BIOLOGY MATERIAL SCIENCE
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Date Created: 09/11/15
BEBUBUC 39 POLYTEGHNiiG A104 Biology MSA Revision P01P07 sln nrolE P01 Importance of units when handling very large or small numbers scientific notations are used The basic format is MX 10quot where M is any real number between 1 and 10 and N is an integer Examples 102 001 101 01 100 1 101 10 102 100 108 100000000 If 18 000 000 000 is to be represented in scientific notation it would be 18 x 1010 Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P01 Applications of unit conversion 1 Prefix can be added to a unit to produce a multiple of the original unit Ex m a p as The snze of yeast cell IS FaCtOr Name SymbOI approximately 4 pm which means 10399 nano n o 4 X 10396 m or 106 H O 4 X 10 3 mm 10393 milli39 m NOTE Know how to convert between 102 centi C each multiple factors For Example 1 39 x 1000 x 100 x 10 3 39 Km m cm mm 10 kilo k v v v 1 06 mega M 1000 100 10 mm Nee tox x m G 12mm Neejtoiggo 1011on Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P01 Applications of unit conversion 2 Units are required to specify the value of the physical quan es Two common unit systems used today 1 Imperial System Eg inch foot gallon pound ounce 2 Metric System Eg metre litre kilogram Example of conversions between the unit systems 1 foot ft 03048 metres 1 pound lb m 0454 kilograms 1 gallon gal z 379 litres Note 1 litre 1 metre cube P01 Practice A rectangular container has dimensions 2 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm It is filled with water and 300 g of sugar is dissolved in it Assuming that there is no change in volume as a result of the dissolution of sugar what is the concentration of sugar solution found in this container a Express your answer in gcm3 b Express your answer in gL Voiume of container b Concentration of sugar in gL 2 cm X 3 cm X 4 cm 24cmquot3 1cmquot3 is equivalent to 1m 1L is equivalent to 1000m a Concentration of sugar in gcm3 Weightvolume Volume of container is 24cmquot3 24ml 3OOg24cmA3 241000 0024L 125gcmA3 Concentration of sugar in gL 300g0024L Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 12500g L P01 Understanding dilution factors Dilution refers to the reduction in concentration of a solution Dilution factor tells us the magnitude through which a solution is diluted by By comparing the concentration Cinitial of the initial concentrated solution to the concentration C nal of the final dilute solution 0 For example Cinitial i 200 particlesL Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 10x dilution Cfinal 20 particles L P01 Understanding magnification 1 Microscope is used to observe small objects at higher magnification It uses visible light that is magnified and concentrated by glass lenses Specimens must be thin enough for light to pass through The compound microscope has two systems of lenses for greater mag n Objective lenses Ocular Eyepiece lenses 1 o The oculars or eyepiece lenses that the user looks into They are usually 10 or 15 power 0 The objective lenses or the lenses closest to the object They are usually 4X 10x5 40x andq pbk cxpggwr crpopynght 2015 P01 Understanding magnification 2 A specimen placed under the microscope using different combination of ocular and objective lenses will produce a different total magnification For example a combination of 10x ocular and 100x objective lenses will produce a total Objective magnification of 1000gtlt 39enses Ocular Eyepiece lenses 0 An actual specimen of 1 pm placed under such a microscope will hence be magnified 1000gtlt and appear as 1 mm Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P01 What You Have Learnt Recognize and use units found in the Metric and Imperial System Identify SI metric measurement symbols Use prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal submultiples and multiples of the SI units Perform unit conversions Recognize the purpose of magnification and dilution factors in experiments Interpret the significance of numerical values in experiments and use them to solve reallife problems P02 Periodic Table 1 Mass Number gt 12 Number of protons t neutrons ILEii39IZIEri39I l4 Et Atomic Number Number of protons In an atom Symbol Element gt The number of electrons Atomic Number Number of protons gt The number of neutrons Mass Number Atomic Number Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 I I 02 39 rl 1 I bl 2 P PG 0 C a e The Periedl c Table of Elements I Group Penna I I II 39 111 H Iu u W 39 um um l 1 4 l V 1 Hl H e WW1mgquot helium 2 Iquot 9 11 12 14 16 1 19 20 2 ILI Be B C N O F N e illnlim beryllilum hemn rarhnh humgen nwgen 39fliinrlra nenn 39 5 6 Fquot B 3 1393 23 21 2 if 23 ill 32 31b 43 v V V gt ili V r Na Mg Al 5 P39 5 Cl Ar sodium ntagnesiuim aluminium ElllEEil li PhUSPi iB39GUS sulfur bhlerine argon 12 13 14 15 15 ll 15 3395 41 1 5 1 18 51 SE 55 55 59 553 64 EIE F U 3 3 5 359 3D 3514 7 I T39 Tu 39 W v 5 1 n e lt 4 K Ca Sc Tll V Cr M l Fe Co N ll Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr betassiwm su lt39iurr39i standlium titanium vanadium chremiurin manganese ir b39n cebalt nickel Dapper zini gallium germanium arsenis selenium bremine kwptbri 39 39 gt 2d 25 25 239 23 2399 3392 331 32 33 31 4 3E 35 33 BB 9 9 Elli iil ll N13 10E 103 112 115 71119 112 123 127quot 131 s Rb Sir Y Zr N lb MD Te Ru th Pd Agi Cd In Sm Sb Te I Xe rubidium strenuurn yttrium zirconium nibblbim ITW l39fleEi39lJl Tl tecl inetluim ruthenium rhedmn palladium sljuer cadmuum indium tin antimenyquot telluii39iurn ledine senor 39 39 42 4 v i allquot 49 5D 1 5 53 V54 1 33 1339 139 ITEJ 181 151 185 190 1192 195 1399 VEUI 2434 ED 2119 I J 39 v 39 l i v V 39 1 e Cs Ba La Hf Tel w Re 05 1r Pt Au Hg Tll Pb Bll Po At Rn aesiiu39n bariur39n lanthanum hafnium tantalum tungsten rheniur bsrnium indliLm platinum geld r39nerbury thallium leadl bismuitb paleniurri asba bine radbn 39 I 39 53quot W 39 i l k i 39 739quot 39 3quot RE 3quot EU 81 352 3 34 SE 8quot BE Fr Re A rancium radiurn actiniun i E5 EB W 9U 3quot 531 Lanthainb d series 903913 3 Wall mm 140 141 144 15 15 is 159 152 155 L5 1st 1 3 ijs Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Ellll Gd Tb Dy Ho Er39 Trn Yb L He39ll a 7 emu n brbscbitymium needymiurr premethium samariumi eurbpiu39n gadolinium terbium l139g 5pl3905llul39il39l helmilu39i39i 7 erbriium Hu39lLlliLlllTl i33 tlzisrbiun39n lutebum a Elan 5mmquot I39m3195 53 59 5393 51 52 E33 4 ES 3955 E 6in 13539 TU F1 it atbmii symbbl 232 233 r lb brbtbn atbrriisj number i l K V i gt H V b Th Pa U Np Pu Ami Cm lk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr thrEil39lilJrl39i brbtamirium 7 premium V iebtun um I iEI IUlI I39IiIJFI Van39ericium 7 rcuriuri i Vberkelium it ailifbrnlum Vejnstainurri Viemiurn mandalaslum nebe lium Iawrerclum E L 13 Elc Elli 53 Elli 939 till ID 1112 1 13 Period number Number of electron shells Group number Number of valence shell outermost shell electrons P02 Stability Atoms bond together to achieve stability To achieve stability atoms in a compound must obey the duplet anoI octet rule in the valence shell gt Duplet 2 electrons gt Octet 8 electrons Fluorine 7 electrons in valence shell To gain 1 electron to achieve stability octet rule P02 Example 4 Valence Shell representation Carbon Chlorine Number of valence shell electrons in carbon A not stable Number of valence shell electrons in chlorine Z not stable To achieve stability carbon must gain 5 electrons octet rule To achieve stability chlorine must gain 1 electron octet rule C X 4 CI 1 FormUIa Of compound Q5 Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P02 What you have learnt An atom is composed of protons and neutrons found inside the nucleus with electrons revolving around this nucleus Vost atoms attain stability by forming chemical bonds which takes place either through the transfer of electrons or sharing of electrons The atomic radius of an atom can be influenced by the nuclear charge and the number of inner electrons present Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Copyright 2015 P03 Polarity of bonds Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons within a bond Electronegativity Values for Some Elements The higher the electronegativity value of an atom the greater its tendency to attract electrons in a bond Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P03 Polarity of bonds In a covalent bond gt Electrons can be shared more or less equally 9 nonpolar bond gt Electrons can be shared unequally 9 polar bond How to determine whether a bond is polar Difference in electronegativity between the atoms in the bond Less than 05 units Differ by more than 05 and less than 20 units More than 20 units Type of intra molecular bond Nonpolar covalent bonds Polar covalent bonds Ionic bonds P03 Example 5 O H bond in H20 water Polar bond H 0 Hydrogen 220 344 Polar bond Oxygen Difference in electronegativity 344 220 12 O H bond is polar Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P03 Dipole moments A dipole moment within a bond exists whenever there is a polar bond I gt Direction of dipole moment Electrons are pulled towards F because F is more electronegative than C Problem 03 Polarity of molecules How to determine whether a molecule is polar Step 1 Work out the electronegativity difference of all atoms in the bonds in the molecule l Step 2 Determine whether the bonds are polar or nonpolar l Step 3 Indicate the direction of dipole moment for all polar bonds Step 4 From the shape of molecule determine whether the dipole moments cancel off any net dipole moment Dipole moments Do NOT Cancel off Dipole moments cancel off net dipole moment no net dipole moment Polar molecule Nonpolar molecule P03 Example CF4 molecule W Electronegativtity Carbon 255 Fluorine 398 Difference in electronegativity between C and F 14 C F bond is polar Indicate the direction of the dipole moment for all CF bonds From the shape of CF4 the dipole moments cancel off no net dipole moment CF4 iS a nonDOIaI mOleCUIG Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P03 What you have learnt Depending on the shape of the molecule and the direction of all the dipole moments dipole moments can work together or cancel out A polar molecule will have polar bonds and net dipole moment that is the dipole moments work together A molecule with polar bonds can be a nonpolar molecule if the dipole moments cancel out one another Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Copyright 2015 P04 Intermolecular Interactions 1 The type of intermolecular interactions is determined from the polarity of molecules The boiling point is determined from the strength of the intermolecular interactions Type of Type of Intermolecular Strength molecules Interactions Polar Hydrogen Bonding Polar polar interactions Inc ses Nonpolar nonpolar Nonpolar interactions The stronger the intermolecular interactions the higher the bOiIing poi nt Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P04 Intermolecular Interactions 2 Hydrogen Bonding gt Occurs between two polar molecules gt Special type of polar polar interactions gt Occurs between molecules when one molecule has either a HN or HO bond and the other has a polar bond involving either F N or 0 Hydrogen bonding 0 xx S Polar bond involving F H H H H H Molecule has a HO bond Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P04 What you have learnt Water is found to be important in the proper functioning of earth and life There are different types of intermolecular interactions such as polar polar interactions nonpolar nonpolar interactions and hydrogen bonding The strong intermolecular interactions between water molecules is called hydrogen bonding It occurs between molecules when one molecule has a HF HN or HO bond and the other has a polar bond involving F N or 0 It is the strongest type of polarpolar interactions Hydrogen bonding is responsible for its relatively high boiling point for its small molecular size its lower density in the solid form compared with its liquid and ability to dissolve polar and ionic substances including common substances around us like alcohols and salts Copyright 2015 P05 Macromolecules 1 A molecule with a very large number of atoms Macromolecules typically have more than 100 component atoms Are polymers consisting of the basic units called monomers Formation via enzymatic reaction condensation synthesis or dehydration synthesis with a loss of water Catabolism via enzymatic hydrolysis by addition of water v HO H HO s13 Ho H A Short polymer Monomer Condensatlonl 2 R quot5 Hydro39ys39s amp HO H H0 B io Longer polymer a Condensation dehydration synthesis of a polymer b Hydrolysis of a polymer P05 Macromolecules 2 The following are macromolecules and polymer Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acid Lipids are macromolecules but not a polymer Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Bondsthat nkthe polymer Polymer and a Types of polymer macromolecule Carbohydrates Starch and Glycogen Alpha glucose Alpha 14 glycosidic WED bonds H H g H Alpha 16 glycosidic UH FP bond 9H CH refer to GP H CH c143hmose Cellulose Beta glucose Beta 14 glycosidic bonds CHEOHO refer to GP H H OH O OH H H H OH Beta glucose Protein Amino Acid Peptide bond H l refer to GP Carbnxym III Group l de Chain Am mo Group Polymer and a Types of Monomer Bonds that link the macromolecule polymer polymer Nucleic Acids Nucleotides ribose phosphate group nitrogenous base Nitrogenous base ll O li O CH2 0 o Phosphate OH Sugar Macromolecule Type of Units of macromolecule Bonds that link the macromolecule macromolecule Lipids Triglycerides Fatty acid and glycerol Esther bond Dehydratien I Syntheeie 3 If j 1 v E I E l l E I l H I n I T 3 HEB f i g a i I ll H H Hi ii H Hi Glycerul Petty eide Triglyceride Meleeule P05 Functions of Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrate Main source of energy Starch consumed are hydrolyzed into glucose monomers and fed into glycolysis to produce ATP Stores energy as glycogen Source of chemical structures for ribose sugar DNA glycoprotein hormones etc Protein provide structure regulate body processes eg enzymes and hormones transport materials throughout your body help your immune system act as a source of energy Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 05 Functions of Macromolecules 2 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are hydrolyzed to nucleotides Nucleotides are further hydrolyzed to sugar phosphates to be utilized as energy bases to be converted to uric acid amino acid structures Most of human DNA is synthesized de novo afresh Lipid Energy storage Precursors to making hormones and phospholipids Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P05 What have you learnt Name the four major complex biological macromolecules found in living cells Carbohydrate Protein nucleic acids and Lipid Identify the chemical structures of Carbohydrate Protein Nucleic Acids and Lipid Triglyceride Three of which are listed on food labels Carbohydrate Protein and Lipid For each group of biological macromolecules name its generic monomer simple unit and polymer complex structure Describe the function of consumed Carbohydrate Protein Nucleic Acids and Lipids in the body Explain the role of water in synthesis and breakdown of biomolecules Describe the polymerization and hydrolysis process for carbohydrates and proteins in the human body Identify the glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates structures Identify the peptide bonds in protein structures Explain how lipids are formed and hydrolysed Explain the hydrolysis of nucleic acids P06 Blocks of Life Pro ka ryotes Euka ryotes Bacteria Archaea Plant Animal Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P06 Differences between eukaryote and prokaryote cell cytoslceleton 7 ribosomes cytoplasm Capsule nucleus Cell wall endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane VV 39 5 1 V0 3 mitochondrlon g wmsiome Ribosome lt I 39 Goli body Chromosomal DNA is localized in a region called the nucleoid Flagellum Eu karyote Cell Proka ryote Cell unicellular single celled or unicellular single celled multicellular organisms nucleus Single circular chromosome Contains membrane bound lack welldefined nuclei and organelles membranebound organelles Structures and its Function in a Eukaryotic Cell STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS Cell Membrane Regulation of passage of materials into and out of the cell Nucleus Contains most of the hereditary material DNA of the cell Endoplasmic reticulum Smooth and Rough Synthesis and intracellular storage and transport of materials such as proteins and steroids Golgi Body Synthesis and secretion often to the outside of the cell of materials such as carbohydrates and proteins Mitochondrion Derives chemical energy in form of ATP from organic materials for use by rest of cell respiration Cytoskeleton Maintenance of cell shape where there is no cell wall formation of quottracksquot along which organelles can run and formation of the spindle during cell division Ribosome Site of protein synthesis Membrane bound organelle containing water organic inorganic molecules or Vacuoles enzymes The gellike substance in the cell 70 to 90 water consisting of organelles Cytoplasm where most cellular reaction occur Chloroplast Unique to plant eukaryotic cells is the site of photosynthesis Structures and its Function in a Prokaryotic Cell STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS CytOplasm39CPlasma Regulation of passage of materials into and out of the cell Membrane Cell Wall Protection and maintenance of cell shape Found in some bacterial cells this additional outer covering protects Capsule the cell when it is engulfed by other organisms assists in retaining moisture and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients Nucleoid Contains most of the hereditary material DNA of the cell Flagellum Cilium Provides motility primarily for singlecelled organisms Where an organism has more than 2 flagella each is then known as a cilium Hairlike structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other Pili bacterial cells Shorter pili called fimbriae help bacteria attach to sunaces Ribosome Site of protein synthesis The gellike substance in the cell 70 to 90 water where most Cytoplasm cellular reactions occur P06 Differences between animal and plant cell quotquotmquot39quotE39FdEElg E Ei quot ii39 39 h39i39 i39 li39 let 7 98 I quotlull a Mucleolul l Nuclear r y lMerrnbranl I 3quot i r u 393 9 W H Tilii I 5quot 7 War 2 tall li Bad I n M nnnnnnnnn on nchantedlLearnn com r Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell membrane Present Present Chloroplasts Absent Present Mitochondria Present Present P06 What have you learnt What are cells both prokaryotic and eukaryotic What is the Cell Theory and how it helps us understand what makes up living things The basic structures and functions of the organelles in cells Such as the cell membrane nucleus mitochondria cytoplasm Differences between eukaryotic plant and animal and prokaryotic cells Applications of such knowledge to the science of bioengineering and stem cell research Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P07 What is human The 7 characteristics of life 1 Cellular composition All living things consists of cells either as prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells 2 Organization All living things are organized according to different levels from single celled bacteria to multicellular organisms animals humans 3 Metabolism This refers to the biochemical process of converting one form of energy to another within the organism through anabolism creating substances from energy and catabolism breaking down substances into energy The 7 characteristics of life conti 4 Responsiveness and Movement All living things are able to respond to external and internal stimuli as well as react to these stimuli 5 Homeostasis This refers to the ability to regulate the internal environment such as body temperature water and chemical levels in the body 6 Development Through its life span a living thing develops from one stage to another such as humans developing from a baby to an adult 7 Reproduction The ability to reproduce sexually or asexually is another defining characteristic of all living things P07 Levels of human organization 3 Atom l d Molecule A cell B tissue C organ D Organ system digestive system B organism Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Levels of human organization conti The levels of organization of the human body are usually a specialized type of cell Example Muscle cell Tissue there are 4 main tissue types in the human body Example muscle tissue Organ when different tissues come together to function Example Heart stomach lungs Orqan Svstem Several organs together provide more complex functions in a system Example Respiratory digestive nervous system Organism all the systems work together for the functioning of the organism Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 P07 What type of cells make up the human body All the cells in the human body start from non differentiated pluripotent cells that later mature and differentiate into specialized cells The cell structure is adapted to its function TYPE OF CELL UNIQUE CELLULAR SPECIALIZED FUNCTION STRUCTURE Red blood cells Intestinal Epithelial cells Contains myofilaments in the cell Has axons and dendrites Has a concave shape no nucleus and contains hemoglobin Has microvilli is elongated in shape Myofilaments allow the cell to contract and relax allowing movements Axons and dendrites allow the production and movement of nerve impulses along the cell Increase surface area due to cell shape hemoglobin to carry oxygen in the cell Increases surface area for improved absorption of nutrients P07 Organization of the human body The human body is 3 dimensional and contains many organs and tissues inside it These structures are found in various regions and empty spaces called cavities Examples of the main cavities of the body include Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Cranial cavity Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Organization of the human body conti Cranial cavity contains brain Cranial cavity Vertebral cavity Superior Tm mediastinum cavity contains P39eu39a39 heart my and lungs Periwrdial cavity within the mediastinum Dorsal body cavity Diaphragm Ventral body cavrty thoracic and abdominopelvrc cavrties Vertebral mvity contains spinal cord Abdominal cavrty contains digestive viscera Key Dorsal body cavity I Ventral body cavity Pelvic cavity contains bladder reproductive organs and rectum 3 Lateral View b Anterior View Copyrlgtt 2001 Benjamin Cummings an imprint ol Addison Wesley Longman lnc P07 What have you learnt The 7 characteristics of life help us to distinguish between living and nonliving things The human body has a level of organization starting from basic cells to complex organ systems There are specialized cells that perform specific functions such as muscle nerve and epithelial cells The study the human body s structure is called human anatomy and has several branches from microscopic to macroscopic anatomy The human body is separated into regions and cavities Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 Good luck in your MSA The end Thank you Republic Polytechnic Copyright 2015 REPUBLic I IPDLYTEGHNiIG A104 Biology ESE Revision P08P10 Problem 08 Genetic Inheritance Traits are characteristics that can be expressed in an organism gt Example Hair colour of a human We have a gene for hair colour but humans do not all have the same hair colour The exact colour of our hair is determined by an allele or combination of alleles of the gene for hair colour Alleles always occur in pairs one inherited from each parent Problem 08 Genetic Inheritance An organism s genotype or genetic make up determines its phenotypes or physical appearance Genotype is the type of combinations of genes that one person possess But it39s not necessarily the genes that will get turned on Phenotype is what is expressed what genes are active at the level of visualization Copyright 2015 Problem 08 Genetic Inheritance Genes can have more than one form For example the gene that controls the colour of the pods can have a form that produces yellow pods and another that produces green pods Different forms of the same gene are called alleles However even if the allele for yellow pods is present the offspring may not have yeow pods Two different forms of the gene that affects the colour of pods in the pea plants Allele for green pods Allele for yellow pods lant cells p nucleus Problem 08 Genetic Inheritance The traits of the offspring can emerge from the inherited materials in different ways 1 DominantRecessive The effect of one allele of a pair is expressed in the offspring in preference to the other Eg allele for green pod dominating over allele for yellow pod in the pea plants 2 Incompletedominance The expression of an intermediate trait in the offspring when one allele of a pair is not fully dominating over the other Eg interaction of the allele for red flower and that for white flower gives rise to offspring with pink flowers 3 Codominance Both sets of inherited materials are dominant and are expressed simultaneously Eg blood type AB is a result of the presence of an allele for type A and an allele for type B Problem 08 Example DominantRecessive A flower can be either red or green R denotes the allele for red flower and r denotes the allele for green flower The allele R is dominant over the allele No other alleles are known to affect the colour of the flower State the colour of the flower with the following pairs of alleles a RR b Rr c rr A parent plant with the Rr pair of alleles is bred with another parent plant with the rr pair of alleles What are the possible pair of alleles that the offspring might have See solutions in next slide 9 Problem 08 Example continued Solutions a Red since only the R alleles are present b Red since the R allele is dominant over r allele 0 Green since only the r alleles are present Alleles present in parents Rr rr VZ N Z V AN Alleles present in offspring Rr Rr rr rr Colour of offspring Red Red Green Green Possible pair of alleles in offspring Rr and rr Problem 08 Example Incomplete dominance A certain species of plants could have blue yellow or green flowers Green colour is an expression of intermediate trait between blue and yellow colours The allele for blue colour is denoted by B and the allele for yellow colour is denoted by In a particular breeding between two parent plants with blue and green flowers state all the possible pair of alleles that the offspring might have Problem 08 Example continued Solutions Parent with blue flower have allele pairs BB Parent with green fur have allele pairs Bb Alleles present in parents BB Bb 39vz Viz NV xw Alleles present in offspring BB BB Bb Bb Colour of offspring Blue Blue Green Green Possible pair of alleles in offspring BB and Bb Problem 09 Evolve through time Evolution is the change in allele frequencies over generations in populations of organisms through time that lead to differences among them Mutation 39H JN variation Unfavorable mutations selectcc against Reproduztion and mutation o m favorable mumhom more I kely to su39wvc I 7quot i and reproduce Copyright 2015 l viquot 1 i sh Problem 09 Evolve through time Genetic variation helps populations change over time Variations that help an organism survive and reproduce are passed on to the next generation Variations that hinder survival and reproduction are eliminated from the population Problem 09 Evolve through time Natural Selection If there are variation differential reproduction and heredity evolution will take place by natural selection as an outcome Organisms which are best suited to their environment will on average survive better There is a struggle for existence Those who survive will produce the next generation Copyright 2015 Problem 09 Evolve through time Example Qx ix ix 3 QxQxQx Some mutations are fatal t Those that survive reproduce More mutations and reproduction occur some of which make bacteria resistant to an antibiotic m Only those that resist the antibiotic survive and reproduce this is natural selection Copyright 2015 Mutations create variation in bacteria Problem 09 Evolve through time comparison of the DNA genetic sequence Organisms that are phylogenetically close have a higher degree of DNA sequence similarity than organisms that are phylogenetically distant For example humans and chimpanzees have 99 of their DNA in common which suggests a close relationship and relatively recent divergence from a common ancestor Copyright 2015 Problem 09 Evolve through time Example 15 my m 111mg I r h i Orangutans Hm E I m WE 51E HE Garill 39l l kg a my 4quot WW 2 my earl2y Enmmnn chimpanzees 559m Emit E Huma s 293 H 1 E Bhim panes Fossil Evidence a f0ssil is formed when an oranism dies its body is enclosed mug or sand The so parts decay but some of the har parts skeleton shells seeds are preserve The mud or sand eventually becmes ro and the hard parts the oranism are n neralised When the rck is expseal as a rgult earth mvements r ersinj the fssil remains can be du ut an studied the foSsils of oranism preserved the lowest layers represent animals and plants that lived many millions of years ao Copyright 2015 l Problem 09 Evolve through time iiiiiajor etriotiionarzlr events EEG mil lion years ago to the present Geologic time D era events 2 evolution of humans sca e mammals diversify t 5 a extinction ofdinosaurs 7 first primates The geologic time 1oo scale encompasses 15 the history of the 3 Earth IIrassic Mesozoic first mammals first dinosaurs V a maor extinctions E F39ermianD L reptiles diversify SIZIEI r It IS based on a amp g Pennwa an rst optic HD 3 E scale trees E 333 g Mississippian SEEd ferns E 7 g E first amphibians quot if E 4DD E DE39WI39Iiil39l jawed fishes diversifyiffb To It 39339 Silurian first vascular land plants 45D Elrdotrician sudden diversification Ens e e of multicellular animal families SDI first fishes Cambrian first cher39dates 7 550 first skeletal elements 7 3 first softloodied multicellular animals 7 3 first animal traces prquot 7 as l E EL 3 3 E n 65D 39rquotj t W E1 EDD Encyclopaedia Eiritannica Inc Copyright 2015 Problem 10 growth and decay gt Linear Rate of increase or decrease of the quantity remains constant with time gt Exponential Rate of increase or decrease of the quantity increasesdecreases proportionally with time Linear and Exponential Decay Linear sE pnnenHai ill El 3 lll Problem 10 Exponential growth and decay Example for Half life ti2 Quantity A 40 Half C 20 Half C 10 3 7 J1 Tirrie 4 units 4 units gt When the time increases from 3 to 7 4 units the quantity decreases from 40 to 20 half gt When the time increases from 7 to 11 4 units the quantity decreases from 20 to 10 half Problem 10 Example A particular virus grow at an exponential rate The table below shows the number of virus at different times Time Hours 0 3O 1 90 2 810 gt What is the number of virus at the 2nd hour gt How many hours will it take for the virus to grow to 810 From the table the virus increases 3x every hour Number of virus at 2nd hour 90 x 3 270 Number of hours for virus to grow to 810 2 1 3 hrs Good luck in your ESE Thank you
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