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Date Created: 06/25/14
Com Study Guide 2 Nonverbal Communication Supplemental Presentation Cuecentered amp contextcentered NV norms 0 Cue centered NV norms some norms describe expectations for a particular NV behavior across various situations contexts 0 Context centered NV norms other norms govern NV behavior in general ie all types of NV cues within a particular context eg setting situation etc Specific types of NV comm 0 Parainguistics 3 types of cues o Qualities of the voice I How something is said 0 Vocalics sounds other than words w which we associate meaning I Yawning laughing sighing pauses etc o Nonfluencies filled pauses I Uhumohetc 0 Physical appearancebody type 0 Physical appearance dress groomingamp attractiveness 0 Body type draw inferences based on general body type I Ectomorph skinny lanky I Endomorph fat outshape I Mesomorph athletic muscular average 0 Oculesics eye gaze 0 Contact amp avoidance Haptics use of touch in communication 0 Chronemics study of how time may convey meaning 0 How it influences or affects the communication 0 Cultural emphasis on time o Psychological time orientation future present or past focus 0 Specific meanings communicated by time I Being late for a date 0 Objectics the impact of objecsamp artifacts on comm 0 Environmental objects objects around the environment I Fluffy chair stack of papers on the desk 0 Personal objects objects on an individual I Jewelry 0 Proxemicspersonal space the study of space amp distance 0 Intimate distance comfortable to have people close to us by 18quot radius 9 usually close friends or family 0 Causal distance okay to be 18 4 ft close 0 Social distance 4ft 8ft 0 Public distance 8 ft 0 Personal space the distance we put btw ourselves and others I Cuturayamp relationally based I Both unconsciousamp conscious I Somewhat reliably related to intimacy I Not absolute Interpersonal Communication Quantitative approachdef of interpersonal comm 0 Study of comm at its most basic amp immediate level based on of people involved 0 Interpersonal comm quantitative 2 person face to face Dichotomous perspective mass as opposite of intersonal Mass comm as dyad Dyadic comm a set of 2 people Dyadic primacy tendency for 2 individuals to engage in one on one conversation regardless of of people Dyadic coalitions when two people group members partner up to gain mutual benefit Dyadic consciousness development of quotwe mentality as bonds get stronger OOOOOOO Dichotomous distinction classifying if communication is interpersonal or mass Limitations of quantitative approach 0 Not all 2 person comm is the same 0 Different btw BFFs family 0 We don39t communicate the same way w a relative strangeramp a close friend 0 Tech advances have impacted face to face primacy Qualitative approachdef of interpersonal comm 0 Interpersonal comm that focuses on quality or character of comm o Stimulus discrimination how we communicate towards an individual depending on how unique heshe is from others I Speaking differently UNIQUE o Stimulus generalization how we communicate w others based on their similarities w other people I How you would talk to elders o Relational comm emphasizes on influence of relationships on comm Dialectical distinction interpersonal built up over time Impersonal comm comm w distant or strangers Why each approach is useful 0 Quantitative examines an important context of comm especially in relationships 0 Reinforces 2 persona interaction aka dyadic comm 0 Qualitative explores the impact of relationship on comm o Stronger reationship more comm Why comm amp relationships are linked 0 Relationships make life meaningful drive our interactions w others essential to our personal amp practical goal 0 Stronger reationship more comm 0 Communication develops the relationship crucial to intiating developing amp maintaining relationships Self concept 0 Our sense of identity is the basis of our interactions w others 0 Relatively stable set of perceptions we hold about ourselves defining who we are 0 Reflected appraisal how we perceive that others specificamp general see us based on their words amp actions 0 Social comparison comparison of self to others 0 Cultural messages baseines values used in defining selfderived from cultural influences Can originate from interpersonal or mass media sources Selfdisclosure process by which we share info w others about ourselves that they would not otherwise know 0 Intentional acts not influence o Truthful information o Primarily verbal but can be NV 0 Influenced by context amp social cultural norms 0 Norm of reciprocitydyadic effect 0 Norm disclosure telling others about ourselves prompts themselves to do the same 0 Dyadic disclosure responses tend to be the same general level of intimacy as initial 0 Social penetration model as relationships develops interpersonal communication moves to more deeper intimacy through repetition of selfdisclosure 9 model is peeling the onion Su Intimate Personal care 0 Johari window categorize info about self based on awareness Known to self Not known to self Known to others Open Blind not known to others Hidden unknown Factors in relational formation 0 Similarity we tend to likeamp form relationships w those we perceive as similar 0 Attitudinal 0 Social preference Appearance judging based on aesthetics outward appearance filtering Proximity avaiabiity close distance of people we interact reciprocityliking tendency to reciprocate liking w others competency we like to be around competent people 0 ex people who are successful 0 complementaritydifference opposites attract o helps each other s weaknesses o in long time if differences are too much relationship can be detrimental 0 social exchange costreward system better if costlt reward people like that but bad bc everything is evaluated Filtering theory amp 4 types of filters 0 in initial interactions several filters are applied 0 socioogica incidental demographic or environmental factors I gravitating towards your own crowd o preinteraction cues assumptions about other s personality typically based on NV I eye contact 0 interaction info we observe during initial contacts I comm competence can be facilitative o cognitive psychological evaluations perception of similaritydifference cost reward Conflict an expressed struggle btw at least 2 interdependent parties in a relationship ie problem btw the people 0 usually happens when they don39t get the rewards expected Relational Dialectics relationships struggle w opposing amp continual tensions 0 openness closedness how much is shared vs private in a relationship 0 autonomyconnection how much individual character time amp freedom is shared or subsumed 0 novety predictability how do partners keep things newamp exciting but famiiaramp consistent 0 need for both stability amp spontaneously Stages of the Knapp Relational Model describe a relationship as a series of stages emphasizing 0 coming together 0 initiating the beginnings of a relationship I early impressions are made This may influence individuals to want to progress relationship to a further stage 0 experimenting parties learn about each other identify commonalities I high levels of phatic comm V or NV comm that has a social function such as to start a convo or greet someone rather than an informative 0 ex NV waving hello 0 ex V saying quot how39s it going 0 intensifying increase commitmentamp discosureamp emotional investment start of we thinking thinking of having a future together I people start sharing more private info I spending more time together gift giving amp declaration of affection o integrating social circles merge others view as a couple I 2 people now start seeing each other more often as they integrate of parts of their lives Romantically this may include sexual relationship 0 Bonding public rituals that legitimize relationship I They make their unitary status knownamp may formalize it for ex Through marriage other symbol may be having joint bank accounts amp having children 0 Coming apart 0 Differentiating emergence of individual differences identities prioritiesvaues etc I Key stage 0 Circumscribing communication becomes restricted topic 1 amount Stagnating infrequent comm typically ritualized amp insignificant o Avoiding partners avoid each other I physically o terminating relationship endsamp parties come to terms w it not always mutually 0 Mass Communication Definitions of medium mass media amp mass comm I medium media something which serves as a means of conveying info 0 messages I mass media mediatech w the capacity to convey messages to large numbers of people 0 mass media are linked to associated industries infrasturacture 0 traditional platforms TV radio newspaper etc o emerging platsform internet social media video games mobiles etc I mass comm study of comm involving mass media 0 the process of creating shared meaning btw mass media amp their audiences 0 includes the process associated industry usageamp impact Lasswell amp Wright39s 4 societal functions of media I surveillance provides info about social environment I correlation influences selection amp interpretation of info I transmission of social heritage communicates influences or reinforces societal values amp norms I entertainment recreation escape from everyday life Traditional amp emerging characteristics of media I media sources 0 traditionay media scarcity I relatively few sources typically large complex organizations Significant resources required 0 emerging trend media abudance increasing of sources less resources required emergence of quotproducers I targeting o traditionay broad appeal I content directed towards large diverseamp anonymous audiences o emerging trend media demassification segmentation I content increasingly directed to specifc audience segments I interactivity o traditionay limited interactivity I inferential feedback delayed indirect o emerging trend increasing interactivity I more user controloptions greater levels of more directamp instantaneous feedback I technological dependence 0 traditionay basic tech requirements I ownership access amp basic usage ability needed 0 emerging trend increasing tech dependence I greater number of media techs more complex usage Factors influencing media evolution I Economic factors 0 Economic imperative influence of economic factors on media content delivery I Revenue sources advertising subscription etc I Costs involved 0 Hypercommercialism greater commercialism from media provides wo fear of consumer reprisal I Conglomeration large clusters of media increasingly controlled by small of corporations 0 Ex AOL time warner NBCUniversal I infrastructuredereguation technology 0 Infrastructure increasingly capacity coverageamp cost effectiveness 0 Regulation fewer restrictions ownership imitsamp commercialism fitering regulation of content 0 Technology impact of new emerging media amp advances in existing media I global village as comm tech mass media progresses the world becomes increasingly connected via receiving similar info 0 may increase soidarityamp understanding but also overoad anxiety 0 may contribute to the evasion of cultural uniqueness I Convergence erosion of distinction among media due to increasing comm tech functionality amp cross platform content 0 Ex smartphone platform Step modelstheories of media influence Cultivation theory mass media are a fundamental cultural influence 0 Media as a storyteller content helps shape beliefs attitudes values amp expectations of users 0 Media use produces cultivation shared set of views norms values etc based on media content Effect increases w greater media use 0 Original research centered on TV suggested that accuracydistortion found in TV media influence our preceptions 0 Heavy television media users more likely to see the world differently than light users amp as similar to how its portrayed on TV Agenda setting theory media presentationcontent influences how users perceive the importance of an issue 0 Issues given mostamp quotbest coverage seen as most important 0 Media source as gatekeepers amount orderamp quality of coverage affects perception of importance 0 AS as a complex process influenced by media39s perception of public views past history gov t influence choiceamp convention Uses amp gratifications theory audiences are activeamp goal directed amp select media based on their needs including Scape Belonging Information entertainment Media literacy overall ability to access choose analyze evaluate question amp respond to media contentamp engage in mindful usageamp informed judgment Third person effects tendency for individuals to 0 overestimate the influence of mass media content on the beliefs amp behaviors 0 simultaneously believe in their own ability to resist such influence 0 belief can serve as the basis for behavioral responses 0 oppositional content via social media Communication Research Limitations of commonsense understanding 0 bounded by our experience 0 inconsistency from person to person amp situation to situation 0 selfbias often distort or idealize in favor of our own perspective 0 not generated systematically frequently rely on simplistic thinking heuristics etc Science amp scientific inquiry 0 a systematic process of inquiry by which credible knowledge is generated 0 credibe worthy of being believed Why scientific knowledge is credible 0 open procedures amp findings must be sharedamp are subject to scrutiny Allows science to be conducted cumulatively 0 empiricaamp systematic proceeds in a deliberate manner knowledge based on systematic observation 0 can be tested empirically 0 over time science is sefcorrectingamp sef improving Usage amp importance of theory 0 the credible knowledge produced by science is organized into theory 0 in everyday usage we often take theory to mean guesswork which by be biased or unsubstantiated 0 theory a framework for systematically organizing available info about various phenomena in such a way as to provide meaningful understandingamp explanation Experiments Survey research Content analysis Network analysis Steps involved in conducting scientific research Areas of Emphasis from the Readings Chapter Interpersonal Communication Socialcognitive orientation mindset or outlook we have during an interaction we use the information we have on them to help us how we approach them when interaction 0 Cultural information 0 Sociological information 0 Psychological information Reasons why dyads are important Advancing Comm Science Tutzauer Duck s relational dissolution model process of breakups 0 Intrapsychic parties recognize flaws in relationship 0 Dyadic discuss flaws who to blame arguments 0 Social seek advice from third party 0 Gravedressing after ending parties figure out what went wrong Cody39s relational disengagement strategies Listening a process which we often equate solely w the physical act of hearing 0 5eements 0 Receiving Attending ex focused attention Understanding Responding recalling OOOO Chapter Mass Communication Media conglomeration The digital revolution Advancing Comm Science Hong amp Stefanone Chapter Scientific Research in Communication Reasons why scientific knowledge is credible Steps involved in conducting scientific research Basic research terms data variable ind amp dep hypothesis reliability validity operationalization sampling sample amp population Advancing Comm Science Woelfel
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