Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes PSY 100
Popular in Intro to Psycology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Chelsea Notetaker on Friday September 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 100 at Western Kentucky University taught by Virginia Pfohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psycology in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.
Reviews for Chapter 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/11/15
Psychology 100 Chapter 2 Notes u iednesday September 3 2015 215 PM 379 A 1 V MMJEl 9 1390 Gw gho TLw r We K CELL mah l lhf TilNikk NVLHMS MS Silva Vocabulary Soma Cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus carries out metabolic functions for the cell Axon Carries impulse away from the soma to other neurons Terminal Buttons Tips of axons where neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers send impulses from one cell to another Synapse Fluidfilled gap between neurons where neurotransmitters carry impulses Dendrites Branches at the end of neurons Receive impulses from other neurons Sensory Afferent Neurons Transmit info from sensory organs to the brain ex You put your hand on a hot pan the sensory neurons sends this message to the brain Motor Efferent Neurons Convey messages from the brain to the body ex After your brain receives the quotits hot message the brain sends a message to the motor neurons making you pull your hand away Glands Receive messages from motor neurons produce and secrete hormones Hormones Regulate bodily processes Interneurons most common type of neuron connect other neurons to each other Nerve bundle of axons from neurons transmit impulses o Glial Cells supportnourish neurons act as quotgluequot to hold them together 0 Myelin Sheath Formed by glial cells layer of protective insulation around the axon that speeds up transmission 0 Resting Potential The electrical potential for a neuron at rest slightly negative inside 0 Depolarization When a neuron is stimulated Na rushes in causing a slight positive on the inside 0 Action Potential neural impulse A sudden reversal of electrical charge 0 Allornone principle A neuron will either fire or it won t no in between 0 Refractory Period A reloading period or temporary state where a neuron can t fire Returns back to resting potential Each neurotransmitter has a specific receptor site where other neurotransmitters dock Receiving neurons are known as the postsynaptic neurons When neurotransmitters dock they cause chemical changes to the postsynaptic neuron and can have either a excitatory causing action potential to occur or inhibitory putting the brakes on action potential effect Processes that prevent Action Potential Reuptake recycling of neurotransmitters they are absorbed back into the transmitting neuron Enzymatic breakdown of neurotransmitters Terminal buttons release neurotransmitters which will increase or decrease sensitivity of the receiving neuron Antagonists chemicals that block neurotransmitters by occupying the receptor site Agonists enhance activity of neurotransmitters o Stimulants such as caffeine mild stimulant and amphetamines such as cocaine strong stimulant o Antidepressants increase the availability of neurotransmitters in the brain 0 Endorphins The body s natural pain killers The Nervous System The Nervous System is a network of neurons that communicate to perform functions in the body 0 Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal Cord the control unit The Spinal Cord sends information between the brain and PNS and is responsible for the reflexes o The Peripheral Nervous System 0 Autonomic Nervous System involuntary bodily processes I Sympathetic Nervous System mobilizes bodily resources in response to threat or physical not sexual arousal fear anger excitement fight or flight response Leads to an increase in heart rate and blood pressure stops digestion start sweating etc I Parasympathetic Nervous System Replenishes bodily resources reverses the effects of the sympathetic NS promoting digestion slowing down heart rate etc o Somatic Nervous System Carries sensory information from sensory organs to the Central Nervous System voluntary movements The Brain 3 Major Structures 0 Hindbrain lowest part of the brain includes the medulla pons and cerebellum 0 Controls basic life functions breathing heartbeat etc o Medulla marrowcore of the brain stem Controls heart rate breathing swallowing and coughing basic vital functions 0 Pons located directly above the medulla convey sensory information from the spinal cord to the brain Deals with states of wakefulness and sleep alertnessawareness o Cerebellum balance and coordination located behind the pons o Midbrain Like a relay center or switching station 0 Consists of nerve pathways that connect the hindbrain to the forebrain o Responsible for states of attention alertness and arousal o Reticular formation connects hindbrain to midbrain o Forebrain largest part of the brain 0 Thalamus relay station for sensory information I Responsible for states of wakefulness and sleep I Sense receptors for pain touch vision hearing and taste not smell I Receives input from the basil ganglia o Hypothalamus located beneath the Thalamus I Regulates hunger thirst sleep cycles body temperature and bodily response to stress hormones and emotional states I Regulates the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for maintaining homeostasis o Limbic System Basic emotions gut feelings I Amygdala emotional response to fear and rage I Hippocampus located behind the amygdala Responsible for the formation of new memories 0 Cerebral Cortex forms the cerebellum and has 2 cerebral Hemispheres outer layer of gray matter 0 The 2 hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum thick bundle of nerve fibers that acts as their way of communication between the 2 hemispheres Cerebral Cortex controls higher mental functions thought and language The Cerebral Cortex has four lobes each hemisphere has each of these four lobes I Occipital Lobe located in the back of the head responsible for sight visual information recognizing objects and faces I Parietal Lobe sides of the brain 0 Includes the somatosensory cortex where sensory information from the receptors in the skin are processed touch pressure temperature pain 0 Awareness and position of parts of your body I Frontal Lobe Motor responses and higher mental functions 0 Critical thinking planning problem solving access to memory and personality 0 Motor Cortex Voluntary movements of specific parts of the body 0 Mirror Neurons specialized neurons in the motor cortex that fire when an action is performed and when it is observed I Temporal Lobe beneath and somewhat behind the frontal lobes directly above the ears 0 Receive and process information from the ears produces hearing I Association Areas found in each lobe put together sensory input to form meaningful perceptions of our environment Lateralization of the 2 Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Language Center Broca s Area speech Wernike s Area understanding language Visualspatial perception Math Designs patterns geometrics Symbolic Recognition Appreciation of artmusic Sequential Reasoning Emotions Reading Music Rhythm Genetics There are about 20000 genes in the Human Genome The Human Genome Project was completed that mapped the location of genes on our chromosomes We each have 46 chromosomes 23 from mom 23 from dad egg sperm NatureNurture Concept How genetics nature and environmental influences nurture effect behavior NatureNurture studies are performed using twins identical twins have the same genes The concordance rate is the likelihood of both twins getting the same disease Brain Information NonInvasive Techniques EEG Electroencephalogram observes the electrical activity of the brain CTCAT Scan Allows you to see structural abnormalities of the brain Like an xray PET scan observes the energy use of the brain by injecting radioactive isotopes in the brain Relates functions to parts of the brain fMRI Functional MRI more specific activity of the brain most modern technique
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'