New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Spmgt 468

by: Andy Fordyce
Andy Fordyce

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Some of the notes for Exam 1
Managing Sport Organizations
Scott Jedlicka
75 ?




Popular in Managing Sport Organizations

Popular in Physical Education

This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Andy Fordyce on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SPMGT 468 at Washington State University taught by Scott Jedlicka in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Managing Sport Organizations in Physical Education at Washington State University.

Similar to SPMGT 468 at WSU

Popular in Physical Education


Reviews for Spmgt 468


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/03/16
Lecture Notes: 1/19/16 What is an organization? ­ Making order out of chaos in a sense What is a frame? ­ A mental model.  ­ A set of assumptions, knowledge or background info we bring to a situation ­ Many time it is an unconscious prospect. We do it without even realizing it. Why is framing important to managing organizations? ­ Using the idea of framing to effectively manage different people in different ways  within an organization. ­ Developing an awareness and understanding of different ways of doing things and bein  able to apply them to different situations. ­ People see things from different points of view.  Basic Structural Tensions ­ Differentiation ­ Identifying roles/tasks/jobs ­ Creating sub­units by grouping jobs together ­ Integration ­ Coordinating and controlling differentiated jobs/units ­ Vertical coordination (More formal) ­ Typically associated with hierarchies, authority, rules/policies, and control ­ Lateral coordination (Less formal) ­ Typically associated with meetings, ad hoc groups, and matrix or network  structures. Mintzberg’s Five­Sector “Logo” Model ­ Operating Core ­ Product Level Workers ­ Administrative Component (a.k.a. “Middle line”) ­ Middle managers ­ Strategic Apex ­ Top­level management ­ Technostructure ­ Standardization and measurement (information and financial systems) Support Staff ­ Perform necessary support tasks (custodial, scheduling, internal/external  communication) Structural Configurations ­ Simple Structure ­ Only two levels  ­ Strategic Apex ­ Operating Core ­ Types of organizations ­ Small, narrow focus ­ Start­ups ­ Machine Bureaucracy ­ The “classic” ­ All components evident and important ­ Types of organizations ­ Large ­ Narrow product line or rely heavily of routinization ­ Professional Bureaucracy ­ Large technostructure ­ “Experts” in the operating core exert a great deal of control in and over their  areas of the organizations.  ­ Types of organizations ­ Universities ­ Hospitals ­ Law firms ­ Divisionalized form ­ Structures within Structures ­ Divisions operate as mini­organizations within the larger framework ­ Types of organizations ­ Multi­industry or highly diversified corporations Adhocracy ­ Characterized by a lack of formal structure ­ Low differentiation, high integration ­ Types of organizations ­ Generally smaller ­ “Creative” industries (music, advertising, consulting) Structural Dilemmas ­ Differentiation vs. Integration  ­ Gap vs. Overlap ­ Underuse vs .Overload ­ Lack of Clarity vs. Lack of Creativity Lecture Notes: 1/26/16 Assumptions 1. Organizations exist to serve human needs rather than the converse 2. People and organizations need each other  Organizations need ideas, energy, and talent  People need careers, salaries, and opportunities ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Organizations increase efficiency and enhance performance through  specialization an appropriate division of labor. ­­ Suitable forms of coordination and control ensure that diverse efforts of  individuals and units mesh. ­ When the fit between individual and system is poor, one or both suffer ­­ Individuals are exploited or exploit the organization – or both become victims ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Troubles arise and performance suffers from structural deficits, remedied  thorough problem solving and restructuring.  ­ A good fit benefits both ­­ Individuals find meaningful and satisfying work ­­ Organizations get the talent and energy they need to succeed ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Organizations work best when rationality prevails over personal agendas and  extraneous pressures ­­ Effective structures fit organizations current circumstances (including its goals,  technology, workforce, and environment) Theories of Motivation  Two Questions  1. What motivates people 2. How can managers motivate employee  Two­Factor Theory (Herzberg)  Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)  Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor)  Person­structure conflict (Argyris) Herzberg’s Two­Factor Theory  Motivation is influenced by two sets of factors 1. Motivators (linked to “satisfaction”) ­ Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and pay ­ Managers should strive to increase satisfaction 2. Hygiene factors (linked to “dissatisfaction”) ­ Company policies, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions,  pay. ­ Managers should strive to decrease dissatisfaction Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Physiological >> Safety >> Love/Belonging >> Esteem >> Self­Actualization McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X ­ Assumptions about people ­­ Passive and lazy ­­ No ambition ­­ Prefer to be led ­­ Resistant to change ­ Motivational tools ­­ “Hard” approach: coercion, tight controls, threats, and punishments ­­ “Soft” approach: conflict avoidance, appeasement  Theory Y ­ Assumptions about people ­­ They have needs (see Maslow) ­­ These needs are sometimes aligned and sometimes conflicted with  organizational goals.  ­ Motivational tools ­­ Identifying and prioritizing individual needs ­­ Creating jobs that fulfill individual needs ­­ Aligning individual needs with organizational interests Lecture Notes: 1/28/16 Person­Structure Conflict (Argyris)  Employee “solution to inhibiting structures ­ Physical withdrawal (not showing up or quit altogether) ­ Psychological withdrawal (not caring about their work ­ Sabotage (intentionally doing a bad job ­ Ascension (try to get promoted to a better job) ­ Alliance formation (unionization) Lecture Notes: 2/11/2016 The Symbolic Frame: ­ Organizations as Templates (or Circuses) and the Power of Symbolic Action Symbolic Frame Assumptions  What is most important is not what happens, but what it means  Activity and meaning are loosely occupied  People create symbols to reduce uncertainty and confusion  What an event/process expresses is more important than what is produced   Culture (as opposed to structure, motivation, or conflict) forms the superglue that bonds  an organization.  Types of Symbols  Myths/vision/values  Heroes/Heroines  Stories and fairy tales  Rituals  Ceremonies  Metaphor/humor/play Myths, Values, and Visions  Myths ­ Typically about the origins of an organization ­ Not factual histories or even fully developed narratives ­ Often convey some sort of lesson or communicate values  Values ­ Ideas/qualities that the organization stands for  Vision ­ Builds on values to shape an organizations image of the future ­ What will the organization become? Heroes and Heroines  People as symbols  Embody organizational values ­ Can be the central figures in organizational myths  Heroes/heroines re often leaders, but don’t have to be  They are exemplars whose example can provide direction I time of uncertainty ­ What would               do?  Stories and Fairly Tales  Narratives that are usually used to convey organizational myths and values  Often used in conjunction with other types of symbols ­ Stories communicate myths/values ­ Stories are often about heroes/heroines ­ Telling stories is often central to organizational rituals/ceremonies Rituals  Repetitive (even mundane) actions that have some sort of deeper meaning ­ Occur relatively frequently – daily, weekly, monthly  Engaging in rituals helps provide structure, stability, and predictability to an organization Ceremonies  Rites and celebrations that are convened regularly or for special occasions  Occur less frequently than rituals and are more elaborate ­ Can often be comprised of several distinct rituals and symbols  Done well, ceremonies can be very powerful symbols to those within the organization  well as to external stakeholders Metaphor, Humor, and Play  Informal methods of communicating ideas, lessons, and values  Metaphor ­ The organization is an ……  Humor/Play ­  Signifies a willingness to accept small failures in exchange for creative ideas ­ Puts things in perspective (i.e. reduce stress) ­ reduces hierarchical differences/barriers Lecture Notes 3/1/16 Analytically Speaking  Key Questions to consider: ­ How did the organization define the problem (informed by research)? ­ How could have the organization defined the problem (analytical insight)? ­ Did the organization define the problem well or appropriately (evaluation)? ­ What would change if the problem was redefined (recommendation)? What Is a Problem? “An undesirable situation that is significant to and may be solvable by some agent, although  probably with difficulty” 1. A gap between preferences and reality 2. The importance of remedying the gap 3. The expected difficulty of doing so A problem is rooted in reality, but is inherently subjective ­ Decision­makers will define problems in different ways Significance of Problem Definitions  Type I Error – solving a problem that wasn’t really a problem  Type II Error – not recognizing that there is a problem  Type III Error – solving the wrong problem ­ Problem definitions defend against Type III Error Types of Problem Definitions  Gap Specification ­ The U.S. won fewer medals than the U.S.S.R. in 1972  Difficulties and Constraints ­ Coaches/team managers didn’t understand Olympic rules  Ultimate Values and Preferences ­ The U.S. cannot be seen as weaker than the Soviet Union on any front  Goal State Specification ­ The U.S. team needs to win more medals that the U.S.S.R. (or any Eastern bloc nation)  Means and Strategies ­ We need to legislate an organizational framework for U.S. amateur sport  Casual diagnosis (associated with attribution) ­ The underlying problem is a lack of organizational coherence/coordination  Knowledge specification ­ The Soviet team receives governmental support ­ U.S. amateur sport is governed by several organizations (USOC, NCAA, AAU, etc.) ­ We believe that sport should not be directly supported by the government.   Perspective setting (associated with framing) ­ We need to beat the Soviets in international sport but avoid adopting their methods


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.