intro to biology study materials for test 2
intro to biology study materials for test 2 BIOL-L 105
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This 58 page Bundle was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Friday September 11, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL-L 105 at Indiana University taught by T.J. Sullivan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Information for exam 2 that wasn t already included in RATS 4 or 5 Need to know Understand energy and the basic forms it can take Understand the 1St and 2nd laws of thermodynamics Understand how entropy explains why diffusion and osmosis work the way they do Understand the environmental conditions that cause living things to use fermentation instead of cellular respiration Understand the differences between C3 C4 and CAM photosynthesis and the environmental conditions that favor each one Understand how to interpret a graph Energy Potential energy Kinetic energy Entropy Endergonic Exergonic Aerobic Anaerobic x axis yaxis Good to know Gibbs free energy Basic pathways for fermentation lactic acid or ethanol 10814 Energy IChemical reactions involve energy IWhat is energy I The capacity to do work I The capacity to supply heat Ch 8 Energy ITypes of energy I Potential stored energy I Kinetic movement 10814 10814 Potential energy Potential energy a r b8 1 Recun Bow Acton When you an a but you 000 I watch the 521mg V041 W W shaoe of the Don I Energy of position or stored energy I Chemical energy I Concentration gradients I Gravitational at veal dvawu 1 Potential 0mm 10814 10814 10814 H I U Potential energy 1 Unequal concentrations across membrane 10814 H 3 Kinetic energy I Energy of motion Thermal Light Electrical 2 Kinetic energy 10814 H 3 Kinetic energy Kinetic energy 10814 What type of energy is this I What type of energy is this potential or kinetic l 2 3 A ball being held off the edge of a tall building Compressed spring A moving car Water behind a dam Light from the projector Gasoline A donut 10814 10814 H I Chemical potential energy Chemical potential energy Glucose lMolecules can have potential energy too 9 e ual at H c2c OH H q i no 4 quot H c quot V lt H H c H SC 1 Mothan W H CH0 C 1quot quotnun51001 gt7 Chemical potential energy Energy lCH bonds have a lot of energy I Energy can be transformed Electrons are shared H equal el nc i u 1 Mothan H can C 11 39Mvvl 5101 by 1 Poion al omrgy 2 Kinetic anorgy 3 Other toms of onowy 10814 10814 10814 EH 1 3 En Changes in energy Changes in energy b l llthE551ENERGV TRANSFORMATION IN AN ATOM L 1 Potential enemy 2 Kinm enemy 3 cum roam a enemy I Applies to atoms too Electrons have the greatest 393939 potential ener in the omermost electron shells Conclusion Enemy Is neither created nor destroyed simply changes 10ml I Electrons in outer shells have more 1 potential energy 15 I Electrons can more between orbitals 3rd Electron shells I Add energy to push them up increases atom s potential energy I Electrons move back release energy as heat or light 10814 10814 ll Changes in energy i U How do the amounts of energy relate to each other A Potential at top gt potential at bottom kinetic energy I Less potential energy at the bottom of the waterfall Wh dd th B Potential at top lt I ere 1 e ener go gy Mechanical V potential at bottom 39 energy r l Movement sound heat a kmehc energy c Potential at to I Potential energy was V p 063 3 of changed to kinetic potent39339 at bottom 3 f 3 energy which was used 3 Other forms of energy kinetic energy Que ea 0 0 27 QL 94 10814 10814 17 H I Changes in energy Energy I lgt law of thermodynamics Energy can not be created or destroyed only transformed I Still the same amount Mechanical of total energy energy 3 Other forms of energy I Polnmlal Inorgy 2 Klnotlc onowy 3 0thquot loans 0 energy 10814 10814 Back to the tape Energy I Free energy energy IWhere did the potential energy go available for Work Energy was released to the surrounding I Things move to lower 23 gt env1ronment energy states IExergonic reaction net release of energy I Energy is released with 532135321 bottom omquot exergonic reaction 10814 10814 10814 Energy I Change in free energy AG Gibbs free energy Energy released to a I If AG is negative sgfenrttop frhgggsat bottom ofhill reaction is exergonic 10814 Energy I Exergonic reactions I Will this reaction be exergonic 10814 MCM 0 0x0 axe 30 v N of m o R quot quotHWY I Energy is released during this chemical reaction AG is negative Burning I Where is the potential energy Where is the kinetic energy 10814 Spontaneous reactions I Reactions Where the products have lower potential energy than the reactants I Reactions Where the product molecules are less ordered ucn o 0o arc 1 0 v N Of 1 o r v Mm u reactants products Released 10814 10814 I Entropy IChemical reactions are spontaneous if the end products are less ordered than the starting products 39 Entropy increase in disorder I2nd law of thermodynamics entropy will always increase in a closed system 10814 I Entropy 27 Tidy bedroom Messy bedroom I Entropy is always increasing I Always moving to a lower energy state more organized less organized more potential energy less potential energy less stable more stable less entropy more entropy 10814 I Entropy increasing disorder I Less entropy I More entropy 39 39 High potential energy 39 Low potential energy 39 39 More organized 39 Less organized 39 Less stable 39 More stable CH20H 108 4 I Entropy Reactants High potential energy more order lower entropy a C6H1206 6 02 Glucose a sugar This reaction occurs in your cells and when wood burns Products Low potential energy less order higher entropy 10814 10814 Entropy PROCESS OSMOSIS I Does this have high or low entropy I What happens as entropy increase Less order more disorder Equal concentrations 1 Unequal concentrations OI both s1des across membrane 10814 Entropy I Not all the potential energy in the reactants ends up in the products I Energy is lost to entropy generally as heat ucu o oo oquotco v N OI7H o M39m reactants products 10814 Entropy I Energy is not converted 100 efficiently I This is inevitable quot I c I quot 00 0quotc o v w olv u o reactants products 10814 Entropy IWe use glucose for fuel IIf you have less free energy in the molecules at the end where did the energy go 10814 10814 Entropy IKinetic energy Movement powering chemical reactions nerve impulses etc IPotential energy Fat energy storage I Heat 10814 Energy I Endergonic reactions I Energy is added during the reaction I Increase in free energy AG is positive Free Energy Energy input 10814 Energy 6 co2 6 H20 light gt Celeoe 6 02 Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction Requires energy 10814 Energy I Endergonic reactions Products have more energy than the reactants I More complicated molecules more potential energy Reactants are more stable than the products Free Energy Energy input Products 37 10814 10814 Energy summary The 1St law of thermodynamics states graded I 2 types of energy A Energy exists in 2 Kinetic amp potential fkgrm s potent39339 and me c I Energy is never created or destroyed only transforming J B Energy IS conserved cannot be created or I Movement of energy isn t perfectly efficient destroyed 2 o G I Entropy is always increasing c Disorder always of by increases in the if f f I Exergonic AG and endergonic reactions fquot 0a AG universe 30 6 3 10814 9 If a reaction is exergonic graded Does the creation of a lipid bilayer increase or decrease entropy graded 1 A the reaction occurs quickly B the products have less entropy than the A39 Increase reactants B Decrease c the products have f lower free energy than 6098 309 the reactants 0606 10 10814 43 Questions to think about Questions to think about awlt93qu I According to thermodynamics how should the amount of energy available to herbivores compare to the energy available to carnivores Why doesn t life violate the 2nd law of thermodynamics 10814 10814 Ch 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 10814 10814 11 10814 Metabolism IAll the chemical reactions in living things metabolism 39 39 Breaking organic molecules catabolic 39 39 Building organic molecules anabolic IWhich would you expect to be endergonic Exergonic lLots of energy moving around 10814 t ANN 0a ia What makes all this work 47 10814 ATP lStandard carrier of energy in cells IEasily releases potential energy IUsed in coupled reactions 10814 ATP hydrolysis b Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed M M M ATP Water z lww um i Q ADP Inorganic Energy phosphate 10814 12 10814 ATP hydrolysis Energy transformation 2 23 I 1 mole 603 X 10 mOIGCUles lThe change in free energy AG ll kcal energy to increase 1 kg of H20 1 0C lFor the reaction ATP gt ADP Pi the change in free energy A G is 73 kcal lLess energy in ADP than ATP mole more emmpy lWhen A G is negative energy is being negative Change in free energy released exergonic reaction AG Coupled reactions Coupled reactions lWhat happens to the re1eased energy lBreaking down ATP releases energy couple it Kinetic energy with reactions that need energy Heat lglucose phosphate gt glucosephosphate lAre there any endergonic reactions that AC 33 kcalmole need running endergonic reaction 13 10814 ATP lglucose phosphate gt glucosephosphate A G 33 kcalmole IATP gt ADP phosphate A G 73 kcalmole IEnergy lost from ATP can be used to power other reactions that need energy 10814 H 3 Moving energy Nonphosphorylated form Phosphorylated form 3 n 3 7 lt phosphorylation cause pink loop to move c m qun an u 10814 H 3 Moving energy form form I The lost phosphate group can be attached to enzymes changing their shapes 39 I Can also be attached phosphorylatlon a sequot39quotquot39 quot 39quot directly to reactants 10814 57 H 3 Moving energy A 5939 ATP 0 gt 2 0 c o g D o I A B Reactants C 39 39 39n u IM I 10814 14 10814 Moving energy Actwatcdquot El r9 nubAmie quot 1 2 8 o 1 V g om h 04 u Ii o I 2 a wquot Enmay v mqu h yn ihn39uI Reactants Progress of reaction I quothb ul Ihtl 1 H I Moving energy Free energy Reactants luM39atr Inn Enmav mquum In hylllhn39 ul An Progress of reaction Products 10814 10814 C CH L1 L1 Redox reactions Redox reactions lReduction oxidation reactions quotquot quot y chemical reactions involving lossgain of 1377 film electrons oco H H anquot mm Hc 0H 00 energy Increases IOXIdatIOIl loss of electron ac W Mo mm 602 water enemy mum WON lReduction gain of electron IOIL RIG more energy because electrons are shared 10814 10814 15 10814 Redox reactions lElectrons usually move as part of H atoms lReductions often create CH bonds high energy leidations often create CO bonds low energy 10814 16 4 Cellular respiration CESHIZO6 02 gt CO2 H20 energy lMaking ATP IConverting the potential energy in food into potential energy in ATP lWhy bother 10814 4 ATP 3 I s quotI in lm quot7 M39 n 70 C 10814 10814 NADH electron carr1er NADH NADquot electron carrier Oxidizedlum quot 3 Reduction Reduccdlquot quot l quot Tl c NH H39 2039 39 c NH2 Oxidation OXIdIzedl Iquot Nico m Reduced39 yv c Nicounamide it saw Ribose 505 10814 Energy conversion Photosynthesis 002 H20 o sunlight I C Energy storage mucosa Starch glycogen at synthesized from glucose Cellular Respiration Fermentation Glucose 02 ADP o P Glucose ADP o P 202 v H20 4 ATP Small organic molecules ATP omquot mm mm 10814 4 ATP cycle lCells have enough for a minute or two lEvery molecule of ATP cycles l0000 times day lWe use 40 kg 88 lbs of ATP day 10814 10814 4 stages in respiration 4 Glycolysis Pyruvate processing Citric acid cycle Electron transport and chemiosmosis 10814 Glycolysis I Discovered by accident in 18905 1 Yeast extracts mixed with sucrose gt fermentation 10814 A Glycolysis lGlucose gt 2 pyruvate lOccurs with or without oxygen lNearly identical in all living things I 3 phases 1 Energy investment phase 1 Cleavage phase 1 Energy liberation phase 10814 10814 3913 113 Glycolys1s energy 1nvestment Glycolys1s energy 1nvestment All Oloacuons man 1 cyloool I All Oloacuons r 39 a oircmysrz man 1 cyloool quot m Natalooeoh ATP l Natalooeoh ATP I quot ATP quotmmquot 39quot 006 quot60quot 00 quot90 quotquot quot39 m39 u u o u o o 1 quot N o N 0 1 1 I H l N lon l39t Muof yuwo tU lon l39t quotHQJ39 yuwo tU no 39out nor cu u1 1ou urou no 39out nor cu u1 1ou urou n on u on no u no u n on u on no u no u 039 Enzymo 0 Enzymo Duo Fm LGbisahospimo omou Ftucioor Huston anacon Gmhoaphlh Ovphocphuo LG bisahospimo Wm Ovphocphuo Glycoiysm Mona with an Glycoiysm Mona with an onmgy Ilweslmml onmgy Ilweslmml N can om 9 1mm 2 ATP 39 139 ADP mp N can om w plum 2 ATP 2 ADP mp Pi from ATP used to make g1ucose6phosphate Rearrangement to fructose6phosphate 10814 10814 113 113 13 Glycolys1s energy 1nvestment Glycolys1s energy 1nvestment All Drenchons I V max 11 cyloaol ATP All Drenchons J mgircmysrs 39V max 11 cyloaol 11mm to ATP 39 11mm to an x I goo goo k k I ATP m H w 00c quot60quot 00 quot90 m H w 00c quot60quot 00 quot90 u o u o 1 o 1 quot o 1 1 n 1 w w m uozw 1 w w m 1w no 0014 uo T fac u t fou nr ou no oud of fan u t fou nr w n on u on no u no u N cu u on no u no u 039 Enzymo 0 Enzymo Duo Fm LGbisahosphmo 2 amou Wlh Ovphocphuo Olucooo Ftucioor Huston Wm Ovphocphuo LGbisahosphmo Glycoiysm Deana with an Glycoiysm Deana with an nnotgy Ilweslmml nnotgy Ilweslmml I 2A I P QADP I 2A I P QADP quot m 39 ADP 39Whm comes out DP quot m 39 ADP Mutcomosouh ADP 2nd ATP added to make fructose16bisphosphate Need to invest ATP at the start 10814 10814 10814 H Glycolysis cleavage quotuno quot 10 noquot c0 MOON H600 Fructoom 1639bisphosphoh WP Fructose16bisphospahte is split into 2 glyceraldehyde 3phosphate G3P molecules 10814 H I U Glycolysis energy liberation Inc239 w ale i lql o h nixm In n t 0019 lot r1 2m no an 2 2 2 2 2 cr 0 0 T i 2 coil 0 e o c 70 7 a limo noon new 7 woo 7 do i0 Mac 960 W cu tag Pymlo Outing the men nzya39i plum 4 ATP int2d m4 1 no pII Di 2 ATP 2 quotADM 2 AYP 2 ATP 2 G3P are broken down into 2 pyruvate 4 ATP 2 NADH are produced 10814 Regulating glycolysis Start of pathway gt Intermediate gt Intermediate Product A x Feedback inhibition Presence of product inhibits enzyme 1 ATP will inhibit the formation of fructose16 bisphosphate 10814 H I U Regulating glycolysis All 10 rouclicna 01071031quot uL rm l 1 L rig91 0 N no 39 an d f u 39 an N 001 W on N0 01 CW 1 o chaooo OMMQ Glycolyma beans v in ur nnmgy ll Iquot nu II plum ATP 2 iDP ADP iWhm comes out L t r 39w ILAOJ 1 u 0 NON y H I Fructose LG NWWQI ADP ATP will inhibit the formation of fructose16 bisphosphate 17 10814 10814 Fl 3 Regulating 91Y001Y513 U Pyruvate processmg When ATP binds here the TP A at reaction rate slows dramatically regulatory site y r I Action moves to the mitochondria I Glycolysis happens in the cytosol Fructose6 a 2 phosphate ATP 3 N I m at active site aCt39Ve 539 10814 10814 Mitochondria Mitochondria lSpecialize in energy conversion but 39 Found in all eukarYOtes mammal I Membranebound organelle I cellular reSplrauon 7 Converts chemical lHave their own genomes energy to energy our 5 Genome is circular and supercoiled Stored m ATP Gene sequences are more similar to existing I 2 membranes c stae prokaryotes than they are to eukaryotic nuclei Inner membrane is Endosymbiosis highly folded 10814 10814 10814 Pyruvate processing Cnalae an sacs 0 Inner membrane joined to me ms 0 the Innot membrane byahonlubes Outer mombrano 10814 4 Eukaryotic structures 23 I Individual cells may have 50 to over 1000000 mitochondria 10814 Pyruvate processing I I NAD Coenzyme A 0 00 I CH3 002 ruyate NADH Acetyl coA Pyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA 10814 Pyruvate processing I I NAD Coenzyme A 0 00 I CH3 002 tuyate NADH Acetyl coA Note the carbons of the 6 from glucose 2 are oxidized and leave as CO2 something must be reduced 10814 Redox reactions Thanh Witn39nn39i Arm crnwr nul rrl mum to C from O x39 rodurvd CHO 0 w amino 399 O a a a u 0 U o c 0 39 on 00 quot quot H KM EMquot Potential H c on energy Increases e 002 6 H20 Input 039 who 6 2 carbon dioxido WEINN quot1quot sum w my m more energy because electrons are shared 10814 10814 Pyruvate processing o NAD CoenzymeA T C CH3 C02 flyigyate Acetyl CoA NAD is reduced to NADH 2 total 10814 Pyruvate processing l NAD Coenzyme A I CO CH3 002 Hiya Acetyl CoA ATP will also inhibit this reaction 10814 4 stages in respiration 1 Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate processing 3 Citric acid cycle 4 Electron transport and chemiosmosis 31 10814 10814 32 33 q Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle 1 81111131 CITRIC ACID CYCLE The two md carbons cnlor leidation of acetylCoA to CO2 u we ncelyncuA I Metabolic cycle Series of chemical reactions Where the final step M c is to generate the molecules for the first step In each mm o coo DB CM the cycle the mm b 39 I Step 22 23933239 AcetylCoA 2 C bonds with oxaloacetate 4 C gm 2 to make Citrate 6 C 012loth The mm A 10814 10814 4 34 4 35 C1tr1c ac1d cycle C1tr1c ac1d cycle E HUCI39S CITRIC ACID CVCLE mm WW M I my quotAm m 39111EULCIJFCLLAYI V W The two red carbons onlor I on he Lycle vm ncelyl CuI m I 1 no3 it i quot395 H N 39 u the cum I In the out cycle f o 39 acid cycle 1quot this red c rtlwon us CoA a 39 39 V occul in coo becomcs a ue M co In each mm o 939 39 1 TEOChondnaI MM X oc carbon 00 asch GOA quotc c c quot10 395 matrix outsd1 FAD m f i quots W 9 394 quot E iquot 1393 ngenmj m 3 Each reucllon l5 cumly ed 00 clyoo Z uKologlumale co by u dmumul eluymc Imam Succmb FADquot 39 quot The cmuc mm mm um I a t 0m 39 IvanV K lama hr 2 carbons on citrate are oxidized to Remammg 4 C mOIecule ls further COZ 2 N ADH is created ox1dlzed ATP or GTP NADH and F39ADH2 10814 are made 10814 n 36 Citric acid cycle Hill fv CITRIC ACID CYCLE quotto two um carbons Cl ll l f7 2 he Lyclc vm dcelyl Cufi 39 I u C M 020 ca 39 CC 3 quot Ct 000 Oxnloaeoulc Tl lll NAM m u 000 I 0 6 I Cquot Mm 3 0 10814 10814 Citric acid cycle I Starting glucose is now gone lNet results 2 ATP 6 NADH 2 FADHZ 4 CO2 I Regulated by ATP NADH These steps are also regulated via feedback inhibition by ATP and NADH This step is regulated by ATP Citra 4 xi Oxaloacetate 4 New 10814 iquot e g H U How would exercise affect the concentration of CO2 you exhale 33 33 i A increase it B decrease it c stays the same 9 391 9 5 4 4 I 6 8 04 o g Where s the energy GLYCOLYSIS PYRUVATE PnocEssms 100 AND cimic Acin cchE ATPATP In each of these drops energy is 39I 500 transferred to energystoring molecules ATP NADH and FADH2 Change in free energy AG in kcalmol do 8 10814 10814 I Electron transport chain Electron transport chain the electron transport clmm occurs m the Inner membrane at the mrtochondnon membranes of crlsme 39 39 39 FENCES ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN le1d121ng NADH and F39ADH2 ITakes place on the inner membrane of the mitochondria IHigh energy electrons move across the membrane their energy is used by embedded protein complexes to do work If 0 m 20 Complex I Complex II Complex Ill Complex IV What goes in What comes out 1 Ink 1 In 43 In Electron transport chain Electron transport chain 5339 NADH IEnergy is used to pump H into the inner membrane space chain takes place in the inner membrane and mmmmmdm I Energy is released in gradual steps 20 IWhen the electron s energy is all used up FMN Nucleotide with a flava FeoSProtelnwanuon 2 2 H 12 sullurgroup 1o Cy t Protein with a heme 39 9quot PA V 39 39 Oxygen is the final electron acceptor Q Ubiqumone Relative freeenergy change during redox reaction kcallmol 0 20 Reductlon oxidatlon reactions quotW 10814 10814 10 10814 4 Electron transport chain IThe glucose is gone the NADH and FADH2 we made is gone only 4 ATPs have been made IWhat energy is left 10814 4 Electron transport chain b The F0 unit is the base the F1 unit is the knob H w H H H H H H H H H w H Ho H H v I Potential energy in the WWW quot H t w A I I 1 H9radleml 111111111 7 I H wants to come back into the cell to balance the concentrations and charges 10814 47 4 Electron transport chain a Vesicle formed from quotinsideout mitochondrial membrane I Potential energy in the H gradient I H wants to come back into the cell to balance the concentrations and charges 01 a quotquotL 3 I z 25 ATP glucose 10814 4 Cellular respiration E twtrhlt SUMMARY OF CELLULAR RESfIRATION 10814 11 10814 39 Cellular respiration 39 Yea h where does that energy go lHow efficient is it A Entropy lEnough energy in 1 glucose for 94 ATP B H eat 29 ATP 94 ATP possible 31 C Out to the universe lWhere does the rest of the energy go 108 14 00 Variation in the cellular respiration Brown adipose tissue ISometimes it s good to have inefficient ATP lWhat do the following organisms have in Pmduction common lTurIl off ATP synthase all the energy is released as heat 10814 10814 12 10814 H Aerobic Anaerobic respiration lWhen O2 is as the final electron acceptor that s aerobic respiration IIf there is no 02 available that s anaerobic respirationfermentation 10814 H C Fermentation I ATP demand can exceed our ability to get oxygen to the tissues I Can you make ATP without 02 10814 H US Cellular respiration E HUMt SUMMARY OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION 10814 H E Fermentation anaerobic respiration a Lactic acid fermentation occurs in humans 2 ADP 2 ATP on 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 1104 j H c 0H V No intermediate c pyruvate accepts 3 electrons from NADH Ewk tate 10814 13 Fermentation Glucose gt 2 lactate 2 ATP 2 H20 IUseful when you have a temporary shortage of O2 ILactate can be converted back into glucose in your liver but this is only a stopgap mechanism 10814 10814 Fermentation b Alcohol fermentation occurs in yeast 2 ADP 2 ATP I CO on3 2 NAD 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 39l E g T H C OH i720 CH3 CH3 Fermentation Cellular respiration It electron acceptor quotm such as oxygen m sucousus 3 Wow Pymquot emu ACID man WISDOM MID at I OXIMTWE PHOSPHORVLAHOI It electron acceptor such as oxygen Is NOT pvesent mailman 10814 itithnanol 2 Acetylaldehyde 2 67 Fermentation IAerobic respiration 29 ATP glucose IAnaerobic respiration 2 ATP glucose lWithout 02 as the final electron acceptor glucose cannot be completely oxidized I Very inefficient 10814 14 10814 10814 q Interactions with other metabolic pathways 10814 Interactions with other metabolic pathways I Fats can be used for energy Fats can be broken down into glycerol and acetylCoA Glycerol is modified to glyceraldehyde3 phosphate G3P 10814 4 Interactions with other metabolic pathways I Proteins can be used for energy Breakdown into amino acids Remove amino groups NH2 Convert the rest to pyruvate acetyl Co A parts of the citric acid cycle 10814 15 10814 Interactions with other metabolic pathways I Can also do this in reverse if you need fatty acids or amino acids 10814 Interactions with other metabolic pathways cmu Glucose gt Pyruvm gt new qt GLYCOUSIS J T cu Lactate from fermentation I my ac39dsj Glycogen v rum 39 or starch I I 39 c 10814 16 Ch 10 Photosynthesis 10814 10814 3 Why photosynthesis matters lAll of the energy we need to live comes from photosynthesis 10814 ED Ways to get energy lAutotrophs III Make organic molecules from inorganic sources El Mostly plants photoautotrophs I Heterotrophs I Get energy from organic molecules in their environment El Bacteria fungi animals 10814 1 Why photosynthesis matters IA lot of the energy we use comes from photosynthesis 1 Wood III Ethanol El Biodiesel 11 Oil 8 coal 10814 Why photosynthesis matters I Raw materials Wood Paper Cotton I Environmental effects 10814 10814 Why study photosynthesis IAgriculture l2 of the energy that reaches a field is captured I Energy production Light energy to chemical energy I Electronics Molecular switches 10814 Why study photosynthesis I Environment COZ concentrations in the atmosphere effects on growth I Medicine Chlorophylllike molecules respond to light trigger reaction to destroy tumors Chlorophyll as a tumor preventer 10814 Van Helmont mid1600s IWhere do plants get their raw materials to grow Where does the mass come from IHypothesis The mass comes from materials taken up from the soil 10814 10814 q 5 years later 10814 Van Helmont mid16005 lWillow gained 165 lbs I Soil lost 2 oz lHe concluded the mass must come from the H20 10814 4T H1stor1ca1 expenments lPriestly 1771 1 Q How do plants breathe 1 H Plants give off 02 10814 Wait a few days 10814 10814 6 Wait a few days II 10814 Wait a few days 10814 Wait a few days 10814 Historical experiments IBy the mid18005 we know that plants required light C03 and H20 and O2 is produced I Photosynthesis proposed 6 CO2 12 H20 energy a CGHIZO6 6 02 6 H20 17 10814 Photosynthesis CO2 H20 energy a CSHIZO6 02 H20 lHow do the CO2 and H20 interact lAre you adding C to H20 or adding H to C02 10814 10814 Photosynthesis 19 10814 Purple sulfur bacteria I Can grow on food sources without sugar I Autotrophs I Need light and C02 but don t produce 02 10814 Purple sulfur bacteria coz 2 st light CHZOn H20 2 s 21 10814 Iquot Photosynthesis co2 HZS light gt CHZOn s H20 co2 H20 light gt CHZOn 02 H20 IWhen plants photosynthesize where does the 02 come from Where does the O for the H20 come from 10814 10814 Iquot Photosynthesis 6 co2 12 H20 energy a celeo6 6 02 6 H20 IO2 does not come from the C02 must come from H20 IWater and CO2 do not interact directly Photosynthesis is 2 separate reactions 23 10814 I Photosynthesis Light H20 capturing reactions 02 ATP NADPH Chemical energy I 2 reactions in photosynthesis I Lightcapturing reactions 39HZO is used I Calvin cycle 39C02 is used 602 Calvin cycle Chemical energy 10814 1 Rubisco 10814 10814 Fl Rubisco I I Catalyzes the reaction attaching CO2 to RuBP I Likely the most abundant protein on Earth I Cube shaped with g active sites 10814 fl L Rubisco I But I Rubisco is very slow 3 reactions sec I Will also attach O2 to RuBP Photorespiration 10814 27 Photorespiration Reaction with carbon dioxide during photosynthesis RuBP cog used in Calvin cycle two 3phosphoglycerate Reaction with oxygen during photonsplratlon RuBP 02 1 used in Calvin cycle one 3phosphogiycerate one 2phosphoglycolate V when processed 02 is released and ATP is used 10814 Fl I I Overall efficiency of photosynthesis drops dramatically I Need to keep CO2 concentrations high in the leaf to prevent this I This isn t always easy U Photorespiration Reaction with carbon dioxide during photosynthesis RuBP CO two 3phosphoglycerate used in Calvin cycle Reaction with oxygen during photonsplratlon RuBP quotl v when processed 002 is released and ATP is used used in Calvin cycle 10814 10814 31 4 Leaf morphology b Carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves through stomata l 1 quot I d 39 Photosynthetic Extracellular 602 Stoma cells space 10814 4 33 Leaf morphology b Carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves through stomata I As C02 and 02 are quot exchanged H20 is t 1 also exchanged quot l 55 V39Dsda i l Leaf surface H h x 139 l g Photosynthetic Extracellular 02 ce s 10814 4 Classic plant question 32 Leaf morphology a Leaf surfaces contain stomata 1 Q 39 1 Leaf surface mu th Guard cells 4 Pore scama 34 lWill you see this on the next lecture exam lWill you see this on the next lab exam 10814 i Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts In plants cells that photosynthesi typically have 40 50 chloroplasts If i v v r 39 Af r 39 I Triplemembraned organelles I Form disklike structures called thylakoids Chloroplast Outer membrane Inner membrane I Stack of thylakoids grana 10814 10814 37 Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts I Triplemembraned organelles I Form disklike structures called thylakoids I Stack of thylakoids grana lids flattened sacs 39 stack ol thylakoids liquid matrix 10814 38 Light energy Wavelengths um 105 103 10 10 103 105 107 109 1o 10 3 Gamma xra Ultra 39n amd Micro Radio rays Vs violet i waves waves Shorter I Longer wavelength wavelength Visible light 400 500 600 710 nm Higher A Lower energy 39 energy 10814 39 Capturing light ILight energy is captured by pigments I Mostly chlorophylls absorbs violet blue and red wavelengths I But also carotenoids absorb violet blue and green IWhich are the important wavelengths for photosynthesis 10814 10814 41 Capturmg 11ght Captur1ng11ght 10814 10814 43 Capturmg 11ght Captur1ng11ght quot a Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of 9 8 4 I I light E 7 393 A e Chlotophyll b e Chlorophylls absorb blue and red 5 6 4 8 cm h l light and transmit green light 2 5 q 398 mp w carom Carotonoids absorb blue 2 u and green light and a 4 A 395 transmit yellow orange 3 39 or red light 0 va 6 3 o 2 2 g g o as i 5 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 400 500 eoo 700 Wavelength nm V 39 I M Wavelength of light nm 10814 10814 10 10814 Fl 3 Ll Pigments b Chlorophylls a and b Ring rucmm I adquot n he cooquot absorbs Ham 0 l l I l Tall Hzc n c quot c c c O C a1quotr quot r39 quot auction chlorophyll in quot quot quot1 nu lhylakoid membrane 4W 39 u Fl 3 U Pigments a Bcarotene D mquot Pumn39 l oxmm Irr 10814 CH Ll When photons h1t electrons they gain energy e A quotquotquotquot Blue photons excite electrons to an even higher energy state 9 quotquotquot Red photons excite electrons to a highenergy state 13339 l 0 1 2 Energy state of electrons In chlorophle 10814 CH 47 When photons hit electrons they gain energy rwonsscaacs m 090 back down to Iowa envoy Incl Ma and on Higher ovumd I If the energy isn t used it is released as m light and or heat 3 6 Wm M I Fluorescence E 5 Low CNoroohyI molecule 11 Light reactions ILight is captured by by an antenna like structure Photosystem Energy captured by l chlorophyll is transferred to neighboring chlorophylls until it reaches the reaction center I Resonance 10814 10814 Resonance FLUORESCENCE or RESONANCE 39 M e or REDUCTIONOXIDATIOI um I r n 0 39939 0quot WI MK I 0039 Comm m We Higher sml d w v i mu Enovgy of ouclmo i S l LOW ROUNDquot OOH 10814 Reaction center REDUCTIONOXIDATION Electron it random to o m compound I Energy is used to transfer an electron to a new molecule I Change in energy s form a Light to chemical Kinetic to potential auction MO 10814 How is the energy transferred IThe behavior of high energy electrons wasn t understood until the 50 s IIn algae photosynthesis is stimulated by both red 680 nm and far red 700 nm wavelengths I How would using both wavelengths affect photosynthesis 10814 12 How is the energy transferred EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Farred light Red light Both 700 nm 680 nm wavelengths 4 1 7 7 r t i Expose cells to light and record rate at photosynthesis PREDICTION When the two wavelengths are combined the rate at photosynthesis will double PREDICTION OF NULL HVPOTHESIS When the two the rate on n uu the same as for each wavelength alone 10814 How is the energy transferred EXPERIMENT RESULTS Both A wavelengths w E W quota o a 39U 0 I n s Farred light Red light a 700 nm 680 nm 5 W AM Time CONCLUSION Neithei hypothesis is correct The combination of both wavelengths more than doubles the rate at photosynthesis A new hypothesis is required to explain this enhancement etlecL u n 10814 Light reactions II l 3 ICombining the 2 wavelengths more than doubled the rate of photosynthesis Enhancement effect Photosystems I 2 types of photosystem Photosystem l and photosystem 2 I Names were given in the order they were discovered Photosystem 2 comes first 10814 13 10814 q 57 Photosystem 2 Photosystem 2 Embedded in the thylakoid membrane 7 V clwclcr r V clwclcr Thts box endows om This box encloses om wolosyslem II complex that photosyslem II complex that coma ns 19 pcolmn subunits coma ns 19 pcolmn subunits Clwmd39qIAlervl39y wvxr WM I Bh llih b t l CINMM39QH F39VVI15 39m WM I en llihnb l A quotII kl h quotQtI39M our m39q Iquot 24quot X 5 MR W Itquotan A quotII kl h quotQtIN vylwp m q Iquot 24quot X 5 M W Itquotan 10814 10814 More up tO date Overall structure of PSII dimer from 39139 vulcanus at a resolution of 19 A i 3 Y Umena et al 201 1 Crystal structure of oxygenevolving photosystem II at a resolution of 19 A Nature 4735560 IA 1x 103910 meters 1 mm 10000000 A Y Umena et al Nature 000 16 2011 doi101038nature09913 tLII39C 10814 14 Hydrogen bond network around Yz b v A K 0 u 3 010319 imazz x i 9 a lt YE Y 7 0 9 H6 s 3 0 CNSMl 0 0 Q1416 Y Umena et al Nature 000 16 2011 doi101038nature0001 4 nature 10814 Photosystem 2 IChlorophyll captures solar energy with an electron IEnergy is transferred from the reaction center to pheophytin Takes about 23 x 103912 00000000000025 seconds IThe electron then enters an electron transport chain 10814 I H U Photosystem 2 Photon Phclocyllnm II 10814 63 1quot Photosystem 2 IThe electron transport chain pumps protons into the thylakoid Concentration of H is 1000 higher on the inside IConcentration gradient is used to power ATP production 10814 15 Photosystem 2 I Overall An electron moved from the reaction center to the cytochrome complex Energy was used to create a H gradient IWhere can the reaction center replace that electron 10814 10814 Photosystem 2 2H20 gt4H4e3902 I Photosystem 2 can split water harvest the electrons lThis is why plants give off 02 during photosynthesis IPhotosystem 2 is the only protein complex that can do this 10814 Photosystem 2 2H20 gt4H4e3902 IPhotosystem 2 is the only protein complex that can do this I Requires energy but not from ATP energy from sunlight 10814 Photosystem 2 Oxygen Content of Earth39s Atmosphere Dunng the C0068 0 the Lab Bdllon Yeats 1000 900 600 70 00 5ch 4wa JOE 230 100 0 MIIIIOnS 039 Years Below Present 10814 16 10814 Photosystem 1 I Antenna complex captures energy from 2 photons sends it to reaction center Energy at electron 2e39 2 Photons 51a 0quot I VII s50 hai NADP39 H ADP 39 Formdoxin V N reductase NADPH 10814 Photosystem 1 El Bobbn 2e 39a spo 1 chain 39 Formdoxin V NADP H NADP reductase I Energy excites 2 e39 they escape NADPH 2 Photons I Move to membrane bound proteins that contain iron Energy at electron 10814 Photosystem 1 I 2 e39 and l proton are used to convert NADP to NADPH Energy at electron 2e39 s50 hai NADP39 H ADP 2 Photons 51a 0quot I VII 39 Formdoxin V N reductase NADPH 70 10814 71 Interactions between photosystems IRemember the experiment showing that 680 nm light and 700 nm light more than doubled photosynthesis when used together 10814 17 10814 I H U Z scheme model i Snowy a doelm I Describes the energy changes during photosynthesis 10814 H I U Z scheme model i Emmy a electron I Noncyclic e39 ow take from H20 put into NADPH ATP I produced no pvolonmom Force 10814 I H U Z scheme model i Emy nl doclm I Electron is energized twice first at P32 then at P31 10814 H I U Z scheme model i Emmy cl 000qu I PSZ works best with 680 nm light PSl works best with 700 nm light 10814 18 10814 EXPERIMENT 7 1 nesuus Both Cyclic photophosphorylation A wavelengths w E 4w 339 0 3 390 O a 5 Farred light Red light I e39 can leave PSI and 9 2 quot00 quotml 680 quotml reenter the electron c x W m g o i transport chain g T I Sacr1f1ces NADPH to 5 7 quotquote i 77 make additional ATP CONCLUSION Neither hypothesis is correct The combination of both wavelengths more than doubles the rate of photosynthesis A new hypothesis is required to explain this enhancement effect J ItKll whvlx1tsv N 10814 10814 78 79 Light reactions Calvin cycle IElectrons are taken from H20 ICharged using light energy at P32 Energy used to make proton gradient I Energy generated 1n the 11ght react10ns IS used to fix carbon Proton gradient used to make ATP Fix convert CO2 to a usable organic form IElectrons recharge at PS Electrons incorporated into NADPH IStudy pretems usmg radlatlonm or sometimes back to the electron transport chain 10814 10814 19 EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 146 l1 co2 2 1 3 1 Feed algae pulse r u of labeled 002 i if O 2 Homogenize cells Pulsechase experiment 3 Separate molecules 1 Use radioactively labeled COZ to identify the molecules between CO2 and glucose 4 Locate label PREDICTION No speci c prediction 1 he mm H 10814 10814 Calvin cycle EXPERIMENT RESULTS l 3Phosphoglycerate 5 3 Compounds produced Compounds produced after 5 seconds after 60 seconds CONCLUSION 3Phosphoglycerate is the rst intermediate product Other intermediates appear later t minumimAmm u Same 3PG that we saw in cellular respiration E 10814 Real data resides in the number position and intensity that is radioactivity of the blackened areas The paper ordinarily does not print out the names of these compounds unfortunately and our principal chore for the succeeding ten years was to properly label those blacked areas on the film Melvin Calvin 1961 10814 Calvin cycle lLike the citric acid cycle starting molecules are generated in the last step I 3 phases C02 fixation COZ captured in organic molecule C02 reduction Energy added requires ATP NADPH Regeneration of RuBP 10814 20 H I U Calvin cycle All Huron phases 0 he Cillvn cycle lnkn plum In i oh39 3 RuBP 3 C02 gt 6 3phosphoglycerats 25 8 3mosphoglycorate o 8 ATP 4 6 quotADPquot 3 Bow quotmaubi ices 3ATP gt 3RuaP Hm strumquot ul hlompllwhz a The Calvin cycle has three phases 5 63 to step 3 1 03 yield to glucosefructose 10814 H I U Calvin cycle I CO2 reduction ATP is used to reduce 3PG to BPG 10814 10814 H I U Calvin cycle I Fixation 3 CO2 molecules attached to 3 RuBP Quickly rearranges to 3PG C 87 Calvin cycle I CO2 reduction NADPH reduces BPG we to GSP l G3P molecule leaves the cycle a 21 Calvin cycle I Regeneration of RuBP 3 ATPs are used to covert 5 GSP molecules to 3 RuBP moleucles I GSP 3 carbons I RuBP 5 carbons 88 10814 10814 Calvin cycle overview I 3 C02 are captured with 3 RuBP I Energy from the light reactions ATP NADH is used to reduce these molecules I l 3carbon molecule is spun out of the cycle I Remaining molecules are restructured into 3 molecules of RuBP 10814 Fate of the GSP Glucolcv 2 cap lmclosa lt A Roachons In chloroplast sulfa Glucose Glucose Glucose CNJON cupu cupn 510mg ljn HAIL IllillliZZU oquot 0 390 0 h r llu 39n 1 ON ON W 10814 How is photosynthesis regulated ILight increases production of proteins needed for photosynthesis I High sugar concentrations inhibits production of proteins needed for photosynthesis I Low Pi levels increases Calvin cycle rate 10814 22 l39l Low Pi levels Hun 10814 Leaf morphology I Close stomata to conserve water I but then C02 concentration drops while 02 concentration rises I Photorespiration b Carbon dioxide diffuses into leaves through stomata r 39 Photosynthetic Extracellular 02 ce s 10814 C3 photosynthesis I What controls the rate of CO2 and H20 movement I 111 mm mm plant a rMylll r hl IIku 39r in thc memle cells During C mymxo v i m I M RIB In I m PGA In aganic Kid minigihmcmm l Magnituch an may 7 quot quot 39 Itolmlcnw ich maybe The nal puncu lminea m m such 10814 10814 H I U Photorespiration 97 Hot dry air gt evaporation via stomata gt closing of stomata gt reduced CO2 in the leaf gt photorespiration gt less energy from photosynthesis How can plants avoid photorespiration 10814 23 10814 Adaptations to increase C02 in Adaptations to increase C02 in leaves leaves I Hide the Calvin cycle I C4 plants b I Cycle occurs in cola1 bundlesheath cells a c4 plant WSW Mastoghngeus I C02 is captured in a Mamquot no contact With the carboxv39ase 4 carbon molecule 5 6 Bundlesheath cells PEP cycle contain rubisco 4 C 1 Vasculartlssue I I 7 1 co l Rimes316am I r I be r 4 p ants sheath cell mi V plants that use quot 13313 7 L vanilla I C02 is released used T 3 quot Sugarvzsscsuir photosynthesis are in Calvin cycle C3 plants 10814 10814 c3 vs C4 c3 vs C4 39 l I Hot dry habitats I nght reaCtlonS I Light reactionsCalvin C Plant 7m ophyll 1 m 39 39 ca CYC e sa e cycle In different cells 4 cell SM I Capturing C02 costs 35132523135213 I No energy required energy 92 if 13 to get C02 I More ef cient at low v 39 mam 39 ES 7 39quot n n r 39 n 5 39 c I More eff1c1ent at high C02 C0 ce t atlo s COZ concentrations I 3 of plants corn sugar cane 10814 10814 24 10814 CH C 103 Adaptations to increase C02 in Adaptations to increase C02 in leaves leaves COQiS stored amigm and used during the day I plants COQis stored amigm and used during the day I Separate by time of 39 BeSt in VerY hOta drY Gap day habitats W I Onl r open stomata at 39 caCti pineapple night 25
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