intro to biology Test 1 study materials
intro to biology Test 1 study materials BIOL-L 105
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This 56 page Bundle was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
9914 Bio 105 Dr T Sullivan 9914 4 What does it mean to be alive 9914 Characteristics of life I Energy 1 All living thing need to capture and use energy to live and reproduce I Ultimate source is the sun 9914 4 Characteristics of life I Cells 1 Living things consist of membranebound units basic building blocks 1 Cell membranes regulate passage into and out of the cell 1 Common line of descent 9914 Characteristics of life I Information Must have hereditarv genetic information Coded in genes Continuity of generations 9914 9914 Characteristics of life I Replication Living things make new versions of themselves 9914 Characteristics of life I Replication Living things make new versions of themselves 9914 Characteristics of life I Evolution Living things change over time Adaptations fit with their environment 9914 9914 How is science done I Scientific questions Need to be answerable How and Why questions are generally better than What or Where questions ILook for answers using the scientific method 9914 How is science done I Scientific Method Observation question Hypothesis Experimentobservationtest Prediction Conclusion IIf hypothesis and I experiment then prediction 9914 What is a hypothesis IPotential answer to your question Needs to be testable Should be based on reasonable expectations 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start 9914 9914 A simple example IObservation My car won t start IQuestionWhy won t my car start 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start I Question Why won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead 9914 A simple example IObservation My car won t start IQuestionWhy won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead IExperiment Jump start the car l 9914 A simple example I Observation My car won t start I Question Why won t my car start IHypothesis The battery is dead IExperiment Jump start the car IIf my car s battery is dead and I jump start the car I predict my car will start 9914 63 I 2 Another simple example IQWhy does my pen fall IH The table acts as a pen magnet IExp I ll let go of my pen 10 times over the table and count the number of times it falls to the table IIf the table acts as a pen magnet and I let go of my pen above the table it will fall towards the table more often than it doesn t 9914 9914 li zMy pen data Pen dropping experiment Fell towards the table Fell towards the ceiling 9914 li zPen data lWhat is my conclusion IThe hypothesis that the table acts as a pen magnet is supported 9914 Hypotheses are never proven IWe always state the hypothesis is supported lAlways the possibility for new information or better hypotheses IWhat would be a better hypothesis about why the pen falls 9914 77 6 Scientific theories l The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially For example no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun heliocentric theory or that living things are not made of cells cell theory that matter is not composed of atoms or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales the theory of plate tectonics One of the most useful properties of scientific theories is that they can be used to make predictions about natural events or phenomena that have not yet been observed National Academy of Science 9914 9914 V Communicating scientific data 78 lGraphs are a great way to summarize lots of data simply in a visual form ISuppose you are interested in comparing the average heights of 3 different volleyball teams Teams A B and C IWhich team has the largest mean height 9914 I Results height in inches 72 71 75 74 72 68 65 65 61 68 64 72 66 70 76 9914 I Results H H Mun Hoight Group I my IeU 9914 9914 4 Results liar IIOIIDn g FIE4 m NW 4 Results I Box plot 3 Box shows 25 75 percentiles 3 Line inside box is the median I Half data above half below 9914 4 83 Results I Box plot 3 Whiskers are 0 25 and 75 100 percentiles or 3 Whiskers can be 10 W 25 and 75 90 percentiles with outliners shown as dots 9914 4 Results uannuqm 9914 9914 Mean average vs median IBoth describe central tendency of the data Mean add them up divide by the number of data points Median Value Where 12 the data is above 12 is below 9914 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 100 lDataA Meanl234 55 Mean3 9914 87 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 I Data A 3 3 Median 3 4 4 5 100 9914 88 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 100 lDataB Meanl234 lOO5 Mean 22 9914 9914 Mean average vs median Data A Data B l l 2 2 I Data B 3 3 D Median 3 4 4 5 100 9914 Mean average vs median I Which method better 22 describes the data 9914 Mean average vs median I What would a bar chart look like 22 I What would a box plot look like 9914 Canvas box plots I Under grades D For graded assignments click on on right hand side a Box plot of class grades With mean high amp low scores blue square for your score 9914 9914 Ch 2 Water and Carbon the Chemical Basis of Life 9914 3 Key concepts for Ch 2 lVariation in molecular bonds a Polarity I Traits of H20 lAcids and bases 9914 5 What are living things made of amm o m comm Comm Km Pivva wow J v Watch a ducky 9914 Boiling points lBoiling adding energy to a liquid as individual molecules gain energy they move apart liquid becomes a gas lGenerally boiling points are proportional to the molecular weight of the substance 9914 10 9914 3 Boiling points Boiling points m m 2 HZ 2 Hz 18 18 28 N2 28 N2 32 oz 32 Oz 44 CO2 subhmanon 44 002 sulghma on 18 5 CC pomt pomt 9914 9914 Boiling points Boiling points 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 4O 45 5O 2 HZ 25287 C 50 A O 18 a 100 3 150 28 N2 19579 C g 200 32 02 18295 C 250 002 sublimation o 44 point 785 C 300 9914 9914 11 9914 4 What should the boiling point of a molecule with the MW of 18 be round to nearest 5 Rank Responses 1 l 2 2 3 4 5 6 Other Values 240 200 Value Matches 0 4 Boiling points m How great is water lVery important for life 75 of average living cell IBecause water is polar it interacts with other polar molecules and charged molecules lWater is a great solvent Lots of substances can dissolve in it 2 HZ 252839Z C 18 H20 100 C 28 N2 1953919 C 32 Oz 18295 C 44 C02 sulalimation 485 C pomt 9914 it Hydrogen bonding a Water is polar b Hydrogen bonds form Electrons are pulled toward oxygen between water molecules 12 Hydrogen bonding IPolar molecules and ions can dissolve easily in water a Polar molecules and ions dissolve readily in water Salt in absence of water 434 7 Salt dissolved in water 7 130 9914 Hydrogen bonding I Nonpolar molecules won t dissolve in water b Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water A 3 M A A 5 I I a v 397 ii My 1 34 4 straw b M A I 4 4 w 131 Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I Adhesion interaction between water and a solid I Helps with moving water against gravity in trees Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I Surface tension Hydrogen bonding helps water resist 739 force 133 13 The basilisk lizard 134 9914 9914 l39l L US Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I When water freezes it forms a crystal lattice I Ice is less dense than liquid water a In icel water molecules form a crystal lattice 39 Y Y Y 135 H I U Other consequences of hydrogen we quota wuw Swiv v xK Ice layer 136 l39l Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I High heat capacity IWater can absorb or lose energy without changing temperature too much Helps maintain body temperature Affects climate 137 14 Ocean currents Z ma au 0 mammas gmwm manunanh I mum 138 9914 15 9914 19 Key concepts for Ch 2 lVariation in molecular bonds I Polarity lTraits of H20 Ch 2 Water and Carbon Acids and bases the Chemical Basis of Life quot39 What are l1v1ng thmgs made of Comparmg bonds 39 mom mm Ell lamaa hm no cow moms rm puul ml mom have M chugl ll 05f r r 539 8 LY I 11 Il39539f ll 11 331 4503 Na I H 339 H r mm Mamas Amn39anvl wquot i 9914 4 4 Boiling points Boiling points m lBoiling adding energy to a liquid as 2 H2 individual molecules gain energy they move apart liquid becomes a gas 18 m lGenerally boiling points are proportional 28 NZ to the molecular weight of the substance 32 Oz 002 sublimation 44 point 9914 9914 Boiling points Boiling points m m 2 HZ 2 HZ 252839Z c 18 2 18 2 28 N2 28 N2 49579 C 32 oz 32 02 18295 C 44 C02 rllit fa m 39185 C 44 C02 Zili ggatm 39185 C 9914 9914 9914 Boiling points Boiling pt C Molecular weight 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 9 9914 4 What should the boiling point of a molecule with the MW of 18 be round to nearest 5 Rank Responses 1 l 2 2 3 4 5 6 Other Values 240 200 Value Matches 0 Boiling points m 2 18 28 32 44 Hz 252839Z c H20 100 C NZ 49579 C 02 18295 c COZ sublimation point 39185 C 9914 53 How great is water lVery important for life 75 of average living cell IBecause water is polar it interacts with other polar molecules and charged molecules lWater is a great solvent Lots of substances can dissolve in it 9914 How great is water lVery important for life 75 of average living cell Hydrogen bonding a Water is polar b Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules IPolar molecules and ions can dissolve easily in water a Polar molecules and ions dissolve readily in water Salt in absence of water quot O olt f s GSJ 51 Salt dissolved in water Electrons are 5 IBecause water 1s polar 1t 1nteracts w1th pulled toward other polar molecules and charged me b b molecules H H a 6 5 lWater 1s a great solvent Lots of substances can dissolve in it 57 Hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonding INonpolar molecules won t dissolve in water b Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve in water A 39 39 we a as p 75 5 7 3 39 139 pl 1quot 9 3391 v Y J 333 fetal View 9914 d Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I Adhesion interaction between water and a solid I Helps with moving water against gravity in trees bonding I Surface tension Hydrogen bonding helps water resist force Z Other consequences of hydrogen The basilisk lizard 9914 bonding I When water freezes it forms a crystal lattice I Ice is less dense than liquid water Other consequences of hydrogen a In ice water molecules form a crystal lattice 39Y Y Y 39 1 11 9914 H C US Other consequences of hydrogen bonding Ice layer Other consequences of hydrogen bonding I High heat capacity IWater can absorb or lose energy without changing temperature too much Helps maintain body temperature Affects climate H C 3 Ocean currents 1 x r M mommmm e39 uquot a madamx A 39 39 l39 cold l l I 391 capital 0m cry3h m Wu Wind WI uuen nllwullwc Alth H C j H Can you explain the following phenomena 1 Salt dissolves in water but gasoline does not 2 There is less variation between day and night temperatures at the beach relative to a point 50 miles inland 3 All mammals keep themselves cool by sweating or panting 9914 91114 Acids and bases l Molecules break and reform constantly H20 lt gt H OH l H is a protonOH is a hydroxide ion l The concentration ofprotons in a solution determines its pH Acids and bases l pH logH are used to indicate concentration i More H gives you a smaller pH value i More H means more acidic l Substances thatgive up protons easily are acids Acids and bases l Water is a weak acid l Atequilibrium H20 lt gt H OH 1000000000 2 i This ratio is a constant 91114 91114 Acids and bases Suppose you add extra H20 and throw off the ratioWhatwill happen H20 HH OH 91114 Acids and bases C ompounds thatreduce the concentration ofH in a solution are called bases n water NaOH gt Na OH Ifthere are extra H in the solution H OH gt H20 Oven cleaner Household bleach Household ammonia Milk of magnesia Baking soda Seawater 7 323233 Neutraurw 7 fm 39 Logarithmic scale Urine Black coffee Tomatoes Wino Wnegar soft drinks beer Lemon juice Stomach acid pH 1 pH unit10xH Doubling H 03 pH units 2 pH is 10x greater than 3 pH 91114 91114 pH buffering l Living cells can t tolerate big changes in pH i Homeostasis maintaining a constant internal environment l C hemicals called buffers can absorb or release H in order to maintain a constant pH Weak acids Noteverything v dissociates completely 39139 AP Notall the H will H C C leave the molecule I acetic acid 91114 Homeostasis l C02 carbon dioxide reacts with H20 water to form carbonic acid HZC O3 C02 H20 lt H2CO3lt H l Can we test this 91114 Homeostasis C02 H20 lt gt H2CO3lt gt H l Reactions actually go both directions Finds an equilibrium point Ratio ofproductszreactants is constant Reaction is going the same rate in both directions 91114 C hemical reactions C02 H20 lt gt H2CO3lt gt H Adding carbon dioxide to your blood makes it more acidic Removing carbon dioxide from your blood does what make it more basic Amino acids and polymerization Building blocks ofproteins are amino acids 20 differentamino acids all have the same basic structurea C at the center that bonds to the following side chainsfunctional groupsRgroups amino functional group NH2 carboxyl function group COOH a hydrogen atom an Rgroupside chain 91114 Amino acids and polymerization a Nonionized form H o of ammo acrd Amino N C Carboxyl group group OH R Side chain b Ionized form H H O of ammo acrd i Amino 1 7 Carboxyl H N C C group I y group H n 0 Side chain 91114 Amino acids and polymerization n wateramino acids exist in ionized form why would this be importantfor living things because they can dissolve in water b Ionized form H H of amino acid I l 0 Amino Carboxyl H N v C i C group I 1 group H R Side chain 91114 91114 Amino acid Rgroups side chains Rgroups group ofatoms that define the differentamino acids Rgroups create the variation in chemical properties for the different amino acids 3 main types of Rgroups nonpolar polar electrically charged 91114 Nonpolar groups Nonpunv H 0 D um H 0 0 4 N39 c c My 7 c c n u c c o o n N c c NN39 c c 4 he 0 390 on o 39 1 39 cu 2 2quot rcquot an 939 axv quot lhva n 01mm GI Alumna A Vnne m L ucar IL lwlcucmo m Gly AL V Lou m H 0 N Now c c o N o o quot quotV c c HN39 c c a o 139 FW 0 r 3 ya Melhomne mu Phcnylalnnne m Pwlme 4m Mo m We How could you tell these are nonpolar 91114 Atoms don t always share equally The atoms that are more greedy with the electrons are more electroneg ative OgtNgtCH 91114 Polar groups 0 gt1 mm H H u N c c u N c c 0 0 0 N N c c 0 mm c c H N c c N N C C CH cu 0 C I o cquot 0 cut 0 I c C u no c 544 I o Vc quot M o thponmo m cwem It Ty me or Awalraghna ul cm no 0 1h 5 m m cm 91114 91114 C harged groups 1 Linking amino acids Ma ny large biological molecules or 3 macromolecules are made up ofsmaller w o M 2 c building blocks 3 3 o c single block monomer 54 if t bunch oflinked blocks polymer la quot N I A wna mlb outagmuu Lymom mm39ztmp mummy 1m monomer amino acid polymer protein or polypeptide 91114 91114 Key points about Key points about polypeptides polypeptides 1 Rgroup orientation 2 Directionality side chains stick out from the backbone Amino group atone end Nterminus can react with each otherother molecules and carbOXyl atThe other C39terminus or water a Polypeptide chain Ammo acids iomod by pcptido bonds Nlermmus 1 c a Polypeptide chain Ammo acids iomod by pjcptido bonds C terminus Nlermmus I 7 C terminus H H o N M o H u o M H o H u o u H o n H o H N o Peptide H H o N M o H u o M H o H u o u u o n H o H N o Peptide l 1 l l l l 1 l l i u 39u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c n c c 039 mm u 39u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c u c c n c c 039 mm 4 I i I I backbone 4 I i i I backbone u u 601 cu 39 ion on cu cu u u 601 cu 39 4 cu cu cu i quot 9 x 2 V i if x Ammo 0 39 39 8quot Caiboxyl Ammo 0quot 39 39 8quot Caiboxyl qriznp v quotV group 1mm WV group Side chains on Side chains 91114 91114 91114 Key points about polypeptides 39 Flexibility Single bonds on the backbone and connecting the Rgroups can rotate Polypeptide is wiggly a Polypeptide chain Ammo acids jomod by peptide bonds Nlermmus l group i i Cterminus u H o H u o n H o H H o H M o u u o n H o H H o Peptide i f i r u v i i H 1 H 39u c c u c c u c c u c c n c c u c c u c c n c c o bonded 4 t i 1 c backbone u u as cu GI 5va CH cu 39 j A v t Ammo 0H 4 l s Cmboxy flilil V 1 Side chains on 91114 Protein versatility Proteins are the workers in the cell Usually exist in large numbers Hemoglobin Carries 02 in the blood Every red blood cell has 300 million copies 91114 Protein functions in Catalysis Speed up chemical reactions enzymes 2 Defense Antibodies 39 Movement Muscles 91114 Protein functions 4 Signalingregulation C arry information between cells insulin 59 Structuresupport Fingernails haircollagen a Transport Hemoglobin 91114 91114 Protein structures Protein structures de ne their functions a Normal amino acid sequence b Single change in amino acid sequence tTPro rt Glu 6 4 2 pr6 aural rerquotvalu39 c f 6 7 5 6 7 1quotquot Normal Sickled red blood red blood cells cells 91114 Protein structure Primary structure Unique sequence ofamino acids Lots ofvariation possible 20 amino acids For a 2 amino acid peptide there are 2020 combinations For a 3 amino acid peptide there are 202020 203 combinations 91114 Protein structure For a 10 amino acid polypeptidethats 2010 possible sequences About 10000 billion Proteins can be 105 ofthousands ofamino acids long 91114 Titin largest protein Found in muscle 35213 amino acids C hemical formulas Water H20 Titin C 169723H270464N 456880 522435912 In vivo halflife 30 hours 91114 91114 Protein structure Secondary structure The polypeptide strand can fold back on itself and hydrogen bonds will form between atoms on the backbone a Hydrogen bonds torm boiwoon peptide chains 91114 Protein structure tertiary structu re Tertiary structure Larger scale structure Interactions between Rgroups or Rgroups and the backbone Variety ofpossible interactions involving Rgroups wide range ofpossible 3D shapes a Interactions that determine 1 cu on o Hydrogen bond between side chain and carbonyl group on backbone H 0 CM Von n ccquot H Hydrogen bond between two Bade chains 91114 Protein structure tertiary structu re Tertiary structure depends on secondary structure a Interactions that determine the tertiary structure of proteins row on 0 Hydrogen bond between rum chum and carbonyl group on buckme a o ti gtchz on on in cc H hydrogen bond between me moo than Hydrophobic ricnax fWEbZ ccngcn Ionic bond cwvi si ecm Dlwl do bond mmmcuons van der Weak Interactions 91114 Protein structure quaternary structu re Interactions between 2 or more polypeptide chains For Cro2 copies ofthe same polypeptide chain a Cro protein a dimer lL 91114 91114 Protein structure quaternary structure b Hemoglobin a tetramer C xquot J For hemoglobin2 copies of2 different polypeptide chains 91114 Protein structure summary wx39vx v lurjl a Protein Structure lcvel Deanlptlon Sublllzed by 1 sz Hemoglobin arimary lrv s m MC 1 Julquot Am r H 6 Gun 1 I m wprrm m L Snondaw Yenuxy 91114 Protein structure key points Protein structure is hierarchical Primary structure determines secondary structurewhich determines tertiarywhich determines quaternary Huge variety of possible protein shapes 91114 Importance of protein structure FORM AND FUNCTION ARE INTERTWINED Proteins need to be folded into their proper structure before they are functional 91114 10 91114 C hange the form change the function Ribonuclease protein folded Ribonuclease protein denatured unfolded Dlsullrde bonds form Hydrogen bonds form Disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds are broken C hange the form change the function Denaturing unfolding a protein Denatured proteins do notfunction Ribonuclease protein folded Ribonuclease protein denatured unfolded Dlsulltde bonds form bonds form Dlsullide bonds and hydrogen bonds are broken Protein folding Enzymes proteins thatwork l5 iDrrleoir Slmnum Sublle sampleMemo nNn Primlry 3 quotquot6Il4 39i1 gm 15M 5mm Enzymes are used by cells to speed up chemical reactions like a catalyst m Bring substrates reacting molecules close together Position the substrates so less energy is If you put a hemoglobin peptide in water itwill needed for the reacuon form the tertiary structure on its own automatically 11 91114 Enzymes proteins thatwork H Energy for reactions Transition state is a high energy state rm mam Theoretical chemical reaction Need to invest some A BC lt AB C energy to getthe reaction done 91114 91114 Energy for reactions 1 Energy for reactions Enzymes lower the activation energy required for a reaction Makes the transition state more stable The energy needed to make the reaction go is the activation energy rm mam rm mam Makes the reaction go much faster millions oftimes faster 91114 91114 12 91114 Energy for reactions Al 00 7 A va 39 0 Transition state gt 9 53 with g enzyme a o E Reactants AG 0 39G does 39 AB c not chang quotquotquot r r r 7 Products V Progress of reaction 91114 Energy for reactions Enzymes are catalysts Catalyst substance thatlowers the activation energy ofa reaction causing it to go faster without being consumed qunnso39nncuon Enzymes are the same atthe beginning and end ofa reaction 91114 Energy for reactions Enzymes can catalyze the same reaction many times C arbonic anhydrase 1000000 P 39 m reactionssecond 91114 How do enzymes work Substrate It s all about the shape WWquot Lock and key 513 Enzyme has an active site thatwill bind with a specific molecule 91114 91114 How do enzymes work How do enzymes work When the substrate binds to the active site the enzyme may change shape Induced fit Notezenzyme is much bigger than the substrate Substrate locus in J Only a fraction ofthe enzyme is partofthe active site nzyme ncxokmm This can change the shape ofthe substrate too which makes the transition state easier More specifically only a fraction ofthe Rgroups interact with the substrate 91114 91114 How do enzymes work How do enzymes work 239 Transition State PROCESSAMODEL or ENZYME Action A B C A B C 1 I n 0 n substrates 1 o n Iransmon state Bring substrates to Orient the substrates each other mm such that the Don t have to rely on them bumping into each other 1 lnltiatlon Reactants bind to the active site in a speci c orientation forming an enzymesubstrate complex 91114 transition state requires less energy Position in the active siteinduced fit 2 amnion state facilitation Interactions between enzyme and substrate lower the activation energy required 91114 14 91114 How do enzymes work 1 Enzymes PROCESS A MODEL OF ENZYME ACTION A B C 3 Termination o Wm Enzyme does not l Some enzymes need a little help bind to the products C ofactors 31 ermina onzProduct5have lower amm 3907 ac ve me Enzyme returns to its andmm swe n zymss small organic molecules coenzymes unchanged after the reaction beginning shape 91114 91114 Enzyme cofactors Enzyme cofactors C arbonic anhydrase with Zn2 ion in the active site Vitamin B3 niacin 91114 91114 15 Enzyme cofactors i Ifyou re missing cofactors thiamine B1 deficiency beriberi vitamin C deficiency scurvy vitamin D deficiency rickets zinc deficiency hair loss problems with eyesight taste memory 91114 91114 16 91714 5 Carbohydrates sugars lGeneral chemical formula CHZOn lRange of molecule sizes a monosaccharides onesugar D oligosaccharides fewsugars Ch 5 Introduction to Carbohydrates D polysaccharides manysugars 91714 91714 72 5 Monosaccharides Building polysaccharides b Ring tomis of glucose CH20H aGlucose Oxygen from the 5 1 0 5carbon bonds to 391 H th 1 b lt39 inirirfgrstfu ctrjfeu quot399 Ho 3quot 2739 KOquot lMonosaccharides can be JOlned together 393 c c u u u u anml J I CI us1ng a glycos1d1c linkage H r gt H quotmegquot lSimilar to the pattern we saw With amino s no l o CW BGluco ac1dsprote1ns and nucleic ac1ds DNA but quot H 9 m with these there are more than one way H gtc To 7 c they can connect 0 c c H L I39m x 91714 91714 74 Glycosidic linkage lGlycosidic links form between OH groups on individual monosaccharides IIndividual monosaccharides can have many OH groups so many ways they can be attached together 91714 91714 76 Building polysaccharides a Formation of ocglycosidic linkage iii Glucose uGlucose e firion 590 5 5 H OH H OH H no on H0 on r on 1 H OH quot2 ll t omen Maltose cupquot l 5 5 39 H H H H H c c c i on u on u K r o i HO 0 c g oquot a 2 14 a 2 1 H 0 glycosidic H OH 91714 77 Building polysaccharides b Formation of Bglycosidic linkage udealactose uGlucose a u tl 39lgOH cup 5 5 HO m 120quot quotEM 3quot y OH H 0quot H H I N no H 3 2 3 I H OH 1 H OH quot2 i 3140 Laclose H on 5i i i HO O i i l0 0 c C on M I v H H H quotol 0 on i I2 hM 5 H on mmng cup V 91714 Building polysaccharides lThese bonds are l 4 bonds because those are the carbons that are connected I l 4 bonds are the most common but they re not the only way monosaccharides can connect to each other I What does this mean 91714 H 3 U Common polysaccharides 79 511wch rm 2 Potysattharldes Differ in Slmclure Wuhan heman Stuaw quot11Mquotan Stratum Sunk xlvu39v u Lluo l39 a uwu k mun 3 3 1 C 1 gal 9quot o 39V quot3 0 1 b JII H H J j39z tllidlu a r aez39r39rbshwmn 1nv a I v nro39 39H Ghtogen Inf 39vtn Iw hxnxr N n mm mum myquot n ma 5quot 91714 91714 H LZI U Common polysaccharides I Starch Chain of xglucose molecules Forms a helix Has a l 6 glycosidic link 30 monosaccharides I Forms branches Used for energy storage 91714 H ll U Common polysaccharides I Glycogen Chain of xglucose Has a l 6 glycosidic link 10 monosaccharides Used for energy storage 91714 3 U Common polysaccharides I Cellulose Polymer of Sglucose Geometry of Sglucose means the neighboring sugars are ipped in relation to each other No helix but parallel strands can form H bonds with each other Can make thick fibers great for support in plants 91714 91714 41F 83 i7 Common polysacchar1des Carbohydrate funct1ons I Cellulose Side View aw on mm s 1 Polysaccharldes Differ in Structure cellulose molecules XLW I low Threedining Savan a quot39 quot l J Fibers crisscross to lt5quot 39 make a sheet on whoquot I Very strong gm 3 l 1 Also enzymes that break oc l 4 glycosidic Q FaniaIsl39n39dk 0 quotmilquot quotvangm ho ru39 W quot quot10quot enzymes that break 3l4 glycosidic bonds are rare 91714 91714 41F 41F 8 Carbohydrate functions Common polysaccharides SlJvMWV mm H Polysaicharides Differ in Structure WarnHe Omniul Sumac mMlmumiool Sunlqu lCellulose is indigestible by us IDietary fiber are carbohydrates 91714 91714 91714 H C 3 U Common polysaccharides WWW 010 UmJlur A 31439quot bch u l HOM 23 77 quot eg 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity Outside Oligosaccharide I Anchored in our cell membranes are proteins with small carbohydrates attached to them f 4 63903996quot6co1 I vllllllll 39 aquot i A lllllltll am of cell Glycoprotein I Glycoproteins 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity I Our cells need to outside Oligosaccharide identify which ones are us and which are not I Glycoproteins can also be used to label types of cells Inside 4 of cell Glycoprotein eg muscle nerve etc 91714 Carbohydrates and cell identity Outside Oligosaccharide I Glycoproteins are displaying information Inside of cell Glycoprotein 91714 91714 E 97 CH Ll Review question It will taste A salty The enzyme amylase found in human saliva B sweet breaks a l4glycosidic linkages in starch If you hold a saltine cracker in your mouth long C 50W enough it Will taste D bitter n j Review question Lysozyme is pa rt of the system The enzyme lysozyme found in human A CirCUIatOFY saliva tears and other secretions breaks B Digestive down 5 l 4glycos1dic linkages in peptidoglycanWe would most accurately C NerVOUS class1fy lysozyme as part of our D Immune system s 91714 6 0 91714 Ch 6 Lipids and 91714 Lipids 102 membranes 91714 103 Hydrogen bonding a Water is polar b Hydrogen bonds form 5 between water molecules Electrons are pulled toward oxygen 639 8quot H H u x k 8 8quot k DMFMwlu n 91714 b Fatty acid Kc0 Carboxyl group H20 H CCHZ 2 CH 2 I C containing H2 3H molecules that are Hzc 2 mostly nonpolar and H 63quot ggifmmquot hydrophobic 2 2 H26 H cCHZ 2 H CgtCH2 3 91714 1 4 0 Lipids b Fatty acid Kco Carboxyl group H20 I C H bonds share H c 2 2 electrons equally so gtCH2 they don t form HzcCH 2 hydrogen bonds won t H2Clt CH gtHydrocarbon d1ssolve in water 26 2 chain gtCH2 I The hydrocarbon Hzc chain is hydrophobic quotaccquot gtCH2 H3 91714 Types of lipids I Fats Assembled from 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule a Fats form via dehydration reactions Glycerol H0 0 H20 Dehydration reaction Fatty acid DL u IFmurEumm 1 91714 91714 Types of lipids I Fats Assembled from 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol molecule b Fats consist of glycerol linked by ester linkages to three fatty acids Ester linkages 91714 Types of lipids I Fats are very good for energy storage C H bonds contain a lot of energy I Chemical differences between fats are caused by variation in the fatty acid tails 107 b Fats consist of glycerol linked by ester linkages to three fatty acids Ester linkages 91714 Types of lipids I If 2 carbons in the chain form a double bond the fatty acid is unsaturated unsaturated fewer H atoms than maximum possible I Unsaturation causes a shape change in the fatty acid Double bonds cause kinks in phospholipid tails me on H20 CH2 cu Unsatu rated fatty acid Saturated fatty acid 91714 91714 4 Types of lipids Types of lipids Copyrmlo The McGrawMu Znnames Inc Pemussuon tenured by rmoductm a display Copngtt DTM McGradel animusx Inc Pmmrssm tenured bu moductm a dismay v 4 w w 4 u a J J 4 quot3 11quotquot 9 quot carboxyt group Cl Hii o bend caused by double bond J CreHsaoz carboxyl group b Steanc acid a saturated tarty acid no double bonds found in butter a Oleic acid a monounsaturated fatty acid one double bond found in canola oil 91714 91714 41 41 Lipids Fats and oils Lipids Fats and oils Unsaturated fats Setwated fats canola oil Key quotu saturated tat 9395 monounsaturated at samer 9 I 79 3933 polyunsatuvatcd tat I Double bonds mean fatty acids 31 cholesterol Can t 13 t gether No double bonds tight quotquot quot I Usually found in plants 39 SOlidS I can be mono or pols I Usually found in animals butter 62 5 3 unsaturated coconut oil 82 7 Numbers In percent gt 91714 91714 91714 Types of lipids IUnsaturated fats can be hydrogenated Add H to eliminate double bonds lHydrogenate liquid vegetable oils gt solid fats shortening IIncomplete hydrogenation trans fats 113 I U Types of lipids I Steroids Large 4 ring structure with the hydrocarbon tale Includes cholesterol a A steroid Polar hydrophilic Nonpolar hydrophobic Schematic Space lling R 91714 CH Li Steroids n 39r I w y vr 39 I39n Lu IDI39II otuwnl lg obvulun us up u w us u m H Lquot In I 39 IrF Qlul amp amp tum Il Innr ol KRJ39Jvh Ii vul Q 54 usemu ul y 91714 91714 CH U 0 Ster01ds i inhuman lh m scanWWKmOAQqu 91714 10 91714 Types of lipids b A phospholipid I Phospholipids 2 fatty acids l 5333 glycerol l phosphate group with a small charged I molecule attached 333332373 L g hi gr Basic building blocks of membranes J but not the only one 91714 1quotTypes of lipids b A phospholipid I Key is the hydrophiliC Polar head interacts with water the nonpolar tail hates water head with the hydrophmci hydrophobic tail amphipathic I Nonpolar tail I g v I The polar head yd39 ph b39 Er 91714 I Phospholipid bilayers I Phospholipids don t dissolve in water because 12 the molecule is nonpolar IPhospholipids will organize so that the waterloving 12 will be near water and the waterhating 12 will be away from water 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers a L39P39dquot Hydrophilic heads mice es interact with water Hydrophobic tails interact with one Water another Hydrophilic heads 3 Lpd interact with water bilayers ug i 1 Hydrophobic tails interact with one another 91714 11 91714 121 122 Phospholipid bilayers l Phospholipid bilayers l I Phospholipids are not I These structures will bonded to each other form spontaneously v quot 39 4 0 0 o co39o o o WWW 119111 UH 1 39 3 60 39 I Free to move around llllllll l 9 ll Hl l 1111111311 lllll 39 I No energy is required for these to assemble I Bilayers are uid f 3 123 Phospholipid bilayers l Fluid membranes Phospholipids are in constant lateral motion but rarely flip to the other side of the bilayer omuwuwum v 12 91714 Phospholipid bilayers I Since micelles and bilayers form spontaneously they can be made for research 91714 Phospholipid bilayers a Planar bilayers Artificial membranes I Since micelles and bilayers form spontaneous they can be made for research 91714 127 Phospholipid bilayers I These can be used to test the permeability of biological membranes to specific compounds b Artificialmembrane experiments How rapidly can different solutes cross the membrane if at all when 1 Different types of phospholipids are used to make the membrane 2 Proteins or other molecules are added to the membrane 91714 Phospholipid bilayers I Very powerful technique lots of control b Artificialmembrane experiments How rapidly can different solutes cross the membrane if at all when 1 Different types of phospholipids are used to make the membrane 2 Proteins or other molecules are added to the membrane 91714 13 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers ILipid bilayers are selectively permeable Small nonpolar molecule can move through easily quickly Large molecules and charged ions molecules cannot Why 91714 1 Phospholipid bilayers High permeability glycerdl Large uncharged l po ar molecules Glucose sucrose Permeability scale cmsec Low permeability Phospholipid bilayer 130 91714 139 Movement across membranes IMolecules like 02 and CO2 move easily through membranes without any energy being expended I Diffusion 91714 Movement across membranes I Simple diffusion Compounds will move from regions of high density to low density Concentrations equilibrate over time 91714 14 Diffusion 2 Diffusion 3 Equilibrium 1 Separation of solutes by lipid bilayer orquot y 91714 91714 q 143 Osmosis Diffusion of water affects the concentration of solutes that cannot diffuse I I Na r N33r H20 I I Na I H20 Na Na Na I I H20 N8r H20 Na I Na I Na I Na I Na H O I H20 Na z I 91714 41 Osmosis 1 Unequal 2 Water concentrations movement across membrane 1 Osmosis Na cannot cross membranes but water can I I Na r N33r H20 I I Na I H20 Na Na Na I I H20 N8r H20 Na I Na I Na I Na I Na H O I H20 Na z 91714 15 91714 H C 3 U Osmosis H E How does osmosis affect cells Water will cross the membrane to balance the concentration of Na on each side IWhat would happen to a red blood cell in Na Na H20 H O W distilled water Na Na Na z there is a bit of salt inside RBCs I H20 Na I H20 Na IWhat would happen to a red blood cell 1n a Na Na high salt solution N Na I H O a H20 I 2 Na 91714 91714 In a high salt solution a RBC will RBCs in high salt solution A get bigger B get smaller c stay the same size D spin uncontrollany 99 5 9 395 91714 16 Information to look out for in Ch 6 and parts of Ch 1 5 not covered by previous RATs for exam 1 Need to know Understand the role of enzymes Primary secondary structure of RNA General structure of a fatty acid and fats General structure of a phospholipid Understand why phospholipids will naturally form micelles and bilayers Understand which types of substances will diffuse across a membrane Predict how water will move given the concentrations on either side of a membrane Active site Induced fit Cofactors Competitive inhibition Allosteric regulation Ribonucleic acid RNA Uracil U Lipid Lipid bilayer Micelle Membrane uidity Cell membrane Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Diffusion Fluid mosaic model Good to know Difference between active and passive transport Purine Pyrimidine Polymerization Sugarphosphate backbone Gel electrophoresis Stemandloop structure Hairpin Ribozyme Unsaturated Saturated Steroid Cholesterol Transport protein Facilitated diffusion Channel protein Group 1 1 Two main groups of Amino Acids 2 Structure of an Atom 3 Characteristics of life Which one of the following is not part of the scientific method AOberservation BquotYell Eureakaquot CExperiment DHypothesis Group 2 what is the difference between covalent and ionic bonds What are the four different things that enzymes are affected by What are the most common functional groups in organic molecules Which functional groups would you most likely find in carbohydrates A amino and carboxyl B hydroxl and sulfhydryl C carboxyl and hydroxyl D None of the above Group 3 Group 4 1Structure of a molecule affects a function 2Enzymes and their role in metabolic reactions 3Phospholipids and their role in membrane permeability 4What is the energy needed to form a lipid membrane Answer none Group 5 Concept 1DNA structure Concept 2the use of starch and glycigen structure Concept 3Types of bond What type of bonds is in the structure of DNA Ahydrogen Bonds Bcovalent Bonds Cionic Bonds D non covalent Bond Group 6 1 Lipids 2 Bilayers 3 Polysaccharides What is the difference between RNA and DNA A The base pairs are different B RNA is made of lipids DNA is made of Bilayers C DNA is made of glucose RNA is made of starch D RNA contains Thymine DNA contains Urasil Group 7 Concept 1 Structure of a Protein Concept 2 Carbohydrates Concept 3 Acids and Bases Which is not a characteristic of a cell A Ability to evolve B Replication C Holds Information D Energy storage E Can tolerate big changes in pH Group 8 The difference between RNA and DNA The characteristics of life Know the structures of proteins charbohydrates and lipids What is not a function of a protein A StructureSupport B Defense C Catalyst DForms a bilayer Group 9 Structure and function of nucleic acids Differences in polysaccharidesstructurefunction in relation to chain length branches substitutents Purpose of saturation of lipids Q Amylase can degrade which saccharide A Chitin B Cellulose C Yo mama D Glycogen Tis D
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