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PY 101 Chapter 3 (Part A, B, and C) NOtes

by: Emily Paige Montgomery

PY 101 Chapter 3 (Part A, B, and C) NOtes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Emily Paige Montgomery
GPA 4.0

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Chapter 3A, 3B, and 3C notes and powerpoints
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Evan Kennedy
university of alabama, UA, PY, PY 101, Psychology, detailed notes, week of notes, 4.0, bundle
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This 50 page Bundle was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/03/16
1 Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part One: Neurons and Communication I. Biology and Behavior  Multiple Sclerosis   Brains B and C have MS  Patients with MS can have physical and mental disability  II. Neurons  Nerve cells powered by electrical impulses  Communicate through chemical signals  Three basic phases: ­ Reception ­ Integration ­ Transmission III. Two Basic Parts of the Brain  Central Nervous System (CNS) ­ Brain and Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ­ Everything else IV. Neuron Types  Sensory neurons: detect information from the world  Interneurons: local or short­distance circuits  Motor neurons: direct muscle movement V. Neuron Structure:  Dendrites  Cell body  Axon  [Direction of nerve impulse]  Myelin sheath (glial cells)  Node of Ranvier  Terminal buttons  Synapse  Synaptic cleft VI. Neural Firing  Resting Membrane Potential ­ Semipermeable membrane, ion channels  Action Potential: the electrical signal ­ Moves away from cell body to terminal buttons  All­Or­None Principle ­ Same potency each time ­ Only frequency varies 2 ­ Different speeds of flickering a light switch VII. Neurotransmitters  Presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters  Cross synapse, fit in receptors on postsynaptic neuron  Excitatory or Inhibitory  Reuptake, Enzymes, and Auto receptors ­ Snake venom is neurotoxic  ­ Alcohol “presses the buttons” in your brain ­ Reuptake: sucking up the remainder of the messages sent to the brain; also spits out  enzymes  VIII. Neurotransmitters and Psychology  Drugs or toxins can alter neurotransmitter action ­ Agonists: enhance ­ Antagonists: inhibit  Different neurotransmitters have various effects on the mind IX. Neurotransmitter Types  Acetylcholine – Muscles, memories, and sleep ­ Botox  Epinephrine – Energy ­ Adrenaline  Norepinephrine – Arousal and vigilance ­ Fine­tuning attention  Serotonin – Emotion, impulses, and dreams ­ Depression and SSRIs X. More Neurotransmitter Types  Dopamine­ planning and motivation ­ Parkinson’s disease and deep brain stimulation  GABA – Inhibition ­ Epilepsy, anxiety, and alcohol ­ Calms you down; someone with epilepsy has a deficiency of GABA ­ When you drink alcohol lowers your inhibition (drunk calling an ex)  Glutamate – Excitation ­ Seizures, strokes, and trauma   Endorphins – Pain relief and rewards ­ Morphine XI. Brain­Body Communication  Peripheral nervous system ­ Somatic nervous system: signal transmission ­ Autonomic nervous system: Internal regulation  Sympathetic – prepares for action  Parasympathetic – returns to rest XII. The Endocrine System 3  Internal communication through hormones  Hormones: Chemicals in blood from endocrine glands ­ Pancreas, thyroid, testes or ovaries, etc.  Pituitary gland: governs hormone release ­ Controlled by central nervous system XIII. Hormones and Sex  Gonads: endocrine glands influencing sexual behavior  Males and females have the same hormones ­ Androgens are more prevalent in males ­ Estrogens are more prevalent in females  Removal of the gonads impacts sexual desire ­ Testosterone ­ Desire change during cycle XIV. System Interactions  Hypothalamus and pituitary gland interface ­ Development, ovulation, lactation, etc.  Human Growth Hormone ­ Muscle growth, protein intake, sleep/wake cycles 1 Psychological Science Structure and Function I. Phrenology  You could feel the bumps on someone’s head and determine their personality  Proven not effective II. Tan  All this patients could say was “tan”  He had head trauma  After he died, Broca did an autopsy  On slide 2, the red highlighted part is what Broca discovered as the part of the brain that  holds our language and words III. Neuroimaging  Psychophysiological Assessment ­ Polygraph Tests ­ Lie detector tests  Electroencephalograms ­ “Noisy” and imprecise ­ EEGs  Positron Emission Tomography ­ Radiation ­ PET Scan  Magnetic Resonance Imaging ­ Anatomy  Functional MRI ­ Function  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation IV. The Brain Stem  Spinal Cord: reflexes, sensory and motor signals  Gray matter and White matter  Brain stem: basic survival functions ­ Medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain ­ Breathing ­ Keeping your heart beating V. Cerebellum  Cerebellum: Motor function, learning, and motor memory ­ Skateboarding ­ Juggling  Automatic functioning  May also be involved with empathy 2 VI. Subcortical Structures  Emotion and appetites  Forebrain – cerebral cortex hemispheres  Subcortical – below the cortex  Limbic (border) system o Hypothalamus: body functions and motivated behaviors o Thalamus: relays sensory information (but not smell) ­ The ability to sleep peacefully and block out specific things in your sleep o Basel Ganglia: plans movement and responds to reward o The Hippocampus stores new memories ­ Grows larger with increased use ­ Studies are showing the Hippocampi physically grow with use o The Amygdala: negative and positive associations ­ Fear and sexual responses VII. The Cerebral Cortex  Thoughts, detailed perceptions, and complex behaviors  Corpus Callosum: connecting the hemisphere  Four lobes: o Occipital: visual information o Parietal: sense of touch o Temporal: auditory information and face processing o Frontal: physical movement and prefrontal cortex ­ Prefrontal Cortex: ­ Social judgments ­ Empathy ­ Complex thoughts that are not just physical VIII. Prefrontal Cortex  Concerned with social phenomena, such as following norms  Trying to figure people out; and their body language  Lobotomy: messes with the prefrontal cortex ­ Sticking an ice pick in a psychotic person’s eye and making them stop acting out in  a moment ­ Phineas Gage: a metal spike went in through his cheek and out through the top of  his head. He remained conscious; he walked to the doctor. He lived and he was OK. There were complications, he completely changed­ he became more combative, he  swore, he drank a lot more. The spike took out a chunk of his prefrontal cortex. IX. Split Brain  Corpus Callosum: links halves of the brain ­ Served as a treatment for epilepsy 3 ­ Literally splitting the brain ­ Helped some epileptic patients ­ Severing a brain  Language is in left hemisphere  Left handed people may or may not have language in the left hemisphere of the brain 1 Psychological Science Chapter 3 Part 3: Plasticity and Genetics I. Plasticity  The brain changes over time.  Critical Periods – “use it or lose it.” ­ Cat and rat studies ­ Experience is critical for development ­ Radical Hemispherectomy II. Sex Differences  Hormones affect development  Different brain areas for the same problems ­ Language vs. spatial ­ Bilateral organization o Stroke outcomes III. Rewiring  Neuron firing strengthens connection ­ Habits  Neurogenesis in adults ­ Environmental factors ­ Reversing mental decline?  Phantom Limbs IV. Genetics  Characteristics passed on to offspring ­ Genetic Expression: environment affects genes  Genetics affects environment ­ Mutual influence V. Genetic Basis of Human Development  Genome – master blueprint for making an organism  Chromosomes: DNA in two strands of molecules in a double helix shape  Genes: segments of DNA strands  Human Genome Project VI. Heredity  Passing along genes through reproduction  Gregor Mendel  Dominant gene: always expressed  Recessive gene: expressed only when matched VII. Genotype and Phenotype  Genotype: genetic makeup (never changes)  Phenotype: observable physical characteristics ­ From genetics and environment  2 VIII. Sexual Reproduction  23 chromosomes: 8 million possible combinations  Mutations produce variation ­ Industrial melanism ­ Sickle­cell disease and malaria   IX. Genes and Behavior  Behavioral genetics: genes and environmental influence psychology ­ Adoption studies (environment) o Very little influence on personality ­ Twin studies (genetics) o Identical: more alike than fraternal o Twins raised apart o The “Jim” twins X. Heritability  Heritability: variation due to genetics  Populations not individuals  The extent that genetic makeup differs within a group XI. Context  New Zealand violent crime study ­ Predictive factors for violent criminals th ­ Mistreatment at home + low MAOA gene: 1/8   ­ 50% of criminal behavior  Epigenetics ­ Environmental tags may be passed on to offspring XII. Modifying Genetic Expression  Can change gene expression  Genes from one animal to another (transgenic)  Dramatic behavior differences  Ontogenetic: transgenic mice with light­sensitive neurons  Prove connections between brain and behavior  Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part 1 Neurons and Communication Biology and Behavior •  Mul▯ple Sclerosis Neurons •  Nerve cells powered by electrical impulses •  Communicate through chemical signals •  Three basic phases: – Recep▯on – Integra▯on – Transmission Two Basic Parts • Central Nervous System (CNS) – Brain and Spinal Cord • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) – Everything else Neuron Types •  Sensory neurons: detect informa▯on from the world •  Interneurons: local or short-distance circuits •  Motor neurons: direct muscle movement Neuron Structure Neural Firing •  Res▯ng Membrane Poten▯al – Semipermeable membrane, ion channels •  Ac▯on Poten▯al: the electrical signal – Moves away from cell body to terminal bu▯ons – Myelin sheath insula▯on enables quick firing •All-Or-None Principle – Same potency each ▯me – Only frequency varies Neurotransmi▯ers •  Presynap▯c neurons release neurotransmi▯ers •  Cross synapse, fit in receptors on postsynap▯c neuron •  Excitatory or Inhibitory •  Reuptake, Enzymes, and Autoreceptors Neurotransmi▯ers and Psychology •  Drugs or toxins can alter neurotransmi▯er ac▯on – Agonists: enhance – Antagonists: inhibit •  Different neurotransmi▯ers have various effects on the mind Neurotransmi▯er Types •  Acetylcholine - Muscles, memories, & sleep –Botox •  Epinephrine - Energy –Adrenaline •  Norepinephrine - Arousal & vigilance –Fine-tuning a▯en▯on •  Serotonin - Emo▯on, impulses, & dreams –Depression & SSRIs More Neurotransmi▯er Types •Dopamine - Planning & mo▯va▯on – Parkinson’s disease & deep- brain s▯mula▯on •GABA - Inhibi▯on – Epilepsy, anxiety, & alcohol •Glutamate - Excita▯on – Seizures, strokes, & trauma •Endorphins - Pain relief & rewards – Morphine Brain-Body Communica▯on •  Peripheral nervous system – Soma▯c nervous system: Signal transmission – Autonomic nervous system: Internal regula▯on •  Sympathe▯c – prepares for ac▯on •  Parasympathe▯c – returns to rest The Endocrine System •  Internal communica▯on through hormones •  Hormones: chemicals in blood from endocrine glands –  Pancreas, thyroid, testes or ovaries, etc. •  Pituitary gland: governs hormone release –  Controlled by central nervous system Hormones and Sex •  Gonads: endocrine glands influencing sexual behavior •  Males and females have the same hormones – Androgens are more prevalent in males. – Estrogens are more prevalent in females. •  Removal of the gonads impacts sexual desire –  Testosterone –  Desires change during System Interac▯ons • Hypothalamus & pituitary gland interface – Development, ovula▯on, lacta▯on, etc. – Human Growth Hormone •  Muscle growth, protein intake, sleep/wake cycles Psychological Science Chapter 3, Part 2 Early Models •  Gall & Spurzheim’s Phrenology •  Paul Broca – Tan and specialized func▯ons (Broca’s area) Neuroimaging • Psychophysiological Assessment – Polygraph tests • Electroencephalograms – “Noisy” and imprecise • Positron Emission Tomography – Radia▯on • Magne▯c Resonance Imaging – Anatomy • Func▯onal MRI – Func▯on • Transcranial Magne▯c S▯mula▯on The Brain Stem •  Spinal Cord: reflexes, sensory & motor signals •  Gray ma▯er and White ma▯er •  Brain stem: basic survival func▯ons –Medulla oblongata, pons, & midbrain Cerebellum •  Cerebellum: Motor func▯on, learning, and motor memory •  Automa▯c func▯oning •  May also be involved with empathy Subcor▯cal Structures •  Emo▯on and appe▯tes •  Forebrain – cerebral cortex hemispheres •  Subcor▯cal – below the cortex •  Limbic (border) system Subcor▯cal Structures •  Hypothalamus: body func▯ons and mo▯vated behaviors •  Thalamus: relays sensory informa▯on (but not smell) •  Basal Ganglia: plans movement and responds to reward •  The Hippocampus stores new memories –  Grows larger with increased use •  The Amygdala: nega▯ve and posi▯ve associa▯ons –  Fear and sexual responses The Cerebral Cortex •  Thoughts, detailed percep▯ons, and complex behaviors •  Corpus Callosum: connec▯ng the hemispheres •  Four lobes: – Occipital: visual informa▯on – Parietal: sense of touch – Temporal: auditory informa▯on and face processing – Frontal: physical movement and prefrontal cortex Prefrontal Cortex •  Prefrontal cortex: concerned with social phenomena, such as following norms. –Lobotomy Split Brain •  Corpus Callosum: links halves of the brain – Severed as a treatment for epilepsy •Language in le▯ hemisphere Psychological Science Chapter 3 Part 3 – Plasticity and Genetics Plas▯city • The brain changes over ▯me. • Cri▯cal Periods - “use it or lose it.” – Cat & Rat studies – Experience is cri▯cal for development – Radical Hemispherectomy Sex Differences • Hormones affect development • Different brain areas for the same problems – Language vs. spa▯al – Bilateral organiza▯on •  Stroke outcomes Rewiring • Neuron firing strengthens connec▯on – Habits • Neurogenesis in adults – Environmental factors – Reversing mental decline? • Phantom Limbs Gene▯cs •  Characteris▯cs passed on to offspring – Gene▯c Expression: environment affects genes •  Gene▯cs affects environment – Mutual influence Gene▯c Basis of Human Development •  Genome – master blueprint for making an organism •  Chromosomes: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in two strands of molecules in a double helix shape •  Genes: segments of DNA strands •  Human Genome Project Heredity •  Passing along genes through reproduc▯on •  Gregor Mendel •  Dominant gene: always expressed •  Recessive gene: expressed only when matched Genotype and Phenotype •  Genotype: gene▯c makeup (never changes) • Phenotype: observable physical characteris▯cs –From gene▯cs and environment Polygenic Effects •  Polygenic trait: trait influenced by many genes –Skin tone Sexual Reproduc▯on •  23 chromosomes: 8 million possible combina▯ons •  Muta▯ons produce varia▯on –  Industrial melanism –  Sickle-cell disease & malaria Genes and Behavior •  Behavioral gene▯cs: genes and environment influence psychology – Adop▯on Studies (environment) •Very li▯le influence on personality – Twin Studies (gene▯cs) •  Iden▯cal: more alike than fraternal •  Twins raised apart •  The “Jim” Twins Jack Yufe and Oskar Stohr Heritability •  Heritability: Varia▯on due to gene▯cs •  Popula▯ons, not individuals •  The extent that gene▯c makeup differs within a group Context •  New Zealand violent crime study –  Predic▯ve factors for violent criminals –  Mistreatment at home + low MAOA gene: 1/8th 50% of criminal behavior •Epigene▯cs –  Environmental tags may be passed on to offspring Modifying Gene▯c Expression •  Can change gene expression •  Genes from one animal into another (transgenics) •  Drama▯c behavior differences •  Optogene▯cs: transgenic mice with light-sensi▯ve neurons – Prove connec▯ons between brain and behavior


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