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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Chelsea Notetaker

Chapter 1 Notes CHEM 120

Chelsea Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Pesterfield, L

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About this Document

These notes include topics discussed in the first few weeks of class that complete chapter 1.
Pesterfield, L
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Chelsea Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CHEM 120 at Western Kentucky University taught by Pesterfield, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/09/15
College Chemistry I Chem 120 What is Chemistry 0 The study of matter and the changes it undergoes chemical or physical o Matter is something that has mass and takes up space 0 A substance is a form of matter with a definite composition and distinct properties solid liquid gas plasma Different phases of Matter and phase change terms 0 Solid liquid gas plasma 0 Solid to liquid Melting 0 Liquid to solid Freezing 0 Liquid to gas Vaporization 0 Gas to liquid Condensation 0 Solid to gas Sublimation Critical Temperature The temperature for a particular substance at which no matter how much pressure is applied the substance does not liquefy gt Critical Pressure The pressure for a particular substance at which no matter the temperature the substance will not evaporate The Classification of Matter 0 Pure Substances Include compounds and elements compounds are separated into elements by chemical methods or vice versa 0 Mixture A combination of two or more materialssubstances Homogenous Mixture Uniform or the same throughout example milk Heterogeneous Mixture Not uniform throughout example cement 0 Element cannot be separated into simpler material by chemical means 113 elements total 82 natural elements and 31 manmade elements 0 Compound made up of two or more elements Can be separated by chemical means Physical vs Chemical Changes 0 Physical Changes DO NOT alter the composition or identity of the substance For example whether water is in the form of ice or liquid it is still water 0 Chemical Changes DOES alter the composition or identity of the substance For example rusting of iron oxidation Intensive vs Extensive Properties 0 Extensive Depends on how much material is being measured or considered For example mass volume length all depend on the amount of material 0 Intensive Does not depend on how much material is present For example density temperature or color SI Base Units of Measurement 0 Length in meters m 0 Mass in kilograms kg 0 Time in seconds s 0 Electric Current in amperes A 0 Temperature in Kelvin K NOT degrees K 0 Amount of substance in moles mol 0 Luminous Intensity in candelas cd Remember that there are other important measurements however they are derived from the SI Base units Example Force F mass x acceleration kg x ms2Newton Force is derived from the SI Base units mass in kg length or distance in meters and time in seconds The Metric System and important conversion measurements Prefix Abbreviation Number Scientific Exponent Mega M 1000000 106 times the fundamental Kilo k 1000 103 times the fundamental Deka da 10 10 times the fund Fundamental Fundamental Fundamental Fundamental Deci d 01 10391 times the fund Centi c 001 10392 times the fund Milli m 0001 10393 times the fund Micro u 0000001 10396times the fund Nano n 0000000001 10399 times the fund Original Measurement Conversion in other unit 1 inch 254 centimeters 1 Angstrom 103910 meters 100 pound 454 grams 60 seconds 1 minute 60 minutes 1 hour Converting 0F to 0C o F to C 95F32 o C to F C59 32 Significant Figures 0 Any digit that is not a zero is significant 0 Zeros between nonzero digits are significant 0 Zeros before the first nonzero are insignificant Addition and Subtraction o The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers 0 When rounding if the digit to the right of the digit you re rounding is a 5 you round up if the digit to the left is odd leave it alone if it is even 0 Ex Round 345 to two sig figs The number after the 4 is a 5 so you can either round up or down Since 4 is an even number you leave it alone If it was a 7 instead of 4 you would round it up to 8 Multiplication and Division 0 The number of significant figures in the result is set by the original number that has the smallest number of significant figures 0 Ex 451 3 sig figs x 36666 5 sig figs 16536366 gtgtgt 165 3 sig figs Exact Numbers 0 Numbers from definitions or numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures Ex 2 atoms 2000000000000 and so on Accuracy vs Precision 0 Accuracy How close a measurement is to a true value How close a dart is to a bulls eye 0 Precision How close a set of measurements are to each other How close multiple attempts are to each other on the dart board Dimensional Analysis Method of Solving Problems 1 Determine what you need to convert to and how you re going to do it 2 Carry units through the solving canceling out those you don t need Ex How many ml are there in 32 in3 320 in3 x 254 cm3 x 1 ml 524x102 1 in3 1 cm3 Brief History of the Atom gt 400 BC Greek Democritus proposed the term atom Broken down into the Greek prefix quotaquot meaning quotnotquot and quottomosquot meaning quotcutquot therefore atom means quotuncuttablequot gt 1770 s Antoine Lavoisier a French Chemist was the first to use careful measurements on combustion and therefore forming the Law of Conservation of Mass He was also the first experimental chemist gt 1803 John Dalton proposed an atomic theory with spherical solid atoms based upon measurable properties of mass gt 1832 Michael Faraday studied the effect of electricity on solutions formed the term quotelectrolysisquot as splitting of molecules with electricity and formed the Laws of Electrolysis gt 1869 Dimitri Mendeleev organized the periodic table and Periodic Law 1879 Sir William Crookes discovered cathode rays or beams of electrons 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen discovered xrays 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered that some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off penetrating rays gt 1897 1 Thompson used Cathode Ray Tube to experimentally determine the charge to mass ratio of an electron 1759 x108 coulombsgram VVV gt 1898 Rutherford discovered radiation emitted from uranium and thorium and named them alpha He2 and beta electrons gt 1898 Marie Curie Spontaneous decay process of uranium and thorium as radioactivity gt 1909 RA Milikan determined the charge and mass of an electron gt 1911 Ernest Rutherford discovered the structure of an atom by the gold foil experiment gt 1914 HGJ Moseley determined the charges on nuclei atomic number and the new periodic table organization By atomic number gt 1919 Aston discovered the existence of isotopes using a mass spectrograph gt 1922 Niels Bohr determined the explanation of atomic structure that underlies regularities of the periodic table and successive orbital shells of electrons gt 1923 de Broglie discovered that electrons had dual nature similar to particles and waves gt 1927 Heisenberg described atoms by means of formula connected to the frequency of spectral lines and the Principle of Uncertainty Daltons Atomic Theory 1808 1 Elements are composed of atoms 2 Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same 3 Chemical reactions only involve rearrangement of atoms Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions


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