FINAL- Study Guide
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Date Created: 06/10/14
FINAL STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 13 Personality 0 As the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterizes a person39s responses to life39s situations Personality traits 0 characterize an individual39s customary ways of responding to his or her world Behaviors of personality 0 Components of identity 0 Perceived internal cause 0 Perceived organization and structure Behavioral components of identity 0 Distinguish that person from other people Usefulness of scientific theory 0 Provides a comprehensive framework within which known facts can be incorporated 0 Allows us to predict future events with some precision 0 Stimulates the discovery of new knowledge Freud39s psychoanalytic theory 1 Theory of personality 2 An approach to studying the mind 3 A method for treating psychological disorder 0 Interpretation of Dreams book publication 0 Psychic energy I Powers the mind and constantly press for either direct or indirect release 0 Conscious mind I Consist of mental events in current awareness 0 Preconscious mind I Contains memories feelings thoughts and images that we are unaware of at the moment but that can be recalled Unconscious mind I A dynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lies beyond our awareness O Freud39s Structure of Personality 0 Id I The innermost core of the personality the only structure present at birth and the source of al psychic energy I Pleasure principle III It seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities 0 Ego I Has direct contact with reality and functions primarily at the conscious level I Reality principle III Testing reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses satisfy its needs 0 Superego I The moral arm of the personality find examples 0 Uncousnios mental operations that deny or distort reality Psych 101 Page 1 0 Repression I The ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories feelings and impulses form entering consciousness o Denial I A person refuses to acknowledge anxietyarousing aspects of the environment The denial may involve either the emotions connected with the event or the event itself 0 Displacement I An unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed then directed at a safer substitute target 0 lntellectualization I The emotions connected with an upsetting even is repressed and the situation is dealt with as an intellectually interesting event 0 Projection I An unacceptable impulse is repressed then attributed to projected onto other people 0 Rationalization I A person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety arousing behavior or event that has already occurred 0 Reaction formation I An anxiety arousing impulse is repressed and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behavior 0 Sublimation I Taboo impulses may be channeled into socially desirable and admirable behaviors completely masking the sinister underlying impulses Psychosexual stages 0 During which the d39s pleasureseeking tendencies are focused on specific peasure sensitive areas of the bodythe erogenous zones I Stage 1 oral III Occurs during infancy Excessive gratification of oral needs as infant can result on fixation of oral themes as adult I Stage 23 anal stage III Pleasure becomes focused on the process of elimination III Freud extremely lax toilet training messynegativedominant adult personality I Stage 45 years phallic stage III quotwhen children begin to derive pleasure from their sexual organs III Male has feelings for mother etc III Oedipus complexCastration anxiety 9 The conflictual situation involving love for the mother and hostility toward the father III Electra complex 9 The female counterpart of Oedipus Fixation 0 a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme 0 A psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage Nonanalytic theorist 0 Were psychoanalyst who disagreed with certain aspects o Freud39s thinking and developed their own theories Personal uncousnous 0 Based on their life experiences Collective unconscious Psych 101 Page 2 0 That consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race Archetypes 0 Inhereted tendencies to interpret experiences in certain ways Object relations theories 0 Focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences with caregivers Phenomenology o Emphasis on the primary of immediate experiences Personal constructs 0 Cognitive categories into which they sort the people and events in their lives Role Construct Repertory Test Rep Test 0 To assess individuals personal construct system Selfconsistency 0 an absence of conflict among selfperceptions Congruence 0 Consistency between sef perceptions and experiences Need for positive regard 0 For acceptance sympathy and love from others Unconditional positive regardsoi 0 Communicates that the person is inherently worthy of love regardless of accomplishments or behavior Need for positive selfregard O The desire to feel good about ourselves Conditions of worth 0 That dictate the circumstances under which we approve or disapprove of ourselves Fully functioning persons 0 Individuals o were close to achieving selfactualization Sef esteem 0 How positively or negatively we feel about ourselves Selfverification 0 Refers to this need to confirm the self concept Selfenhancement 0 A strong and persuasive tendency to gain and preserve a positive sef image Personality traits 0 Are relatively stable cognitive emotional and behavioral characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others Factor analysis 0 Is used to indentify clusters of behaviors that are highly correlated positively or negatively with one another but not behaviors in other clusters Sef monitoring 0 Are very attentive to situational cues and adapt their behavior to what they think would be most appropriate Temperament 0 Refers to individual difference in emotional and behavioral styles that appear so early in life that they are assumed to have biological basis Socialcognitive theories Reciprocal determinism nterna externa locus of control Selfefficacy 0 Their beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviors needed to achieve desired outcomes Cognitiveaffective personality system CAPS 0 an organized system of five persona variables that interact continuously with one another Psych 101 Page 3 and with the environment generating the disctive patterns of behavior that characterize the person Behavior outcome expectancies 0 Represent the 39if thenquot links between alternative behaviors and possible outcomes selfregulations processes 0 Refer to the internal selfadministered rewards and punishments Gender schemas 0 Organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females Expectancy 0 Our perception of how likely it is that certain consequences will occur if we engage in a particular behavior within a specific situation 3 adult attachment styles 0 Secure 0 Anxious avoidant 0 Anxious ambivalent CHAPTER 15 Abnormality 0 gment of gbnorm i I Distressing to self or others III Excessively depressed dissatisfied anxious Etc I Dysfunctional for person or society III Behaviors that interfere with person39s ability to work or with relationships I Deviant violates social norms Abnormal behavior 0 As behavior that is personally distressing personally dysfunctional andor so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive Vulnerabilitystress model o Each of us has some degree of vulnerability ranging from very low to very high for developing a psychological disorder given sufficient stress 0 Vulnerability I Genetic factors I Biologicalcharacteristics I Psychological traits I Previous maladaptive learning I Low social support 0 Stressors I Economic adversity I Environmental trauma I Interpersonal stresses or losses I Occupational setbacks or demands Anxiety 0 The state of tensions and apprehension that is natural response to perceived threat Anxiety disorders 0 The frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them and the anxiety interferes with daily life Anxiety responses 4 components 1 Subjectiveemotional component i Feelings of tension and apprehension 2 Cognitive component i Worrisome thoughts inability to cope etc 3 Physiological component Psych 101 Page 4 i Increased heart rate blood pressure muscle tension etc 4 Behavioral responses i Avoidance of certain situations Anxiety statistics 0 Incidence I of NEW cases that occur during a given period 0 Prevalence I The of people who have a disorder during a specified period of time Anxiety disorders Phobias 0 Are strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situation Agoraphobia 0 A fear of open or public spaces from which escape would be difficult Social phobias o Excessive fear of situations in which the person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed Specific phobias 0 Such as fear of dogs snakes spiders airplanes germs etc Generalized anxiety disorder 0 Is a chronic on going state of diffuse or free floating anxiety that is not attached to specific situations or objects Panic disorders 0 Occur suddenly and unpredictably and they are much more intense Obsessions 0 Are repetitive and unwelcome thoughts images or impulses that invade consciousness are often abhorrent to the person and very difficult to dismiss or control Compulsions 0 Repetitive behavioral responses that can be resisted only with great difficulty Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD 0 Is a severe anxiety disorder that can occur in people who have been exposed to traumatic life events 0 Symptoms I Person experience severe symptoms of anxiety arousal and distress that were not present before the trauma I Victim relives the trauma recurrently in flashbacks in dreams and in fantasy I Person becomes numb to word and avoids stimuli that serve as reminders of trauma I Individual experiences intense survivor guilt in instances where others were killed and the individual was spared Neurotic anxiety 0 Threaten to overwhelm the ego39s defense and explode into consciousness or action Culturebound disorders 0 Which occur only in certain locales I Ex Japan phobiaafraid of offending others with blushing staring etc Somatoform and dissociative disorders anxiety inferred Somatoform disorders 0 Involve physical complaints or disabilities that suggest a medical problems but that have on known biological cause and are not produced voluntary by the person Hypochondriasis 0 People become unduly alarmed about any physcial symptom they detect and are convinced that they have or are about to have a serious illness Pain disorders o Experience intense pain that either out of proportion to whatever medical condition they Psych 101 Page 5 might have or for which no physical basis can be found Conversion disorder 0 In which serious neurological symptoms such as paralysis loss of sensation or blindness sudden occur Dissociative disorders I Involve a breakdown of normal personality integration resulting in significant alterations in memory or identity Psychogenic amnesia I A person responds to a stressful event with extensive but selective memory loss Psychogenic fugue I Is more profound dissociative disorder in which a person loses all sense of personal identity gives up her or his customary life wanders to a new faraway location and establishes a new identity Dissociative identify disorder DID I multiple personality disorder I Two or more separate personalities coexist in the same person Traumadissociation I The development of new personalities occurs in response to severe stress Mood disorders Mood disorders 0 Which include depression and mania excessive excitement Major depression 0 An intense depressed sate that leave them unable to function effectively in their lives Dysthymia 0 A less intense form of depression that has less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning Symptoms Emotional symptoms I Sadness I Hopelessness I Anxiety I Misery Cognitive symptoms I Negative cognitions about self world and future Motivational symptoms I Loss of interest I Lack of drive I Difficulty starting anything Somatic bodily symptoms I Loss of appetite I Lack of energy I Sleep difficulties Bipolar disorder Depression usually the dominant state alternates with periods of mania Mania I A state of highly excited mood and behavior that is quite the opposite of depression Biological factors I Depression is predicted by high BIS fear and anxiety system sensitivity and low BAS activity Depressive cognitive triad Involves negative thoughts concerning 1 the world 2 oneself and 3 the future Depressive attributional pattern Attributing success or other positive events to factors outside the self while attributing O O O O Psych 101 Page 6 negative outcomes to personal factors Learned helplessness theory Holds that depression occurs when people expect that bad events will occurs when people expect that bad events will occur and that there is nothing they can do to prevent them or cope with them Schizophrenia Includes severe disturbances in thinking speech perception emotion and behavior Delusions False beliefs that are sustained in the face of evidence that normally would be sufficient to destroy them Hallucinations 0 False perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality Subtypes Schizophrenia 0 Paranoid schizophrenia I Whole most prominent features are delusions of persecution in which people believe that other mean to harm them Believe they are enormously important o Disorganized schizophrenia I Whose central features are confusion and incoherence together with severe deterioration of adaptive behavior such as personal hygiene social skills and self care 0 Catatonic schizophrenia I Characterized by striking motor disturbances ranging from muscular rigidity to random or repetitive movements 0 Undifferentiated schizophrenia I A category assigned to people who exhibit some of the symptoms and though disorders of the above categories but who do not have enough of the specific criteria to be diagnosed in those categories Positive symptoms o Bizarre behaviors such as delusions hallucinations and disordered speech and thinking I diagnosed with good functioning prior to breakdown and better recovery Negative symptoms 0 An absence of normal reactions such as lack of emotional expression loss of motivation and an absence of speech I Associated with long history of poor functioning prior to diagnosis and with poor outcome after treatment Dopamine hypothesis 0 The symptoms of schizophreniaparticularly symptoms are produced by over activity of the dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression motivated behavior and cognitive functioning Regression 0 In which a person retreats to an earlier and more secure even infantile state of psychological development in the face of overwhelming anxiety Social causation hypothesis 0 Attributes the higher prevalence of schizophrenia to the higher levels of stress that low income people experience Social drift hypothesis 0 Proposes that as people develop schizophrenia their personal and occupational functioning deteriorates so that they drift down the socioeconomic ladder Personality disorders Personality disorders o Exhibit stable ingrained inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking feeling and behaving Antisocial personality disorder APD psychopathy Psych 101 Page 7 0 Seems to lack a conscience they exhibit little anxiety or guilt and tend to be impulsive and unable to delay gratification of their needs Borderline personality disorder BPD 0 Refers to a collection of symptoms characterized primarily by serious instability in behavior emotion identity and interpersonal relationships Splitting 0 The failure to integrate positive and negative aspects of another39s behavior Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 0 Problems may take the form of inattention hyperavtity impuslsicty or combination o the two Autistic disorder 0 Is a long term disorder characterized by extreme unresponsiveness to others poor communication skills and highly repetitive and rigid behaviors Reliability 0 Means that clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions Validity 0 The diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders Legal consequences Competency 0 reefer39s to a defendants state of mind at the time ofjudicial hearing not at the time the crime was committed Insanity O Relates to the presumed state of mind Of the defendant at the time of the crime CHAPTER 16 Psychiatric social workers 0 Work in community agencies Therapies for psychological disorders Psychodynamic PsychoanaysisFreud Brief Psychodynamic therapies Humanistic Person centered therapy Rogers Gestalt therapy Peris Cognitive Rationa emotive therapy Ellis Cognitive therapy Beck Behavioral Classical Conditioning Exposure Systematic desensitization Aversion therapy Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement Punishment Behavioral activation Modeling Social skills training quotThird wavequot cognitive behavioral Mindfulness based treatments Acceptance and commitment therapy Psych 101 Page 8 Dialectical behavior therapy Biological Drug therapy Electroconvulsive Psychosurgery PSYCHODYNAMIC Psychoanalysis 0 Goal to achieve insight Insight 0 The conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie their problems Free association 0 Clients verbally report without censorship any thoughts feelings or images that enter their awareness Resistance o Defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy I A sign that anxietyarousing material is being approached Transference 0 Occurs when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if she or he were an important figure from the clients past I Considered important process because it brings out repressed feelings and maladaptive behavior patterns that need exploring I Positive transference III When client transfers feelings of intense affection dependency or love to analyst based on past relationships I Negative transference III Irrational expressions of anger hatred fear transferred onto the therapist from important past relationships Interpretation 0 Any statement by the therapist that intended to provide the client with insight into his or her behavior or dynamics Interpersonal therapy 0 Focuses almost exclusively on clients current relationship with important people in their lives HUMANISTIC Personcentered Therapy Rogers 0 Unconditional positive regard I Is communicated when the therapist shows that he or she genuinely cares about and accepts the client without judgment or evaluation o Empathy I The willingness and ability to view the world through the client39s eyes 0 Genuineness I Refers to the consistency between the way the therapist feels and the way the behave Gestalt therapy Fritz o Emphasizes personal responsibility 0 The emptychair technique is often used COGNITIVE Eis39s rationalemotive therapy o ABCD model 0 A activating event triggers the emotion Psych 101 Page 9 o B belief system that underlies the way in which a person appraises the event activated by A 0 C consequences emotiona and behavioral produced by B o D disputing changing maladaptive emotions and behaviors of B Beck39s Cognitive Therapy 0 Goal to point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbance and to help clients identify and reprogram their overlearned automatic thought patterns BEHAVIOR Classical Conditioning Exposure 0 To the feared CS in the absence of the Anxiety 5 while using response prevention I Response prevention III To keep the operant avoidance response from occuring 0 Virtual reality VR I Involves the use of computer technology to create highly realistic virtual environments that simulate actual experiences so vividly that they evoke many of the same reaction that a comparable rea word environment Systematic desensitization 0 A learningbased treatment for anxiety disorders 0 Counter conditioning procedure used to eliminate anxiety I In which a new response that is incompatible with anxiety is conditioned to the anxiety arousing CS 0 Stimulus hierarchy I 10 20 scenes arranged in roughly equal steps from ow anxiety scenes to high0anxeity ones Aversion therapy 0 The therapist pairs a stimulus that is attractive to the client the CS with a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition an aversion to the CS I Ex Pedophiles with shock Etc Operant conditioning Behavior modification 0 Refers to treatment techniques that apply operant conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a specific behavior Postiive reinforcement techniques 0 Token economy I Involves the systematic applications of positive reinforcement to strengthen desired behaviors Therapeutic application of punishment 0 Punishment only when it s the only option Behavioral activation therapy for depression 0 Is a behavioral treatment for depression that increases positively reinforcing behavior Modeling and Social Skills training Social skills training 0 Clients learn new skills by observing and then imitating a model who performs a socially skillful behavior Third Wave CognitiveBehavioral therapies Mindfulness 0 A mental state of awareness focus openness and acceptance of immediate experience Acceptance and commitment therapy ACT Hayes 0 Focuses on the process of mindfulness as a vehicle for change Dialectical behavior therapy DBT Psych 101 Page 10 0 Is a treatment developed specifically for the treatment of borderlines personality disorder Group therapy Family therapy Marital therapy Culturegender issues in psychotherapy Culture congruence 0 Treatment that is consistent with cultural beliefs and expectations Culturally competent therapists 0 Are able to use knowledge about the client39s culture to achieve a broad understanding of the client Feminist therapy 0 Focuses on women39s issues and strives to help women choice greater personal freedom and self determination BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES Antipsynotic drugs 0 Tardive dyskinesia I A severe movement disorder o Dramatically reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia Antianxiety drugs 0 Work by slowing down excitatory synaptic activity in the nervous system Antidepressant Drugs 0 MAG inhibitors I Reduce the activity of monoamine oxidase an enzyme e that breaks down the neurotransmitter in the synapse 0 TricycIic39s I Work by preventing reuptake of the excitatory transmitters into the presynaptic neurons allowing them to continue stimulating postsynaptic neurons 0 SSRI39s I Decrease side effects by increasing the activity ofjust one neurotransmitter serotonin Electroconvulsive Therapy 0 ECT Psychosurgery 0 Refers to surgical procedures that remove or destroy brain tissue in an attempt to change disorder behavior Evaluating treatments Specify question 0 Which types of therapy administered by which kinds of therapists to which kinds of clients having which kinds of problems produce which kinds of effects Randomized clinical trial RTC 0 In which clients are randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions and treatment and control groups are compared on outcome measures Placebo control group 0 That gets an intervention that is not expected to work Empirically supported treatments EST39s 0 Treatments that had been demonstrated in several independent studies to be efficacious for treating specific disorders Metaanalysis 0 Allows researchers to combines the statistical results of many studies to arrive at an overall conclusion Effect size 0 Tells researchers what of clients who received therapy had a more favorable outcome than that of average control client who did not receive the treatments Psych 101 Page 11 Dobo bird verdict 0 The finding of similar efficacy for widely differing therapies Openness 0 Involves clients general willingness to invest themselves in therapy and take the risk required to change themselves Selfrelatedness 0 Their ability to experience and understand internal states such as thoughts and emotions to be attuned to the processes that go on in what they learn in therapy to their lives outside of treatments Common factors 0 Characteristics shares by these diverse forms of therapy that might contribute to their success I Clients faith in the therapist and a belief that they are receiving help I A plausible explanation for client39s problems and an alternative way of helping them look at themselves and their problems I A protective setting which clients can experience and express their deepest feelings within a supportive relationships I An opportunity for clients to practice we behaviors I Client39s achieving increased optimism and self efficacy Psychological disorders and society Deinstitutionalization movement 0 To transfer the primary focus of treatment from the hospital Situationfocused prevention 0 Is directed either reducing or eliminating the environmental cause of behavior disorders or enhancing situation factors that help prevent the developmental of disorders Competencyfocused prevention o Designed to increase personal resources and coping skills Types 0 Psychiatrist I Medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and drug therapy 0 PsyD psychologist I Has received 5 or more years of training in psychotherapeutic techniques typically within a professional school 0 PhD Psychologist I Has received 5 or more years of science and clinical reign typically with a university psychology departments 0 Psychiatric social workers amp counselors I Typically hold master39s degrees with a heavy focus on practical training Psych 101 Page 12
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