Unit 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, and part of 4
Unit 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3, and part of 4 BMS 208-03
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Friday September 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter 1 91115 1222 PM Human Anatomy Anatomy To cut apart the study of structure Physiology the study of function The Anatomic Position Body in an upright position and facing forward with limbs laying along the body and parallel the thumbs pointing out palms facing forward Anatomic Directions Terms that describe the relative positions of one body structure to another 0 AnteriorPosterior ForwardBackward SuperiorInferior AboveBelow MedialLateral closer to the midlineaway from the midline Applies to the trunk ProximalDistal HigherLower applies only to appendages SuperficialDeep Sectional Anatomy Plane Anatomy imaginary flat surface passing through the body or an organ 0 Saqittal Plane Median down the middle 0 Transverse Plane horizontally cut in half 0 Coronal Plane divides front to back Body Cavities Dorsal Posterior o Cranial Cavity formed by skull bones o Vertebral Canal formed by vertebral column bones Ventral Anterior o Thoracic The superior cavity The heart is located in the middle called the mediastinum and surrounded by pericardium Lungs lined by 2 layer serous membrane called pleura produces fluid to allow movement and prevent friction Mediastinum Pleural Pericardial Diaphragm 0 Question for thought What s the difference between thoracic and pectoral o Abdominopelvic The inferior cavity these two are separated by the diaphragm Abdominopelvic Quadrants Cavity can be divided into four quadrants The Patients right and left not yours El El El El Right Upper Quadrant RUQ Left Upper Quadrant LUQ Right Lower Quadrant RLQ Left Lower Quadrant LLQ Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity El Umbilical Region in the center of the regions surrounds the naval issues that result from lactose intolerant Epigastric Region above Epi the umbilical region heartburn high in the digestive system Hypogastric Region below hypo the umbilical region bladder UTI Right Hypochondriac Region right below the ribcage gallbladder Left Hypochondriac Region spleen right below the ribcage Right Lumbar Region Left Lumbar Region Right Iliac Region Area between leg and pubic region Left Iliac Region Hip region Chapter 2 91115 1222 PM Levels of Organization in the Human Body Chemical Level Atoms amp Molecule Cell Level Pg 10 HOMEWORK Rev Components and functions of the Cell presented in Table 22 pg 27 care only about the name and function Make notecards of Regions amp Directions Tissue Level Epithelial Organ Level Small Intestine Organ System Level Cardiovascular System Heart arteries and veins blood Organism Level Chapter 3 91115 1222 PM Figure 31 and Table 32 Human Maturation Wheel Embryonic Period 0 Begins wthe establishment of three primary germ gastrulation layers which all adult human structure comes from o Ectoderm development of outer layer of skin epidermis and spinal cord nerves endocrine organs structures of the eyes 0 Mesoderm M for muscles is the main organ system that is developed from this germ heart kidneys etc o Endoderm give rise to respiratory system amp digestive system Figure 312 o By the end of the embryonic period the main organ systems have developed Chapter 4 91115 1222 PM Histology the scientific study of tissues 4 Tissue Types Epithelial Tissue most superficial provides protection 0 Functions 0 Protection Lines body surfaces and cavities Covers organs skin mucous membranes stratified squamous 0 Absorption nutrients and molecules lining of digestive system simple columnar o Secretion Endocrine and Exocrine glands sweating salivation adrenaline hormones ducts of glands simple cuboidalcolumnar 0 Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 0 One surface always exposed to fluid or air 0 Totally cellular o No blood vessels avascular receive all nutrition by diffusion 0 Cells rest on a basement membrane 0 Classification and Naming of Epithelial Tissue 0 Simple Epithelium one layer of cells 0 Stratified Epithelium more than one layer of cells Types of Cells n Squamous Cell flat cells n Cuboidal Cell cube shaped cells n Columnar Cell taller column like cell 0 Types of Epithelial Tissue Know how to identify from a drawing and where they can be found 0 Simple Squamous Respiratory System alveoli air sacs in lung tissue Simple Squamous Epithelium lungs Simple Squamous Mesothelium Simple Squamous Endothelium 0 Simple Cuboidal walls of kidney tubules surface of ovaries ducts of glands 0 Simple Columnar anywhere from the beginning of the stomach down to end of the colon gallbladder and stomach o Stratified Squamous epidermis of the skin esophagus oral cavity and rectum any opening o Pseudostratified Ciliated ColumnarLining of the airways lining of the trachea bronchioles nasal cavity Looks like many layers of cells but really only one layer of columnar cells Function is to catch and trap impurities the mucous and cilia catch the impurities o Transitional Changes its shape Found in the Urinary system ureters and bladder not kidney Glandular Epithelial Tissueglands are formed out of epithelial tissue 0 Exocrine glands glands with ducts 2 regions carry secretions out Duct Portion n Simple no branching Simple tubular Simple branched tubular Simple coiled tubular 0 Simple acinar Simple branched acinar n Compound some branching 0 Compound tubular 0 Compound acinar Secretory Portion n Tubular straight I Alveolaracinar bulbous o Endocrine glands glands without ducts secrete directly into the bloodstream glands that produce hormones Connective Tissue Connecting different systems by delivery of good throughout the body most diverse tissue 0 Functions Protection bones and fat protects organs Support and framework bones cartilage and fat Binds structures together ligaments amp tendons Storagefat and bone stores calcium amp phosphorus Transport nutrients hormones gases waste to different parts of the body 0 Immunityprotects against diseases 0 Connective Tissue Components OOOOO 0 Cells living component many cells form the extracellular matrix Fibroblastsrepairs skin make your scars make the fibers collagen fibers elastic fibers and reticular fibers amp ground substance found in the extracellular matrix Adipocyte stores fats Macrophages pathogen ingesting ces Chondrocyes cartilage ce Osteocytes ceuar component in the bone 0 Extracellular Matrix Protein Fibers fibers that strengthen amp support the connective tissues n collagenstrong n elasticelastic n reticularfine Ground Substance Unstructured material fiing space between the cells varies from a liquid to semisolid to solid 0 Types of Connective Tissue o Fluid Connective Tissue liquid tissue Blood transport oxygen amp C02 start and control the immune system blood clotting transport 0 Supporting Connective Tissue interconnectsbinds structures protects tissues solid tissue ex Bone solid matrix amp Cartilage semisolid matrix Bone Tissue p1920 Functions rigid support soid matrix protection aid in movement blood cell formation storage for chemicals n Compactdense calcified matrix made up of osteons Haversian system 0 Osteonsbasic structural unit of the bone tissue lacunae with osteocytes canaliculi lamellae central canal perforating canal Spongycancellous not as structured as compact bone meshwork pattern of bone 0 Trabeculaelatticelike arrangement of narrow plates of bone Bone Cells types of living component 0 Osteocyte maintaining cell doesn t make it grow 0 Osteoblasts Builders make the bones grow 0 Osteoclasts Crushers Remove solid matrix liquefy Bone Matrix 0 Organic younger you are the more organic components 13 flexibility and tensile strength collagen fibers won t break 0 Inorganic 23 as we age we have more inorganic component Harder the bone more prone the bone is to shatter compression strength Cartilage Semisolid matrix El Hyaline Cartilage chondrocytes embedded in firm yet somewhat flexible matrix collagen fibers suspended in abundant ground substance in joints and embryonic cartilage forms rigid support in walls of larynx trachea bronchi and bronchioles Fibrocartilage contains collagen fibers withstands compression matrix contains little ground substance and an abundance in between vertebral bones knees pubic symphasis places where there is high impact on the body Elastic Cartilage chondrocytes embedded in firm and very flexible matrix abundance of elastic fibers ear end of nose o Connective Tissue Proper the binding materials attachment points the cushioning like fats Loose Connective Tissue n Areolar Connective Tissue binds and packs organs surrounds nerves vessels and subcutaneous layer a Adipose Tissue stores fat and insulates protects surrounds kidney and other organs found in subcutaneous layer a Reticularmakes up the stroma of the lymphatic organs Dense Connective Tissue n Dense Regular connective tissue collagen fibers arranged parallel to direction of stress tendons amp ligaments n Dense irregular connective tissue collagen fibers arranged in random array dermis amp capsules of organs n Elastic Connective Tissue elastic fibers arranged in parallel array medium sized arteries ligaments between vertebrae Muscular Tissue Skeletal striated pattern of banding voluntary 0 Cardiac striated involuntary 0 Smooth nonstriated involuntary Nervous Tissue HOMEWORK SO FAR p 13Fig 18amp Table 13 p 73 Fig 312 p 2829 Table 22 QUIZ assigned Tuesday the 15th or before and due 24th 0 All from her lecture
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