PY 101 Chapter 3 (Part A, B, and C) NOtes
PY 101 Chapter 3 (Part A, B, and C) NOtes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 50 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
1 Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part One: Neurons and Communication I. Biology and Behavior Multiple Sclerosis Brains B and C have MS Patients with MS can have physical and mental disability II. Neurons Nerve cells powered by electrical impulses Communicate through chemical signals Three basic phases: Reception Integration Transmission III. Two Basic Parts of the Brain Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Everything else IV. Neuron Types Sensory neurons: detect information from the world Interneurons: local or shortdistance circuits Motor neurons: direct muscle movement V. Neuron Structure: Dendrites Cell body Axon [Direction of nerve impulse] Myelin sheath (glial cells) Node of Ranvier Terminal buttons Synapse Synaptic cleft VI. Neural Firing Resting Membrane Potential Semipermeable membrane, ion channels Action Potential: the electrical signal Moves away from cell body to terminal buttons AllOrNone Principle Same potency each time Only frequency varies 2 Different speeds of flickering a light switch VII. Neurotransmitters Presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters Cross synapse, fit in receptors on postsynaptic neuron Excitatory or Inhibitory Reuptake, Enzymes, and Auto receptors Snake venom is neurotoxic Alcohol “presses the buttons” in your brain Reuptake: sucking up the remainder of the messages sent to the brain; also spits out enzymes VIII. Neurotransmitters and Psychology Drugs or toxins can alter neurotransmitter action Agonists: enhance Antagonists: inhibit Different neurotransmitters have various effects on the mind IX. Neurotransmitter Types Acetylcholine – Muscles, memories, and sleep Botox Epinephrine – Energy Adrenaline Norepinephrine – Arousal and vigilance Finetuning attention Serotonin – Emotion, impulses, and dreams Depression and SSRIs X. More Neurotransmitter Types Dopamine planning and motivation Parkinson’s disease and deep brain stimulation GABA – Inhibition Epilepsy, anxiety, and alcohol Calms you down; someone with epilepsy has a deficiency of GABA When you drink alcohol lowers your inhibition (drunk calling an ex) Glutamate – Excitation Seizures, strokes, and trauma Endorphins – Pain relief and rewards Morphine XI. BrainBody Communication Peripheral nervous system Somatic nervous system: signal transmission Autonomic nervous system: Internal regulation Sympathetic – prepares for action Parasympathetic – returns to rest XII. The Endocrine System 3 Internal communication through hormones Hormones: Chemicals in blood from endocrine glands Pancreas, thyroid, testes or ovaries, etc. Pituitary gland: governs hormone release Controlled by central nervous system XIII. Hormones and Sex Gonads: endocrine glands influencing sexual behavior Males and females have the same hormones Androgens are more prevalent in males Estrogens are more prevalent in females Removal of the gonads impacts sexual desire Testosterone Desire change during cycle XIV. System Interactions Hypothalamus and pituitary gland interface Development, ovulation, lactation, etc. Human Growth Hormone Muscle growth, protein intake, sleep/wake cycles 1 Psychological Science Structure and Function I. Phrenology You could feel the bumps on someone’s head and determine their personality Proven not effective II. Tan All this patients could say was “tan” He had head trauma After he died, Broca did an autopsy On slide 2, the red highlighted part is what Broca discovered as the part of the brain that holds our language and words III. Neuroimaging Psychophysiological Assessment Polygraph Tests Lie detector tests Electroencephalograms “Noisy” and imprecise EEGs Positron Emission Tomography Radiation PET Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging Anatomy Functional MRI Function Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation IV. The Brain Stem Spinal Cord: reflexes, sensory and motor signals Gray matter and White matter Brain stem: basic survival functions Medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain Breathing Keeping your heart beating V. Cerebellum Cerebellum: Motor function, learning, and motor memory Skateboarding Juggling Automatic functioning May also be involved with empathy 2 VI. Subcortical Structures Emotion and appetites Forebrain – cerebral cortex hemispheres Subcortical – below the cortex Limbic (border) system o Hypothalamus: body functions and motivated behaviors o Thalamus: relays sensory information (but not smell) The ability to sleep peacefully and block out specific things in your sleep o Basel Ganglia: plans movement and responds to reward o The Hippocampus stores new memories Grows larger with increased use Studies are showing the Hippocampi physically grow with use o The Amygdala: negative and positive associations Fear and sexual responses VII. The Cerebral Cortex Thoughts, detailed perceptions, and complex behaviors Corpus Callosum: connecting the hemisphere Four lobes: o Occipital: visual information o Parietal: sense of touch o Temporal: auditory information and face processing o Frontal: physical movement and prefrontal cortex Prefrontal Cortex: Social judgments Empathy Complex thoughts that are not just physical VIII. Prefrontal Cortex Concerned with social phenomena, such as following norms Trying to figure people out; and their body language Lobotomy: messes with the prefrontal cortex Sticking an ice pick in a psychotic person’s eye and making them stop acting out in a moment Phineas Gage: a metal spike went in through his cheek and out through the top of his head. He remained conscious; he walked to the doctor. He lived and he was OK. There were complications, he completely changed he became more combative, he swore, he drank a lot more. The spike took out a chunk of his prefrontal cortex. IX. Split Brain Corpus Callosum: links halves of the brain Served as a treatment for epilepsy 3 Literally splitting the brain Helped some epileptic patients Severing a brain Language is in left hemisphere Left handed people may or may not have language in the left hemisphere of the brain 1 Psychological Science Chapter 3 Part 3: Plasticity and Genetics I. Plasticity The brain changes over time. Critical Periods – “use it or lose it.” Cat and rat studies Experience is critical for development Radical Hemispherectomy II. Sex Differences Hormones affect development Different brain areas for the same problems Language vs. spatial Bilateral organization o Stroke outcomes III. Rewiring Neuron firing strengthens connection Habits Neurogenesis in adults Environmental factors Reversing mental decline? Phantom Limbs IV. Genetics Characteristics passed on to offspring Genetic Expression: environment affects genes Genetics affects environment Mutual influence V. Genetic Basis of Human Development Genome – master blueprint for making an organism Chromosomes: DNA in two strands of molecules in a double helix shape Genes: segments of DNA strands Human Genome Project VI. Heredity Passing along genes through reproduction Gregor Mendel Dominant gene: always expressed Recessive gene: expressed only when matched VII. Genotype and Phenotype Genotype: genetic makeup (never changes) Phenotype: observable physical characteristics From genetics and environment 2 VIII. Sexual Reproduction 23 chromosomes: 8 million possible combinations Mutations produce variation Industrial melanism Sicklecell disease and malaria IX. Genes and Behavior Behavioral genetics: genes and environmental influence psychology Adoption studies (environment) o Very little influence on personality Twin studies (genetics) o Identical: more alike than fraternal o Twins raised apart o The “Jim” twins X. Heritability Heritability: variation due to genetics Populations not individuals The extent that genetic makeup differs within a group XI. Context New Zealand violent crime study Predictive factors for violent criminals th Mistreatment at home + low MAOA gene: 1/8 50% of criminal behavior Epigenetics Environmental tags may be passed on to offspring XII. Modifying Genetic Expression Can change gene expression Genes from one animal to another (transgenic) Dramatic behavior differences Ontogenetic: transgenic mice with lightsensitive neurons Prove connections between brain and behavior Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part 1 Neurons and Communication Biology and Behavior • Mul▯ple Sclerosis Neurons • Nerve cells powered by electrical impulses • Communicate through chemical signals • Three basic phases: – Recep▯on – Integra▯on – Transmission Two Basic Parts • Central Nervous System (CNS) – Brain and Spinal Cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – Everything else Neuron Types • Sensory neurons: detect informa▯on from the world • Interneurons: local or short-distance circuits • Motor neurons: direct muscle movement Neuron Structure Neural Firing • Res▯ng Membrane Poten▯al – Semipermeable membrane, ion channels • Ac▯on Poten▯al: the electrical signal – Moves away from cell body to terminal bu▯ons – Myelin sheath insula▯on enables quick ﬁring •All-Or-None Principle – Same potency each ▯me – Only frequency varies Neurotransmi▯ers • Presynap▯c neurons release neurotransmi▯ers • Cross synapse, ﬁt in receptors on postsynap▯c neuron • Excitatory or Inhibitory • Reuptake, Enzymes, and Autoreceptors Neurotransmi▯ers and Psychology • Drugs or toxins can alter neurotransmi▯er ac▯on – Agonists: enhance – Antagonists: inhibit • Diﬀerent neurotransmi▯ers have various eﬀects on the mind Neurotransmi▯er Types • Acetylcholine - Muscles, memories, & sleep –Botox • Epinephrine - Energy –Adrenaline • Norepinephrine - Arousal & vigilance –Fine-tuning a▯en▯on • Serotonin - Emo▯on, impulses, & dreams –Depression & SSRIs More Neurotransmi▯er Types •Dopamine - Planning & mo▯va▯on – Parkinson’s disease & deep- brain s▯mula▯on •GABA - Inhibi▯on – Epilepsy, anxiety, & alcohol •Glutamate - Excita▯on – Seizures, strokes, & trauma •Endorphins - Pain relief & rewards – Morphine Brain-Body Communica▯on • Peripheral nervous system – Soma▯c nervous system: Signal transmission – Autonomic nervous system: Internal regula▯on • Sympathe▯c – prepares for ac▯on • Parasympathe▯c – returns to rest The Endocrine System • Internal communica▯on through hormones • Hormones: chemicals in blood from endocrine glands – Pancreas, thyroid, testes or ovaries, etc. • Pituitary gland: governs hormone release – Controlled by central nervous system Hormones and Sex • Gonads: endocrine glands inﬂuencing sexual behavior • Males and females have the same hormones – Androgens are more prevalent in males. – Estrogens are more prevalent in females. • Removal of the gonads impacts sexual desire – Testosterone – Desires change during System Interac▯ons • Hypothalamus & pituitary gland interface – Development, ovula▯on, lacta▯on, etc. – Human Growth Hormone • Muscle growth, protein intake, sleep/wake cycles Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part 2 Early Models • Gall & Spurzheim’s Phrenology • Paul Broca – Tan and specialized func▯ons (Broca’s area) Neuroimaging • Psychophysiological Assessment – Polygraph tests • Electroencephalograms – “Noisy” and imprecise • Positron Emission Tomography – Radia▯on • Magne▯c Resonance Imaging – Anatomy • Func▯onal MRI – Func▯on • Transcranial Magne▯c S▯mula▯on The Brain Stem • Spinal Cord: reﬂexes, sensory & motor signals • Gray ma▯er and White ma▯er • Brain stem: basic survival func▯ons –Medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain Cerebellum • Cerebellum: Motor func▯on, learning, and motor memory • Automa▯c func▯oning • May also be involved with empathy Subcor▯cal Structures • Emo▯on and appe▯tes • Forebrain – cerebral cortex hemispheres • Subcor▯cal – below the cortex • Limbic (border) system Subcor▯cal Structures • Hypothalamus: body func▯ons and mo▯vated behaviors • Thalamus: relays sensory informa▯on (but not smell) • Basal Ganglia: plans movement and responds to reward • The Hippocampus stores new memories – Grows larger with increased use • The Amygdala: nega▯ve and posi▯ve associa▯ons – Fear and sexual responses The Cerebral Cortex • Thoughts, detailed percep▯ons, and complex behaviors • Corpus Callosum: connec▯ng the hemispheres • Four lobes: – Occipital: visual informa▯on – Parietal: sense of touch – Temporal: auditory informa▯on and face processing – Frontal: physical movement and prefrontal cortex Prefrontal Cortex • Prefrontal cortex: concerned with social phenomena, such as following norms. –Lobotomy Split Brain • Corpus Callosum: links halves of the brain – Severed as a treatment for epilepsy •Language in le▯ hemisphere Psychological Science Chapter 3 Part 3 – Plasticity and Genetics Plas▯city • The brain changes over ▯me. • Cri▯cal Periods - “use it or lose it.” – Cat & Rat studies – Experience is cri▯cal for development – Radical Hemispherectomy Sex Diﬀerences • Hormones aﬀect development • Diﬀerent brain areas for the same problems – Language vs. spa▯al – Bilateral organiza▯on • Stroke outcomes Rewiring • Neuron ﬁring strengthens connec▯on – Habits • Neurogenesis in adults – Environmental factors – Reversing mental decline? • Phantom Limbs Gene▯cs • Characteris▯cs passed on to oﬀspring – Gene▯c Expression: environment aﬀects genes • Gene▯cs aﬀects environment – Mutual inﬂuence Gene▯c Basis of Human Development • Genome – master blueprint for making an organism • Chromosomes: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in two strands of molecules in a double helix shape • Genes: segments of DNA strands • Human Genome Project Heredity • Passing along genes through reproduc▯on • Gregor Mendel • Dominant gene: always expressed • Recessive gene: expressed only when matched Genotype and Phenotype • Genotype: gene▯c makeup (never changes) • Phenotype: observable physical characteris▯cs –From gene▯cs and environment Polygenic Eﬀects • Polygenic trait: trait inﬂuenced by many genes –Skin tone Sexual Reproduc▯on • 23 chromosomes: 8 million possible combina▯ons • Muta▯ons produce varia▯on – Industrial melanism – Sickle-cell disease & malaria Genes and Behavior • Behavioral gene▯cs: genes and environment inﬂuence psychology – Adop▯on Studies (environment) •Very li▯le inﬂuence on personality – Twin Studies (gene▯cs) • Iden▯cal: more alike than fraternal • Twins raised apart • The “Jim” Twins Jack Yufe and Oskar Stohr Heritability • Heritability: Varia▯on due to gene▯cs • Popula▯ons, not individuals • The extent that gene▯c makeup diﬀers within a group Context • New Zealand violent crime study – Predic▯ve factors for violent criminals – Mistreatment at home + low MAOA gene: 1/8th 50% of criminal behavior •Epigene▯cs – Environmental tags may be passed on to oﬀspring Modifying Gene▯c Expression • Can change gene expression • Genes from one animal into another (transgenics) • Drama▯c behavior diﬀerences • Optogene▯cs: transgenic mice with light-sensi▯ve neurons – Prove connec▯ons between brain and behavior
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