recognizes speci c substrates 0 Substrates enter ee ilve sire enzyme changes shape so lis active sile rmereees the substrates induced Iii Y Q Substrates held in active site by weak F interactions such as l hydregen bends and i 39 ienie bends 39 If Active site and R groups of r r its amino acids can inwer E Substrates 77 7 and speed up e reeeiien by Enzymeesubslrale r mung 53 a tempiarg or complex substrate orientation 0 stressing the substrates ifquot and stabilizing the transition sleie quotI providing El favorable 3 Active 5 microenvirenlmeinl site is 1 participating direelllly In the available caiieiyric reeciion for me new substrate molecules Enzyme P roducte WP Substrates af 39 released 7 eenverted inie 39 7 products Products Enzymes enable chemical reactions to occur in a biologically useful timeframe Most reactions require less than 1 year without enzymes 0 Most reactions require more than 1 second Menzymes 0 Average enzyme performs 1000 reactions per second 0 The range of reaction rates is from 2600000 reactions per second Enzymes end in the suf x Enzymes reduce activation energy EA Activation energy 0 amount of energy that a substrate must absorb to initiate a speci c chemical reaction 0 energy required for a substrate to enter the transition state 0 intermediate energyrich unstable phase that is ready to react to form product General Biology Enzymes The active site of each enzyme reduces the activation energL required for a speci c chemical reaction to occur Cells use enzymes to coordinate thousands of chemical reactions simultaneously 0 each chemical reaction must occur in the proper location at the proper time and generate the proper amount of product 0 each enzyme is localized to a speci c cellular or extracurricular location where its product is required Cells rapidly and reversibly regulate enzyme activity 0 an enzyme is rapidly activated when its product is required 0 an enzyme is rapidly inhibited when its product is not required Hi Competitive inhibition lw l Noncompetitive inhibition Substrate Competitive Substrate V i139llii 1iilbi t039139 i quot i Active site Active site Enzyme Noncompetitive Emime inhibitor Allosteric regulation occurs when a regulator binds to one site of an enzyme and changes its activity at the active site Kinase and Phosphatase enzymes kinase adds a phosphate group to an enzyme phosphatase removes a phosphate group from an enzyme 0 the addition or removal of a phosphate group from an enzyme changes its structure and adjusts its activity Negative feedback regulation regulates many biological processes including enzyme activity 0 occurs when the product of the process shuts down the process General Biology Enzymes negative feedback control occurs when a product molecule binds to an enzyme involved in its synthesis and reduces the activity of this enzyme Enzymes also require cofactors B vitamins are cofactors required for monosaccharide metabolism 0 Minerals like calcium cobalt copper iron magnesium molybdenum selenium and zinc are cofactors for some enzymes General Biology Enzymes T f39 STUDY GUIDE ELITEETIEH m a EEFIHEAH EHE IME II39IHIEH WEEEH IEIEHL MHIILEELILEEi HE EHE IIIIIIEEi WHITEH m m TH EHTTIIIE IE F E I IMEE m FEHWHHI mm THEHIHML TEETH th a HIIEIEH EMT H THE ETHE IIMIE HELMET THE AETIMTIHI EIIEHITT HE39IIIIIEHEI FH H EPEEIFIE EIJIEIIIIEHL HE ETI iH T LIH T I ARE EILEI EL TETEI IIEEIIIFLHELT DEFEHEEHT EHZTME 1 HEW Ea ENEI IFETITI II39EAHEI HHHEEMFETITWE IHHIEITEHLE HETEEEILTHEDIJEE III II IIITI EHETMEAETITITT m EEEHIE Hw IIEEMINE FEEDEAEH HEELILIITIH quotmum EIII FHIE human EEEHIE Tle METEth HEELILIITIEH F Emma mmmm WET I iJaH EHETEIE HEEEIJILII39IHIH HE HIFIDILT EETEHEIHLE mm mum EELILE FHEEIEEL T HEEIJMIE EHE FHIE mmmw 1r EEEEEE EHEHEE EHE I39IIIE HETIITT quot I39 HHEHE IE HE F THE EHZTM Ei EMIH HIDE Il ii i METII FII IIIFIIHTME lIJIHEE EHTTIIIIE JITTIIFITT T 1 WHHTIIHEE EWFAIETHET HHE EEME TlTHIIIIHEHH 39 IIII HEHHLE EWFHETEHE T 1 Ili39H39f PHEM FHHE P iU E TEH III WITH IHHIITEHE THAT FEHSIIIHHEHTLT IH HETEHEILTI DEAETWATE THE AETII IIT Iquot HF EHITIIIEE IH TH EIH PHETT 1 WH Iquot IE EA EH EHETIIIE L HUIET II SPEEIFIE EITE WITHIH IITEIE F IIH
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